Dörtyol - Festivals

Author: Vera Sahakyan, 13/11/14 (Last modified: 13/11/14) - Translator: Hrant Gadarigian

New Year (Gavondis)

For residents of Dörtyol, fire was the focus of their New Year’s celebrations. To usher in the New Year and ring out the old, residents would light fires to symbolize their hopes and aspirations for the future.

Family members would circle around the hearth fire and the clan elder would toss a metal coin into the flames as a symbol of the hoped for bounty and abundance to come. [1] The rest of the family would then line up to kiss his right hand in a sign of respect and obedience. The elders, in turn, would bless their juniors and present gifts to them. [2] The holiday table would be adorned with dried fruits, sweets, cheorek [3] and wine. Families would visit one another and present gifts to the newly engaged and married, to godfathers (gnkahayr), and to the newborn. [4]

Of all the holidays, youngsters waited for Gavondis (New Years in the Dörtyol dialect) the most of all. The kids would wake up to find gifts (little homemade bags full of almonds, walnuts and raisins) under their pillows brought by Gavondis Der Baba. [5]

Christmas [6]

An eight day fast accompanied the Christmas celebration. On Christmas Eve, January 5, Dörtyol residents would dress up in their holiday best and rush to church to attend the Djrakalouyts or Khtman Liturgy (lighting of the lamps service). In the local Dörtyol parlance it was called – houtoum pataraka. [7]

Everyone would remove their shoes in the church nave. Young girls would conceal their luxurious locks with silk scarves edges with fine hand embroidery. [8]

After the liturgy, people would return home with lit candles from the church to light their own lamps and candles. They would sit at the table to eat the holiday pilaf dish that was topped with raisins and figs fried in oil, thus breaking the fast. [9]

For church holidays, students with a good singing voice would join the choir at the Holy Mother of God Church (Sourp Asdvadzadzin). [10] These able young singers would read their passages in three languages – Armenian, Turkish and French. [11] Kevork Effendi Geokoghlanian was a prominent expert in vernacular and classical Armenian at the start of the 20th century in Dörtyol. He was such a proficient linguist that he would translate passages from the Bible from Armenian to Turkish on the spopt, a feat that amazed the Turkish-speaking Armenians of Dörtyol. [12]

On feast days, an auction was held in the churches to see who would have the privilege to read passages from the bible. On Christmas Day, prominent residents would bid money to get to read from the Book of Daniel. The highest bidder would win. That person would get the privilege to ascend the altar and read from the book in turn with the best student or acolyte. [13]

After the liturgy, priests and school teachers and pupils would go from house to house, singing hymns and verses appropriate for the day and heralding the good tidings. Money collected from khachhambuyr (literally – kissing the cross) would go towards financing the tuition of needy school children and for their other needs. [14]

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2

1) A silver-covered New Testament, 1789. It is now housed at the "Cilicia" Museum of the Armenian Catholicosate in Antelias (Lebanon) (Source: Hermann Goltz, Photographien von Klaus E. Göltz, Der Gerettete Schatz der Armenier aus Kilikien, Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2000)
2) A silver-covered Ritual Book, 1829. It is now housed at the "Cilicia" Museum of the Armenian Catholicosate in Antelias (Lebanon) (Source: Hermann Goltz, Photographien von Klaus E. Göltz,
Der Gerettete Schatz der Armenier aus Kilikien, Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2000)

The Christmas celebrations would intensify in the evening and go on through the night. Groups of students and others would assemble on their own. Each person held a wooden stick to symbolize the Bethlehem shepherds. They would go from home to home and herald the glorious birth of Christ. As payment for their works, the groups would receive fruits, cheoreg, change, and blessings. [15] People in Dörtyol waited for this ritual with such anticipation that many families would go out to meet these groups bearing good tidings so as not to be overlooked.. [16] The seniors of the household would gather around the roaring fires outside to await the arrival of the travelling groups of well-wishers. [17]

For this holiday, new brides would sew or embroider small pouches for use by the travelling groups to hold the presents received along the way for spreading the good news. [18] Often, the pouches were large socks or hats and straw mat bags.

When a family ran out of presents to give the groups of well-wishers, money was given as a substitute. The head of each group, usually the eldest, would take control of the money and apportion it justly to take care of the needs of the group members – repairing the broken toy of one or gluing the ripped ball of another. [19]

In addition to the hymns and verses learnt in school, the more accepted band widespread custom was to perform Turkish songs; mostly mixed Turkish translations of Armenian verses. [20]

Chrorhnek/Chrohnek (Blessing of the Water)

On the morning of January 6, all the members of the house would gather around the oldest family member who would bestow them with his/her traditional blessing and well-wishes. The family would then leave for church.

According to common custom, Dörtyol residents would gather their drinking water from the river in early morning. However, on the day marking Christ’s baptism, the water would be collected after the Divine Liturgy, once the river was blessed with muron (holy oil). [21] Saying Haç suya girmiş (to pass through blessed water), people would fill their pots and tubs. Believing that the blessed water possessed great power, the entire family, starting with the kids, would bathe in it. Bathing the newborn and sick in the blessed water was considered a must. Many families would keep the water in silver chalices throughout the year, dripping a bit into the general water for daily use. [22]


People visited friends and family on January 6. After exchanging well wishes, the visitors would give gifts or fruit and cheoreg wrapped in square pieces of cloth. Priests would bless homes, not only receiving thanks but money. [23]

On the following day, Merelots (Repose of Souls Day), residents would flock to the St. Sarkis Church built in the cemetery. [24] The faithful would bring food and sweets to the church to distribute to the less fortunate. [25]

The Baptism of Christ

The Baptism of Christ (Source: National Library of France (Paris), manuscript Arm 333, paper 3b in Senior Priest Nerses Nersesian, The Bible and Armenian Culture [in Armenian], Armenian Bible Society, Yerevan, 2001)

Dyarnentarach (The Feast of the Presentation of Our Lord to the Temple)

In the local Dörtyol dialect, this holiday was called Derendas. In Dörtyol, as elsewhere, celebrations started on the evening of the previous day, February 13. The village would empty as everyone went to the old church built in the cemetery. New brides and newly engaged girls, wearing new clothes, would ride atop horses and be taken to the church accompanied by relatives. Once there, the festivities would begin. Some would try their skill at target shooting, others at wrestling, and others at running and other games. New grooms and their godfathers (gnkahayr) would collect wood for the bonfire. [26]

Stalls selling various items in the churchyard (sweets, candies, roasted nuts) would also attract a energetic crowd. [27]

The holiday bonfire would be lit in the cemetery church courtyard. The honor of lighting the fire was reserved to one of the village’s prominent residents – the one who paid the most. The godfathers, holding newly born babes in their arms, would dance around the fire. When returning the babes to their mothers, the godfathers would place money and gifts in their swaddling clothes and in exchange they would receive hand knitted socks and embroidered handkerchiefs. [28] Once all of this is finished, people would spread cloths full of various holiday sweets around the fire. [29]

Young boys and girls, adorned in 4-5 branched laces and silk veils gifted by the godfathers, would light beeswax candles [30] from the candles inside St. Sarkis Church. Taking the lit candles home, they would light the house lamps and a large bonfire in the house yard. Sweets made from rinds of squash, eggplant, figs, oranges and watermelon and other fruits and dishes would be fixtures on any family holiday table. [31]

The bonfires, symbolizing the victory of spring over winter, were a harbinger of the bounty to come. Young people would perform a variety of dances around the fire. [32] Residents would takes ashes from the fire and scatter them in the chicken coops, believing that the animals would lay more eggs. [33] Ashes would also be placed in the corners of all the rooms in the house, under the pillows of newly wed couples, and in the cribs of newborn children. Some would keep the flames from the fire lit all year, as well as preserving the ashes. It was considered a sign of bad luck if one’s clothes were singed by the fire. [34]

Neighboring Turkish villagers called the holiday sokun ateşı (freeing fire). After the holiday, livestock would be freed from their pens and driven to the pastures to graze. [35]

The Crucifixion of Christ

The Crucifixion of Christ (Source: Cilician manuscript of eight painters, 1320 in Old Armenian Miniature Painting [in Armenian], Yerevan, 1952)

Paregentan (Good/convivial living)

Called Pargindag in the Dörtyol dialect, this holiday season was a great occasion for friends and family to make merry together on the same level as any feast day. Celebrations would begin in the churches and then continue outside at local pilgrimage sites. Hard-working grandmas would trim the Paregentan holiday table mainly with meat dishes.

Given that the holiday celebrations lasted for seven days [36], lines would form outside the local butcher shops. [37]

Guests would arrive in Dörtyol for the occasion. Hundreds of Turks from neighboring villages would come to participate in the various organized games and competitions. [38] Armenians and Turks would test their prowess in wrestling matches, drawing large crowds at the park next to the Havadja Bshara trading house. [39] The festivities would end with guests receiving baskets of fruits and gifts. The needy would also receive such baskets, as well as people who had come to Dörtyol for work and those without gardens of their own. [40]

Since weddings weren’t performed during the upcoming Lent period, numerous weddings would also take place during Paregentan, thus adding to the festive atmosphere. [41]

Friends and family would invite one another to evening gatherings at which song and dance would follow the holiday meal. Alcoholic beverages, wine and distilled spirits, were also permissible. Such celebrations often took place in the gardens of engaged young women. [42]

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1) The Peltekian family hails from Dörtyol. Later, they lived in Alexandrette (Iskenderun, present-day Hatay) region, which was a part of Syria until 1939 after which it was annexed by Turkey. Photograph: "Khatcherian Frères, Antioche" (Source: Bedros Sahag Peltekian collection, Beirut)
2) The town of Dörtyol in 1921. Street life during the French occupation period (Source: Grégoire Tafankejian, Valence)

Medz Bahk (Great Lent) [43]

Following the merry-making of Paregentan comes the forty day period of self-sacrifice and self-control called Medz Bahk. Each Monday during Lent was called the day of “washing and cleansing”. On that day, brides would wash all the oily pots and ladles so that no trace of animal material would be left. Fasting would begin in earnest on Monday. [44]

The first seven weeks of Lent were called hadig gün (the day of hadig – i.e., the meal of the day; usually made from wheat, chick peas, beans and lentils). Such legumes would be placed in a clay pot on Friday evening. The pot was then placed on the fire. The next day, tahini oil would be stirred into the pot instead of animal fat. The meal would be eaten until Sunday, and portions would be served to neighbors and the less fortunate. [45]

Buying bread from the market wasn’t acceptable on that day given that, according to accepted tradition, animal blood was mixed into the flour. [46]

People would attend morning and evening church services throughout Lent without exception. Their numbers would swell on Wednesdays and Fridays, and the Dörtyol faithful would fill the church for the the renunciation of sins vespers. [47]

The Balian family hails from Dörtyol

The Balian family hails from Dörtyol. Later, they lived in Beylan (present-day Belen, Hatay province), which was a part of Syria until 1939 after which it was annexed by Turkey. Seated (from left) - Sinan Efendi Balian, with Ardemis on his lap. Standing to Sinan’s right - Berta (Marta). Standing in front of Berta - Mari. Seated - Lousaper (born Der Haroutyunian). Second row (standing from left) – Garabed and Haroutyun (Source: Berta Der Bedrossian (née Balian) collection, San Francisco)

Michink (Mid-Lent)

Round kufteh (kodja kufteh) made from chick peas and tahini was the traditional meal of this day. Khoshab, a stew made with raisins and dried fruit, was also prepared and portions distributed to neighbors and the needy. On the day of Mid-Lent, after church services, a requiem meal would be spread out on sheets in the church courtyards. The entire town would turn out to partake in the kodja kufteh meal. [48]

Dzaghgazart (Palm Sunday)

Called Zanakhdar or Djanakhdar in the Dörtyol, [49] this holiday commemorates the entry of Christ into Jerusalem. The churches would be adorned with palm leaves. Given their scarcity in Dörtyol, young boys would set off days before to bring back branches to decorate the church altar. Mothers would enter church just carrying palm leaves, while new brides would wear boughs affixed with fruits, roses and sweets atop their head. Other variations would be to hang such decorated boughs from their neck or to carry them, either in their hands or in baskets woven from young willow branches. Engaged girls would greet Palm Sunday by fasting. [50]

Church altars would be adorned with purple flowers brought from the forests of Mt. Amanos. [51]

Palm (Source: Hermann Adolph Köhler, Gustav Pabst, Walther Müller, C.F. Schmidt, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen, Gera, 1887)

Trnpatsek (Opening of the door ceremony)

The altar curtain in the church has been closed throughout Lent and is only opened during the service on the eve of Palm Sunday. In Dörtyol, the doors to the churches are also closed after Palm Sunday. The faithful gather near the closed door in large numbers. Weeping, they kneel and pray and ask forgiveness for their sins. They would then strike the wooden door and call out – aç, kabul et bizi, Der Asvaz (open, accept us, Lord our God). A priest inside, playing the part of God, would reply – kimsiniz, tanırım mı sizi (who are you? I do not recognize you). The repentant crowd would repeat this three times, making their wailing pleas louder still. After striking the door a third time, the priest would finally open the entrance to the church - symbolizing the entrance to the heavenly kingdom. [52]

Bidding would take place for the honor of opening the altar curtain. Those selected would have the privilege of wearing a surplice (shabig), ascending the altar, and drawing the curtain open. [53]

Great/Holy Thursday and Khavaroum (Darkness)

Holy Thursday was known for the obligatory “washing” that took place with water (çiçek suyu – flower water) made from orange blossoms, leaves and various fragrant flowers. [54]

In the presence of a multitude of the faithful, the khavaroum (darkness) ritual would be performed. According to Biblical testimony it was the day when Jesus was arrested through the betrayal one of his disciples.

Six sets of laments are chanted, each followed by a Gospel reading depicting Christ's betrayal, imprisonment, torture, trial, sentence, and crucifixion. Thirteen lit candles, 11 white and 1 black (representing Judas), are extinguished in pairs. Only one remains lit, symbolizing Christ, and the church remains in semi-darkness. After the last Gospel reading and the last candle extinguished, total darkness reigns. In this utter darkness and silence, the hymn “Glory to God in the Highest” is sung. [55]

On the same night, a number of innocent thefts take place which are deemed permissible, given that Christ has been betrayed and arrested and that evil roams the land. [56]

On the Friday that follows, Easter eggs are dyed red to symbolize the blood shed by crucified Christ. It is not permitted to make the sign of the cross on this day. In a sign of general lament, people would not eat anything sweet. [57]

Orange blossom

Orange blossom (Source: The National Geographic Magazine, Volume 31, No. 6, June 1917)

Zadig (Easter)

In Dörtyol, Easter would correspond with the blossoming of the orange crop that imparted an Eden like fragrance to the town. Flowering roses from the gardens would be taken in bunches top the church. It was mandatory for new born children and new brides to attend church services. Church bells would ring early in the morning calling the faithful, decked out in their holiday best and carrying dyed eggs in baskets, to prayer. After services, the egg contest would begin. Residents would begin eating their eggs in the church yard. Easter eggs were so loved by Dörtyol residents that many would consume twenty or more that day. [58]

On the following day, Merelots, people would visit the graves of family members and loved ones. A wrestling match, with Armenian and Turkish wrestlers from the town and neighboring villages, would take place in the afternoon at a public square. [59]

Viola

Viola (Source: Carl Axel Magnus Lindman, Bilder ur Nordens Flora, Stockholm, 1901–1905)

Vartavar (Transfiguration - Festival of Roses)

This major church holiday was celebrated on the fourteenth Sunday following Easter. [60]

In Dörtyol, as in all Armenian communities in Cilicia, traces of holiday’s pagan past were still evident. People would gather on river banks, near holy sites, and throw water on each other, release doves, and slaughter animals for sacrifice (madagh/madag). When taking a piece of the madagh to eat, one would say – oukhdn kabul olsun (may your sacrifice be acceptable). [61]

On Vartavar, Turks, Yezidis and Turkomens from neighboring villages would travel to Dörtyol. They would come not only for the merry-making but also to sell charms (khamaylı) made from bread dough, wood or assorted stones. [62] Many marriages and baptisms would take place given that people regarded the holiday as a symbol of fertility and bounty. [63]

Hampartsoum /Vidjag (Ascension of the Lord)

On the evening before, seven virgin girls would gather water from seven springs in a vessel. [64] The vessel would be adorned with basil and a flower called vidjag. A piece of cake or a communion wafer (nshkhark) would be placed on top.  The vessel would be placed where it could receive the rays of the moon. Sometimes, miscreants would steal the vessel, an act regarded as a sign of very bad luck for adolescent girls. [65] On the day, girls would gather in a green field, and toss a ring, bracelet or an earring in a bowl filled with water. The following ritual would be performed – a kind of ‘luck of the draw’ game. Hence the popular name vidjag for the holiday. The youngest girl would place her hand in the bowl and feel around for one of the items inside. As she does so, the girls would sing:

Dörtyol Armenians at a festivity – 1933

Dörtyol Armenians at a festivity – 1933. The photo was probably taken in the region of Alexandretta (Iskenderun, present-day Hatay), even though the original notes Dörtyol. We know that the town was emptied of Armenians in 1922. Was the photo taken by a group of Dörtyol Armenians revisiting their town? The second person (wearing a tie) from the right is Khachig Bedros Peltekian (Source: Bedros Sahag Peltekian collection, Beirut)

Mantıvarım olsun
Içi dolu nur olsun
Mantıvara gelenin
Cennette dostu olsun
[66]

Let my fate be decided
May it be full of light
Whoever participates in the draw
Paradise will be their friend [67]

The girl would then remove an item from the water. The owner of the item would receive the fate described in the following song.

Ay, mantıvar, mantıvar
Mantıvarın vaktı var
Mantıvarın sevenin
Trakhda pesh takhdı var.
Haneh akhchig, teh haneh
Poukun pari tara eh.

Fate, fate, dear fate,
Fate has a time,
Those participating in the draw
Have a place in paradise
Draw it girl, draw,
Today is a good year. [68]

The girl removes another item from the water. The owner is destined for the following fate which the girls then sing.

Altundır yaram
Gümüşdır tokam
Allahdır arkam
Kimsenden korkmam

My love is gold,
Wearing silver.
God is my protector
I’m a brave soul without fear. [69]

The girl removes another item, and then places her hand in the bowel. The girls sing:

Bir incecik kamışam
Kapuna uzanmışam
Ister al, ister alma
Anluna yazılmışam.

I am a thin reed
I’ve grown taller at your door
Pluck it if you want, or not
It doesn’t matter, I am written on your forehead. [70]

The girls then sing:

[Aysmağı saramadım]
Ocağa koyamadım
On parmağı mum yapdım
Ben sana yaramadım

I wasn’t able to tie a braid,
Not able to build a house,
I lit a candle with ten fingers
I wasn’t fit for you at all. [71]

The song continues for another twenty verses or so. The girls then rub the fragrant water on their faces and the holiday comes to a close. Meals for Hampartsoum include pilaf made from milk and arishda (roasted rye dough) and round ornately embossed kata. People would gather at holy and pilgrimage sites named after St. Sarkis. [72]

Silver solar monstrance (ostensorium)

Silver solar monstrance (ostensorium). It is now housed at the "Cilicia" Museum of the Armenian Catholicosate in Antelias (Lebanon) (Source: Hermann Goltz, Photographien von Klaus E. Göltz, Der Gerettete Schatz der Armenier aus Kilikien, Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2000)

Asdvadzadzin (Feast Day of the Assumption of the Holy Mother-of-God/Blessing of the Grapes)

Most Dörtyol Armenians would celebrate this dominical (daghavar) feast day, commemorating Mary’s being “assumed” by Christ to heaven, by attending Divine Liturgy at the St. Asdvadzadzin Church in the towns Upper District. [73]

The custom of blessing grapes, the first fruits of the harvest, can be traced back to Old Testament times, when farming was a common vocation. With the birth of Jesus, these dedications took on a new meaning. Jesus Christ was the first born—or the first fruit—of Mary and, as such, was offered to God in the temple.

According to accepted tradition, the eating of grapes was not permitted prior to the Blessing of the Grapes ceremony that took place after the Divine Liturgy. People would bring grapes to the church to be blessed. The grapes would then be distributed to the faithful. On the following day, Merelots, people would visit the graves of family members and loved ones. [74]

National Holidays

Since Vartanants, the most beloved of all church and national holidays, dovetailed with the Thursday of Great Lent, it was celebrated in especially grand style. All schools, shops and markets would close. The holiday, celebrating St. Vartan and his comrades in arms, was celebrated with the last Divine Liturgy with an open curtain before Great Lent. All Dörtyol Armenians would attend this service. All the menfolk would carry some type of weapon (gun, sword or dagger) on their person for this national holiday. [75] Towards evening, either at a pilgrimage site or churchyard, torches were lit. After the 1908 Constitution, schools would perform plays portraying the battle waged by St. Vartan and his soldiers. [76]

  • [1] Minas Kojayan, History of Chork-Marzban (Dört-Yol, a town in Cilicia) [in Armenian], Los Angeles, 2006, p. 168.
  • [2] Samvel Boranian, Memoirs of Djouk Marzeban (the original is in Armenian lettered Turkish). The author of this article has an edited typewritten translation of the manuscript by Haroutyoun Balian. Leninakan, 1965, unpublished, p. 178.
  • [3] Cheoreg is a type of bread baked in Dörtyol for the five dominical feast days. See Boranian, Memoirs,p. 160.
  • [4] Kojayan, History of Chork-Marzban, p. 168.
  • [5] Boranian, Memoirs, p. 118.
  • [6] The Armenian Apostolic Church celebrates the birth and baptism of Christ on the same day – January 6.
  • [7] Boranian, Memoirs, p. 118.
  • [8] Ibid, p. 146.
  • [9] Ibid, p. 118.
  • [10] Ibid, p. 146.
  • [11] Ibid, p. 118.
  • [12] Ibid.
  • [13] Ibid.
  • [14] Ibid.
  • [15] Kojayan, History of Chork-Marzban, p. 168.
  • [16] Boranian, Memoirs, p. 198.
  • [17] Kojayan, History of Chork-Marzban, p. 168.
  • [18] Boranian, Memoirs, p. 208.
  • [19] Ibid.
  • [20] Ibid, p. 119.
  • [21] Ibid, p. 129.
  • [22] Ibid.
  • [23] Ibid.
  • [24] Ibid, p. 159.
  • [25] Ibid, p. 129.
  • [26] Boranian, Memoirs, p. 130.
  • [27] Ibid, p. 130.
  • [28] Ibid.
  • [29] Ibid.
  • [30] Candles in Dörtyol were made from animal fat or beeswax. When oil was introduced, tinsmiths began to fashion candle lamps with handles that could be carried from room to room. They were also used to light the way to church for morning vespers and to carry fire back home. Evergreen wood was used for the same purpose. See Boranian, Memoirs, p. 159.
  • [31] Boranian, Memoirs, p. 130.
  • [32] Ibid.
  • [33] Kojayan, History of Chork-Marzban, p. 169.
  • [34] Boranian, Memoirs, p. 132.
  • [35] Ibid.
  • [36] Refers to the week of Great Lent
  • [37] Boranian, Memoirs, p. 131.
  • [38] Ibid, p. 177.
  • [39] Ibid.
  • [40] Ibid, p. 131.
  • [41] Ibid.
  • [42] Ibid.
  • [43] Greta Lent was also called Aghouhats (day of abstinence), recalling the old tradition whereby the most devout would only consume bread and salt.
  • [44] Great Lent in the Armenian Apostolic Church begins on a Monday.
  • [45] Boranian, Memoirs, p. 132.
  • [46] Ibid.
  • [47] Ibid.
  • [48] Kojayan, History of Chork-Marzban, p. 170. Boranian, Memoirs, pp. 119-120, 123.
  • [49] Boranian, Memoirs, pp. 119-120.
  • [50] Ibid.
  • [51] Kojayan, History of Chork-Marzban, p. 170.
  • [52] Boranian, Memoirs, p. 120.
  • [53] Ibid.
  • [54] Ibid.
  • [55] Boranian, Memoirs, p. 120.
  • [56] Ibid, p. 121.
  • [57] Ibid.
  • [58] Ibid.
  • [59] Ibid.
  • [60] Maghakia Ormanian, Dictionary of Rituals [in Armenian], Antelias, 1957.
  • [61] Boranian, Memoirs, pp. 86, 123.
  • [62] Ibid, p. 123.
  • [63] Ibid, p. 139.
  • [64] Kojayan, History of Chork-Marzban, p. 171.
  • [65] Boranian, Memoirs, p. 87.
  • [66] Nig Marzvan, retitled manuscript, written in 1934, Kirikhan, p. 147. (author unknown). Siranoush Minasian sent us some of the pages of this booklet in digital format, for which we are grateful; Boranian, Memoirs, p. 124.
  • [67] Translation by V. Sahagian.
  • [68] Nig Marzvan, p. 147.
  • [69] This quatrain is also to be found in Verzhine Svazlian’s The Oral tradition of Western Armenians. Her book contains several mantuvars in Armenian- lettered Turkish and Armenian tyranslations. The last two lines are missing in Boranian’s memoirs. Most likely it was sung in Dörtyol without a chorus.
  • [70] Nig Marzvan, addendum p. 147; Boranian, Memoirs, p. 124 [translation by V. Sahagian].
  • [71] Ibid.
  • [72] Ibid, p. 137.
  • [73] Ibid, p. 153.
  • [74] Ibid.
  • [75] Ibid, p. 132.
  • [76] Ibid.