Moush – Religious Institutions

Author: Robert Tatoyan, 26/01/2017 (Last modified: 26/01/2017) - Translator: Simon Beugekian

The Structure of the Moush (Daron) Diocese and Its State in 1915

The Moush (or Daron) Diocese was one of the most ancient entities within the Armenia Apostolic Church. It was founded by Gregory the Illuminator, the patriarch of the Armenian Church, after his return to Armenian from Caesarea (Kayseri). The Diocese continued to exist until the Armenian Genocide of 1915.

As he laid the infrastructure of the new faith in Armenia, Gregory the Illuminator appointed an archbishop to head each of the Armenian provinces. He appointed Aghpios as archbishop of “the Land of Daron.” Aghpios was an educated and cultured cleric, who spoke fluent Greek and Latin, and was well-versed in the Holy Book [1]. Aghpios was also appointed as successor to Gregory the Illuminator.

In the fourth century, the principal cathedral of the Armenian Apostolic Church was located in Daron, and more specifically, in Ashdishad, the spiritual capital of Daron. Daron itself was one of the most important and prominent dioceses in the country [2]. The cathedral of Ashdishad was called “grand,” “most important,” and “mother” of all Armenian churches, and “the highest authority, and seat of the Armenian Holy See.” Being a de facto spiritual center, Ashdishad was also the primary stage for ecclesiastic summits. Armenian chroniclers recorded three large summits that took place in the main cathedral of Ashdishad in the fourth and fifth centuries [3].

According to Yeghishe and Ghazar Parbetsi, in 451 CE, on the eve of the Battle of Avarayr, there were at least 18 notable dioceses in Armenia, each with its own prelate, including the Daron-Dourouperan Diocese, led by Archbishop Kasou [4].

Moush’s St Garabed monastery (Source: Bodil Biørn collection)

Archibishop Mershabouh, as prelate  of the “Daron and Mamigonian,” participated in the clerical summit that took place in the City of Dvin in 506 CE. On the decrees issued by the summit, his signature always figures second, after the signature of Catholicos Papken [5].

In 565 CE, during the Catholicosate of Hovhanness II Kapeghian, a religious summit was convened in the City of Manazgerd. Among the listed participants was Archbishop Krikor, representing Daron [7].

The Diocese of Daron is mentioned in records from the 14th century. Religious summits were convened in Sis (in 1307) and in Adana (in 1316). Among the participants, and among the signatories of decrees issued by those summits, was Archibishop Hovhanness of Daron.

Vosgan Yerevantsi recorded a description of the clerical and administrative structure of the Armenian Apostolic Church in the 1670s. Among other dioceses, Yerevantsi mentioned Moush among the archbishoprics, and noted that the diocese’s main cathedral was the Saint Garabed Monastery. At the time, the Moush Diocese had jurisdiction over two other bishoprics – the Madnavank Monastery in Moush, and the Bishopric of Bitlis [8].

Probably in the middle of the next century (the 18th century), during the reigns of Patriarchs of Hovhanness Golod (1715-1741) and Hagop Nalian (1741-1748; 1762-1764), the right to appoint an abbot for the Saint Garabed Monastery and a prelate for the Archbishopric of Moush was granted to the Patriarchate of the Armenian Church in Istanbul. Previously, these appointments had been made by the Catholicosate of Echmiadzin, Sis, and Akhtamar [9].

On the eve of the Genocide, the administrative jurisdiction of the Moush Diocese included two provinces: Moush (including the districts of Moush, Manazgerd, Boulanekh, Varto, and Sassoun), and Gendj (districts of Gendj, Djabaghchour, and Khoulp) [10]. According to Archbishop Maghakia Ormanian, in 1902 the Moush Diocese’s jurisdiction included 230 functioning churches and monasteries [11].

A framed picture of Father Khrimian that was prepared in Cairo in 1894. The occassion for preparing this portrait was Khrimian’s election as Catholicos of All Armenians in 1892. Around the image one can read laudatory writings about Khrimian. Manoug Der Aprahamian (1845 Van-1900 Cairo) composed the entirety of this work (framed picture and writings on the margins) (Source: Gegham Ter Mikayelyan collection, Yerevan)

Mgrdich Khrimian as Prelate of Daron

In June 1862, Mgrdich Khrimian was appointed as abbot of the Saint Garabed Monastery and Prelate of the Moush Archbishopric. This appointment had important ramifications for the spiritual, cultural, and educational development of Moush [12].

The Prelate’s first act as abbot of the monastery was the creation of a fiscal council, in order to rein in expenses and supervise the finances, and to ensure that the monastery’s wealth was used for purposes beneficial to the community. Khrimian also launched a renovation project for the monastery, and in the City of Moush, with the approval of the locals, created a people’s council consisting of 12 members [13].

Khrimian spared no efforts to protect Moush’s Armenians from depredation, which they had always endured. In this vein, Khrimian led the efforts to implement the Armenian National Constitution of 1863 throughout Moush; to reform ecclesiastical practices and ethical standards; and to immediately issue formal protests against any attacks against Armenians towns by Kurdish chieftains and any attempts to derail the implementation of the Armenian National Constitution. The formal protests issued by Khrimian are a testament to the development of Armenian national consciousness and the gestation of new ideas in Daron [14].

Mgrdich Khrimian ordered the transport of a printing press from Varakavank to Daron. Beginning in April 1863, the Saint Garabed Monastery began publishing a biweekly magazine called Ardzvig Darono (The Eaglet of Daron), edited by Karekin Srvantsdyants [15]. The magazine was published, with some interruptions, until the summer of 1865 [16].

Khrimian also attempted to combat depredation in the Armenian countryside, by exhorting the village chiefs in his jurisdiction to abstain from paying the agricultural levies imposed on their villages with cash [17].

Karekin Srvantsdiants (1840 Van-1892 Istanbul) (Source: AGBU Nubarian Library, Paris)

Khrimian’s activities, which had the aim of reforming the diocese’s finances and of ensuring that the monastery’s wealth was used to help Armenian communities, unsurprisingly invited the ire of the area’s upper class, both secular and ecclesiastical. Previously, these same people had hidden behind the lack of transparency to use the monastery’s finances for their own personal enrichment. Assassination plots were organized, and letters denigrating Khrimian were sent to the local and regional Ottoman authorities, as well as to the Patriarchate of Istanbul. In order to respond to the charges levied against him, Khrimian was compelled to travel to Istanbul in July of 1863. He was forced to defend himself before the Patriarchate himself. Despite all of the transgressions he was accused of, the civil and ecclesiastical authorities in Istanbul exonerated Khrimian of all charges [18]. The Patriarchate also refused to accept Khirmian’s resignation.

Upon his return to Daron, Mgrdich Khrimian redoubled his efforts. He worked hard to ensure that every village, and later every monastery within his jurisdiction, had a school for the local children. Also, various educational associations were created in Daron, including the Mousheghian, Khorenian, Nersisian, Persirats, and Tarkmanchats associations [19].

The Ardzvig Darono (Eaglet of Daron) biweekly magazine, published by the Saint Garabed Monastery of Moush.

Still, the members of the Saint Garabed Monastery’s order continued to oppose Khrimian’s efforts. In the summer of 1865, resorting to violence, they successfully forced Khrimian from the monastery. Khoren Khrimian, the Prelate’s nephew, described the events –

“The people of Boulanekh, Khnous, and the Moush Valley gathered together and organized a small army, intending to escort Khrimian back to the monastery. However, a band of armed Kurds and some Armenians, paid for by the monastery’s monks, positioned themselves in the large farm of the monastery, barring the Prelate’s return” [20].

Mgrdich Khrimian once again headed for Istanbul. He submitted his resignation, intending to rescind it when and if the dispute between him and the monastery’s order was resolved. The Patriarchate decided to dispatch Harutyun Vehabedian, Prelate of Erzurum, to the monastery, as adjudicator. His findings vindicated Khrimian, and six of the mutinous monks were exiled to Jerusalem [21].

However, despite the decision to support Khrimian in his dispute with the monks, the Istanbul Patriarchy did not reinstate Khrimian as Prelate of Moush. It was decided to separate the position of Abbot the Saint Garabed Monastery from that of Prelate of Moush. Khrimian was appointed as abbot of the monastery and of the entire Moush region, while the position of Prelate of Moush was given to Bishop Yeremia Devgants [22]. The separation of the abbotry from the prelacy lasted until December of 1888, when the two positions were once again merged, and given to Karekin Srvantsdyants, and later in the same year, to Nerses Kharakhanian [23].

A panorama of the Saint Garabed Monastery (Source: Р.Бекгулянц, По Турецкой Армении, Ростов на Дону, 1914 г.)

After being deprived of the Prelacy of Moush, Khrimian never again returned to the Saint Garabed Monastery, instead leaving Karekin Srvantsdyants there as his surrogate [24].

Emma Gosdantian, in evaluating the reign of Mgrdich Khrimian in its totality, writes – “speaking from the moral perspective, Khrimian’s reign was a success. He received the greatest token of love from the people – the appellation of Hayrig. Perhaps the best praise he received for his years in Daron and Vasburagan was his subsequent appointment as Patriarch of Istanbul” [25].

Father Papken Guleserian, who served as Prelate of Moush, and later as coadjutor Catholicos of the Holy See of Cilicia (Source: Kevork (Gevorg) Sarafian, Պատմութիւն Անթէպի հայոց [History of Antep/Ayntab Armenians], Vol. 1: Los Angeles, 1953)

The Daron Diocese after Mgrdich Khrimian

As we already noted, in 1864, the position of Prelate of Daron (or Moush) and that of Abbot of the Saint Garabed Monastery were separated. Until 1869, the position of Prelate of Daron was held by the Prelate of the nearby province of Paghesh (Bitlis), Archbishop Yeremia. He was succeeded by Father Krikoris Aghvanian [26].

In the 1876 Moush diocesan summit, the wizened Father Krikoris Aleyatdjian was elected as Prelate of Daron. His reign coincided with the first stirrings of what would be called the “Armenian Question” in the Ottoman Empire. Sarkis Pteyan, in his memoirs, records that Aleyatdjian was quite influential in government circles – “at first, his voice could be heard by those who mattered, but soon, due to changes in circumstances, and the schism that was appearing between the Ottoman authorities and his people, his influence began to wane. He even contemplated resigning and retiring to Istanbul” [27].

The attitude of the authorities towards Aleyatdjian could perhaps be explained by the following anecdote from his reign – as is known, once the Armenian Question became a matter of international concern, Sultan Abdul-Hamid II spared no efforts to portray the Armenian population of the Eastern provinces of the Empire as mere minorities relative to the Muslims. In 1880, when the Ottoman authorities were on the verge of creating a new province between Van and Erzurum (the future Province of Bitlis), the local authorities, political entities, and all other representatives of Ottoman power sent reports to Istanbul affirming that “Moush, including its city and valley, contains more than 100,000 Armenians and 30,000 Muslims. Therefore, Moush has more of a right to become a new province in and of itself than Bitlis, with its smaller population.” Bishop Krikoris Aleyatdjian, in his capacity as Prelate of Moush, sent a copy of this report to Patriarch Nerses Varjabedian, who then shared it with the ambassadors of the great powers, adding that the telegram, “… featuring the signatures of high-ranked government functionaries and local authorities, demonstrates that Armenians are an absolute majority in the area of Moush.” Hearing of the incident, the enraged Sultan Abdul-Hamid II immediately demoted all of the government functionaries who had signed that particular report, for no other crime than having stated the truth [28].

Father Krikoris Aleyatdjian (Source: Sarkis Pteyan and Misag Pteyan, Authentic History of Daron [in Armenian], Cairo, 1962)

Aleyatdjian was called to the capital by the Sublime Porte in 1880, at which point Father Garabed Yessayan, then the abbot of the Madnavank Monastery, was elected as Prelate of Moush. In 1885, the Ottoman authorities allowed Aleyatdjian to return to Moush [29], where he re-assumed his position as prelate. During his second term (1885-1886), Aleyatdjian initiated a program of reconstruction for the Prelacy building, for which he was able to raise 6,000 Kurush [30].

In 1886, Bishop Vahram Mangouni was appointed Prelate of Moush. He, however, refused the mantle, and yielded his place to Father Nerses Kharakhanian, who continued to serve as Prelate, and later simultaneously as abbot of Saint Garabed, with some interruptions, until 1915.

Nerses Kharakhanian (birth name Hmayag) was a native of Moush, born in the Village of Avran in 1850. He had studied at the Saint Garabed Monastery’s school. In 1874 he was ordained into the priesthood, and rose in the ranks of priesthood. In 1880 he was appointed as Prelate of Kghi/Kiğı, and served in that capacity until assuming the position of Prelate of Moush.

Kharakhanian had connections with, and provided support to, many contemporaries in the forefront of the fight for the rights of Armenians (Arapo, the schoolmaster Markar, and others). One of his contemporaries, Sarkis Pteyan, writes that “the Sassoun Armenians needed permission from the Prelacy to host men preaching revolution in the area. Such men [revolutionaries] were allowed to work or were told to leave in the name of the Prelate alone. . . . Kharakhanian did his best to support them, putting his own neck on the line, and for that he was admired by the people and by revolutionaries” [31].

Copper plate or small tray. Diameter – 26.3 cm (10.5 inches), with an edge of 1 cm (0.5 inch). The inscription indicates that the item was a gift to the Saint Garabed Monastery, given by one Garabed, son of Soulemaz Oghli Mahdesi Arutyun. The gift is dated May 6, 1775 (Source: A Legacy of Armenian Treasures: Testimony to a People, Indiana University Press, Indiana, 2013)

Pteyan also provides a general description of Kharakhanian – “he was a wise, modest clergyman, in the mold of Khrimian Hayrig and Srvantsdyants… After the resignation of Aleyatdjian, he took on the position of Prelate amidst very difficult circumstances, being consumed by the same fire that consumed the rest of Moush’s Armenians, and served as long as he could” [32].

Kharakhanian’s nationalistic tendencies did not escape the notice of the authorities. In 1893 he was arrested and taken to the prison of Bitlis, where he was kept for approximately two and a half years [33]. In 1895, the Patriarch of Istanbul, Madteos Izmirlian, was finally able to secure his release, and transferred him to Istanbul. In 1896, Sultan Abdul-Hamid II removed both Kharakhanian and Izmirlian from their positions, and exiled them to Jerusalem.

After Kharakhanian’s exile to Jerusalem, Father Vartan Hagopian was appointed as Prelate of Daron. He was born in the Aharonk village of Sassoun, and he was also appointed as vice-abbot of the Saint Garabed Monastery. He remained in his position until 1899. In that year, a summit convened by the Patriarchate in Istanbul [34]. This summit, taking into consideration the fact that the Prelacy, the monasteries of Moush, as well as the Diocese of Gendj were now the responsibility of Father Vartan Hagopian, and noting that one man simply could not be responsible for so many positions, appointed Father Papken Guleserian as interim Prelate of Moush. Guleserian had led the Diocese of Djanig [35]. Father Vartan Hagopian continued to serve as the abbot of the Saint Garabed Monastery [36].

The Ardzvig Darono (Eaglet of Daron) biweekly magazine, published by the Saint Garabed Monastery of Moush.

During his interim prelacy (1898-1900) [37], Father Guleserian greatly improved the educational infrastructure of the region. Notable events during his term included the opening of the girls’ orphanage in the City of Moush (with the financial contribution of Russian-Armenian philanthropist Chanshyants); and the opening of a school in the Arshen Village in Gendj. The school of the Saint Hovhanness (Saint John) Monastery was converted into an orphanage, and served 36 pupils. The schools of the Moush Valley had a great need for textbooks, so the Prelate asked for and received 1,000 books from the Patriarchate [38].

Unfortunately, Papken Guleserian was not able to adapt to the climate of the Moush, and eventually was compelled to resign, moving back to Istanbul. As prelate, he was succeeded by Father Khosrov Behrigian, who continued to closely supervise the establishment and the operations of schools in the Armenian villages of the Moush Valley [39].

In 1908, after the Young Turk Revolution, Kharakhanian was allowed to return to Moush, where he once again assumed the position of Prelate and of Abbot of the Saint Garabed Monastery. The following year, he traveled to Echmiadzin, where Madteos Izmirilian, the newly elected Catholicos, styled him as archbishop. Kharakhanian died of typhoid on the eve of the Genocide, on April 10, 1915, and according to his wishes, was buried at the Saint Garabed Monastery [40].

Misak Pteyan provides the following description of how the Armenians of Moush reacted to the news of Kharakhanian’s death – “naturally, in those awful days, the loss of such a revered ecclesiastical figure and a great patriot caused a wave of despair. We all mourned the untimely passing of this great man, who had dedicated every minute of his life to his people. However, after the genocide, those of us who survived were consoled by the fact that he did not witness the annihilation of his people…” [41]

The Armenian Catholic Community in Moush

According to information provided by Maghakia Ormanian, at the outset of the 20th century there were 3,000 Catholic Armenians in the Moush Diocese [42]. This figure was basically taken from official Ottoman sources, as the Ottoman official agencies, in 1914, put the number of Catholic Armenians in Moush at 2,699 [43]. According to sources from within the Catholic Church, specifically the Catholic Patriarchal Yearbook, the Catholic Armenian population of Moush was higher, closer to 6,500 [44].

The Armenian Catholic population was concentrated in the City of Moush, consisting of 125 households [45], or, according to other sources, 80 households [46], or 30-40 households [47]. As for the villages around Moush, the Armenian Catholic population was concentrated in three villages: a) Arinch (120 households and 610 individuals according to the 1913-1914 census conducted by the Armenian Patriarchate [48]; and 150 households and 2,400-2,600 individuals according to other sources [49]); b) Oghounk (90 households and 620 individuals [50], or 100-130 households and 1,500 individuals according to other sources [ 51]); c) and Norshen (400 households and 2,150 individuals [52], or 400-450 households and 3,000-3,500 individuals according to other sources [53]).

Moush was the patriarchal center of the eponymous diocese of the Armenian Catholic Church. The diocese’s jurisdiction also included Bitlis and Van, where an insignificant number of Catholic Armenians lived [54]. The Moush Diocese had been carved out of the Garin (Erzurum) Diocese in 1880. In the same year, a Catholic bishop was appointed to Moush – Bishop Harutyun Djamdjian, of Istanbul. He was succeeded, in 1887, by Bishop Hovhanness Hovhannissian [55].

Norshen (present-day Sungu) village (Moush Valley), the school and the church built by the Mkhitarian congregation (Source: Mekhitarist Order, San Lazzaro, Venice)
Oughounk village (Moush Valley), the St Sarkis church and the homonymous school, which were founded by the Mkhitarian congregation. The school and the church were constructed in 1902 (Source: Mekhitarist Order, San Lazzaro, Venice)

The growth of the Armenian Catholic community in Moush owed much to the activity of Father (later Bishop) Nerses Djndoyan, who was elected as prelate of Moush in 1892, and remained at that post until his death in 1909 [56]. Contemporaries described his as an “irreproachable clergyman, cultured and energetic” [57]. His efforts resulted in the opening of the Mourad-Mkhitarian School in the City of Moush. He also presided over the renovations and reopening of three Catholic churches in villages of the Moush Valley, each with an adjacent school [58].

After Djndoyan’s death, Bishop Hagop Topouzian was elected as Prelate of Moush. In the memoirs of one of his contemporaries, he’s described as “one of the simplest men of the world, whose only concern was the spiritual health of his diocese” [59]. Topouzian remained at his position until the Armenian Genocide of 1915 [60].

The Armenian Protestant Community in Moush

According to information recorded by Archbishop Maghakia Ormanian, at the outset of the 20th century, there were approximately 1,000 Protestant Armenians living in Moush [61]. According to official Ottoman statistics published in 1914, the number of Protestants (i.e. Protestant Armenians) in Moush was 530 [62].

Protestantism reached Moush in the mid-19th century. The first Protestant Church in Moush was built in 1855. Within ten years, The Khodjakhian family, who were Protestants, had already built a new Protestant meeting hall and a two-story residence for the serving pastor [63]. On the eve of the Genocide, there were seven Armenia Protestant families living in the City of Moush, and the community was headed by pastors Krikor Sdepanian and Mihran Kaprielian [64].

Armenian Protestant communities, alongside their churches and schools, were active in the following villages of the Moush Valley – 

Panorama of the town of Moush (Source: Bodil Biørn collection)

  • Havadorig: 10 households in the early 1890s [65], more later
  • Mogounk: 10 households [66]
  • Hounan: 8-10 households [67], led, on the eve of the Genocide, by Pastor Apkar Hlzadian [68]
  • Terkevank: 5 households [69], or 10 households according to other sources [70], led by Pastor Smpad Khachigian [71]
  • [1] A. S. Ghazarian, “The Diocesan Structure of the Armenian Church in the Fourth Century”, in Historical-Anthropological Review, 1996, n. 1-2, pages 193-195.
  • [2] In the pre-Christian era, Ashdishad was an important religious site for pagan Armenians. The city was home to temples of Asdghig, Anahid, and Vahakn, each with a statue of the god or goddess. Ashdishad was also home to a large repository of pagan manuscripts.
  • [3] “The Church Summits of Ashdishad”, in Christian Armenia Encyclopedia, Yerevan, published by Armenian Enyclopedias, 2002, pages 69-70.
  • [4] Bion Hagopian, Armenological Studies, Yerevan, published by the Yerevan State University, 2003, page 34.
  • [5] Ibid., page 39.
  • [6] Ibid., page 43.
  • [7] Ibid., page 54.
  • [8] Ibid., page 105.
  • [9] Christian Armenia Encyclopedia…, page 505.
  • [10] Entry on “The Province of Bitlis” in Abridged Armenian Encyclopedia, Volume 1, Yerevan, 1990, pages 531-535.
  • [11] Archbishop Maghakia Ormanian, The Armenian Church, Constantinople, 1911, page 262.
  • [12] Garo Sassouni, History of the Land of Daron, Beirut, Sevan Publishing House, 1956, page 282.
  • [13] Emma Gosdantian, Mgdrtich Khrimian: His Social and Political Pursuits, Yerevan, National Science Academy of Armenia – Institute of History, 2000, page 12.
  • [14] Ibid., page 119.
  • [15] Emma Gosdantian, Karekin Srvantsdyants, Yerevan, National Science Academy of Armenia – Institute of History, 2008, page 25.
  • [16] Gosdantian, Mgdrtich Khrimian…, page 124.
  • [17] Ibid.
  • [18] Sassouni, History of the Land of Daron, page 282.
  • [19] Gosdantian, Mgdrtich Khrimian…, page 123.
  • [20] Ibid, page 124.
  • [21] Ibid., page 126.
  • [22] Ibid.
  • [23] Sassouni, Badmutyun Daroni Ashkharhi, page 285.
  • [24] Ibid.
  • [25] Gosdantian, Mkrdich Khrimian…, page 149.
  • [26] Sassouni, Badmutyun Daroni Ashkharhi, page 285.
  • [27] Sarkis Pteyan and Misag Pteyan, Authentic History of Daron, Cairo, Published by the Armenian National Fund, 1962, page 31.
  • [28] “Jamanag”, 1912, n. 1434.
  • [29] Sassouni, History of the Land of Daron, page 285.
  • [30] Ibid.
  • [31] Sarkis Pteyan and Misag Pteyan, Authentic History of Daron, page 59.
  • [32] Ibid.
  • [33] Teotig, The Calvary of Armenian Clergy and its Flock’s Catastrophic Year of 1915, Tehran, 2014, page 104.
  • [34] The multi-ethnic national congress was one of the entities stipulated by the Constitution of 1863. The national congress was to consist of members of the national political leadership and the national religious leadership.
  • [35] Sassouni, History of the Land of Daron, page 285. Later, in 1928, Papken Guleserian was elected Catholicos of the Holy House of Cilicia, serving until his death in 1936 (Puzant Yeghyayan, Contemporary History of the Catholicosate of the Holy House of Cilicia, 1914-1972, Antilias, Published by Catholicosate of the Holy House of Cilicia, 1975, page 897.
  • [36] Teotig, The Calvary of Armenian Clergy…, page 106.
  • [37] Yeghyayants, Contemporary History, page 312.
  • [38] Sassouni, History of the Land of Daron, page 286.
  • [39] Ibid.
  • [40] Sarkis Pteyan, Misak Pteyan, Authentic History of Daron, page 335.
  • [41] Ibid.
  • [42] Archbishop Maghakia Ormanian, The Armenian Church, page 262.
  • [43] Kemal H. Karpat, Ottoman Population 1830-1914: Demographic and Social Characteristics, Madison, Wisconsin, University Of Wisconsin Press, 1985, page 174.
  • [44] Annuaire Pointifical Catholique, Paris, 1914, page 249.
  • [45] Memoirs of Archbishop Hovhanness Nazlian, Servant of the Trabzon Diocese, Pertaining to the Political and Religious Upheavals in the Near East in 1914-1928, translated by Hmayag Sdepanian, Beirut, Armenian Catholic Press, 1960, page 149.
  • [46] “The Land of Moush” in Luma, Tbilisi, 1897, Book A, page 169.
  • [47] Sassouni, History of the Land of Daron, page 302.
  • [48] Raymond H. Kevorkian and Paul B. Paboudjian, Les Arménians dans l’Empire Ottoman à la Veille due Génocide, Paris, ARHIS, 1992, page 487.
  • [49] Sassouni, History of the Land of Daron, page 309.
  • [50] Kevorkian and Paboudjian, Les Arménians dans l’Empire Ottoman…, page 487.
  • [51] Sassouni, History of the Land of Daron, page 311.
  • [52] Kevorkian and Paboudjian, Les Arménians dans l’Empire Ottoman…, page 487.
  • [53] Sassouni, History of the Land of Daron, page 311.
  • [54] Ibid., page 302.
  • [55] Ibid.
  • [56] Memoirs of Archbishop Hovhanness Nazlian…, pages 147-148.
  • [57] Sassouni, History of the Land of Daron, page 303.
  • [58] Ibid.
  • [59] Memoirs of Archbishop Hovhanness Nazlian…, pages 149.
  • [60] Teotig, The Calvary of Armenian Clergy…, page 107.
  • [61] Archbishop Maghakia Ormanian, The Armenian Church, page 262.
  • [62] Karpat, Ottoman Population 1830-1914, page 262.
  • [63] Sassouni, History of the Land of Daron, page 304.
  • [64] Teotig, The Calvary of Armenian Clergy…, page 109. According to other sources, the number of Armenian Protestants was higher. In the 1890s, some sources put their numbers at 10 households (Luma, Tbilisi, 1897, Book A, page 169).
  • [65] Ibid.
  • [66] Sassouni, History of the Land of Daron, page 314.
  • [67] Ibid., page 306.
  • [68] Teotig, The Calvary of Armenian Clergy…, page 118.
  • [69] Sassouni, History of the Land of Daron, page 304.
  • [70] Luma, page 169.
  • [71] Teotig, The Calvary of Armenian Clergy…, page 120.