Ourfa: The carpentry workshop of the American orphanage (Source: ABCFM archives, Harvard University, Houghton Library)

Ourfa - Trades

Vahe Tachjian, 29/08/16 (Last modified 29/08/16)- Translator: Vahe Habeshian

Ourfa is home to an abundance of trades and professions, many of which have a centuries-long history and have reached the highest levels of proficiency. That abundance and high level of development are connected to the geographic location of the city: Ourfa lies at the intersection of various trade routes; as a result, the trades as well as commerce have thrived in the city.

The renown of Ourfa's manufactured goods and products is the result of the expertise and knowhow of the local Armenians, who constitute the principal presence in the city's tradecrafts.

A group of Ourfa Armenians, photographed after 1908

A group of Ourfa Armenians, photographed after 1908 (Source: Aram Sahagian, Heroic Ourfa and Her Armenian Offspring, Beirut, 1955)

Aladja Work [Loom Work, Weaving]

Aladja [literally, "multicolored"] is a striped fabric used for the clothing of the local population. In Ourfa, it is a craft practiced by Armenians. It is the aladjadji ["maker of aladja,"] (also known as manousadji) who weaves the entari, the long robe-like loose clothing worn by men in the city and the entire region. The city has numerous aladja workshops where expert craftspeople work day in and out at their looms, sitting in their pits or across from their looms. The workshops are widespread in the Armenian quarter, where many weavers work out of their homes. The Armenian quarter is densely populated, with narrow streets that are often cul-de-sacs; accordingly, during the workday, from all corners of the quarter one can hear the persistent din of the looms at work.

The goods produced by the aladja weavers of Ourfa are renowned. Along with local consumption, the fabrics are exported to the markets of the surrounding cities. To withstand the competition from the aladja weavers of nearby cities (Diarbekir/Dikranagerd and Ayntab), the craftspeople of Ourfa continually attempt to introduce innovations in their products, such as new color formulations, new decorative patterns, and so on. [1]

Weaving is also widespread in the nearby village of Garmoudj, where more than a hundred looms function. [2]

1) Ourfa, Armenian women at work in the German carpet factory (Source: Paul Rohrbach, Armenien, Stuttgart, 1919)
2) Ourfa, carpet factory belonging to the German mission (Source: Der Christliche Orient, Marz-April 1901, Verlag der Deutschen Orient-Mission, Berlin)

Ourfa, wool production (Source: Michel Paboudjian collection, Paris)

Basma Work [Textile/Fabric Printing] and Dyeing

These are highly developed crafts in Ourfa, and Armenians are prevalent among their practitioners. Basma work is the printing of floral designs and figures on white cotton or other cloth through the use of engraved woodblocks or stencils. Because at the time the use of machines was not widespread, these processes were carried out by hand.

With its floral design, the 7-meter-long and 15-meter-tall altar curtain of Ourfa's St. Asdvadzadzin [Holy Mother of God] church is considered among the masterworks of the city's Armenian textile printers. That church was burned down in 1895, during the anti-Armenian massacres throughout the Ottoman Empire; the altar curtain for the renovated church was fashioned and donated by the city's textile printers. The following craftsmen are recorded as having been among those who made the curtain: brothers Arakel, Aroush, and Avedis Misirian; Aroush Djigergants and his sons Apraham and Hovagim; brothers Sarkis, Hovsep, Aroush, and Anania Marashlonts; brothers Kevork, Nazar, and Hagop Kiziloghliyan; and Kevork Haleboghliyan.

As for dyeing, that simply refers to the craft of applying natural colors to either raw or spun wool, a skill in which the craftspeople of Ourfa have developed a high level of expertise. The fabrics of Ourfa are renowned for the durability of their colors. [3]

1) Ourfa: Armenian craftsmen who dye textiles (Source: Paul Rohrbach, Armenien, Stuttgart, 1919)
2) Ourfa: Dyers in the German carpet factory (Source: Johannes Lepsius, Jahrbuch der Deutchen Orient-Mission, Berlin, 1903)

Ourfa, images of wool production (Source: Michel Paboudjian collection, Paris)

Tailoring

The city's tailors work in accordance with local demand, which comes in two forms: local- and Western-style clothing. Those who wear the latter belong to the middle classes, such as government officials, doctors, lawyers, pharmacists, etc. [4]

Ourfa: The weaving workshop in the Armenian orphanage of the German mission (Source: Der Christliche Orient, Oktober 1912, Heft 10, 13. Jahrgang, Verlag der Deutschen Orient-Mission, Potsdam)

Shoemaking

As with the tailoring trade, the Ourfa's shoemakers are also adept at making both modern, European-style and traditional local-style shoes. European styles have been widely adopted by the city's populace. Ourfatsis like to wear black polished-leather shoes. It often happens that the person wearing local clothing will, in the case of shoes, select a European style. The scene changes in summer, when the population starts to wear slippers. Especially favored are the red slippers the uppers of which are made of goatskin.

Shoemaking, too, is known as an Armenian trade in Ourfa. A small group of Turkish shoemakers works out of the Eskidji bazaar (cobbler's market). In total, the city's shoemakers (including cobblers) number more than 300.

Shoemaking workshops were founded in the American and German orphanages that were established after the 1895 massacres, and Armenian orphans learned this craft under the supervision of expert shoemakers. [5]

Ourfa: Armenian master craftsmen and apprentices at work in the shoemaking workshop of the American orphanage (Source: Aram Sahagian, Heroic Ourfa and Her Armenian Offspring, Beirut, 1955)

1) Ourfa: In the shoemaking workshop of the German mission's orphanage (Source: Der Christliche Orient, November 1908, Verlag der Deutschen Orient-Mission, Potsdam)
2) Ourfa: Armenian orphans learning the craft of shoemaking in the wither the German or American orphanage (Source: Ferdinand Brockes, Quer durch Klein-Asien, Gütersloh, 1900)

Cabinetmaking

In the city there is a separate bazaar lined with the shops of cabinetmakers (furniture makers) adjacent to each other. This is where various types of furniture are made for the home, such as chairs, as well as agricultural implements. The majority of cabinetmakers are Turks.

When a cabinetmaking workshop was established in the city's German mission ["Deutsche Orient-Mision," established by missionary Dr. Johannes Lepsius], Armenian cabinetmakers also began to be trained there. [6] There is also a carpentry workshop in the American mission, the master carpenters of which are Francis Nadjarian, Hagop Nadjarian, and Maksoud Khanbegliyan. The carpentry workshop was originally founded on the grounds of the mission, but when its work expanded, after 1910 it was relocated across from the saray (government building) and the house of Severekli Ali [a Kurdish notable and CUP (Young Turk) leader]. [7]

1) Ourfa: The carpentry workshop of the German mission's orphanage, where Armenian orphans learn the trade (Source: Johannes Lepsius, Jahrbuch der Deutchen Orient-Mission, Berlin, 1903)
2) Ourfa: The carpentry workshop of the German mission's orphanage. A wooden scale model home built by orphans is shown in the photograph (Source: Der Christliche Orient, 1912, 13. Jahrgang, Heft 1, Verlag der Deutschen Orient-Mission, Potsdam)

Comb-making

The craftspeople who make combs are Armenians. [8]

Stonemasonry

In Ourfa, master stonemasons also assume the role of architect. It's believed that stonemasonry has long played a unique role in the life of the city. The likely reason is the presence of exceptional stone quarries in nearby areas, including the renowned quarries at Top Daghı, Damlamaca, and King Abgar [Apkar] mountains. In Ourfa, the many bridges, churches, public baths, mosques, inns, and hospitals are the works of local stonemasons, many of whom are Armenians. The fame of the local stonemasons has spread beyond the city. On occasion, Ourfa stonemasons have been invited to Aleppo, Diarbekir, and even Istanbul to construct buildings there. [9]

Recorded among Ourfa's Armenian architects are the names of Apraham Khelfoghlian (killed in 1895), Ousda [Usta] Hayrabed (killed in 1895), Kel Krikor (killed in 1895), Khacher Tashdjian, Krikor Mesrobian (killed in 1915), Vagharsh Mesrobian (killed in 1915), Hisa Hisayian (killed in 1915), Kevork Hisayian (killed in 1915), Hagop Ardzivian (killed in 1915), Khacher Arabian, Shmavon Tashdjian, Kevork Topalian, Sarkis Mesrobian, George Topalian, and Bedros Yeremian. [10]

Ousda Harab (Hayrabed) and Kevork Devroushoghli were famous among the architects who lived and worked during the 19th century. It's recounted that on September 28, 1854, an unprecedented storm struck Ourfa. The force of the gales was so powerful that some minarets were left in ruins; the architect who reconstructed them was Ousda Harab. Kevork Devroushoghli and Ousda Harab are the architects who build the Tekke and Herese buildings at a site called Atpazar. In 1864, the same architects reconstructed the Hasan Pasha mosque's minaret, which had been destroyed by a flood in Ourfa. The name of Krikor Devroushoghli is also recorded as the architect of the Armenian school built in 1871. And Krikor Mesrobian and his father, Sarkis Mesrobian, are the architects of the reconstruction of the St. Sarkis monastery, located to the west of the city, begun in 1873. [11]

Taking into account that the city's water is delivered via aqueducts, Armenian stonemasons also gained expertise in the art of constructing aqueducts. [12]

Repair work on the St. Asdvadzadzin church of Ourfa by Armenian craftsman (Source: Der Christliche Orient, 0ktober 1900, Verlag der Deutschen Orient-Mission, Berlin)

Tanning

This is the craft of treating skins and hides of animals to produce leather. The practitioners in Ourfa are predominantly Turks. Armenian tanners emerged later, when a tanning division was launched in the German orphanage (located in the Millet Khan [Millet Hanı], an Armenian-owned property), and Armenian tanners were trained in the trade, going on to make important contributions to this still-functioning trade. [13]

Coppersmithing

This craft has achieved a high level of development in Ourfa. Some 180 coppersmith shops function in the city; their customers, in addition to the city's population, are the people of the entire province. The Armenian coppersmiths are distinguished by their intricate carvings into copper as well as the production of copper statuettes. An example is the water bowls that have a small copper fish attached at the center. These are sought after throughout the empire's markets. [14]

Goldsmithing

In Ourfa, Armenians ply this craft. There are master jewelers who produce bracelets, earrings, and various other ornaments that are sold in areas outside the city. [15]

Carpetmaking

Nearly two years after the anti-Armenian massacres of 1895, the German mission was established in Ourfa's Millet Khan and was tasked with the care of orphans. It is in that khan ["inn"] that the Germans established a carpet factory, which greatly aided the development of the craft. Its manager is Franz [Hugo] Eckart; his associate is a Miss Patrunk; a Herr Masasky is the machine technician; the accountant is named Herzinger. Eckart's brother, Bruno, is among the managers of the factory. The factory is known as Masmana [literally, "place where soap is made"], and it's located between the Armenian and Turkish quarters.

Many of the carpets produced at Masmana are sent to German and other European cities. The factory's first master craftsmen were Germans who previously worked in the German city of Friesdorf, in the carpet factory that Johannes Lepsius had established [in 1888, the profits from which he intended to use to fund his mission work in the East]. When Lepsius decided to relocate to the Ottoman Empire, he disassembled the factory and relocated it to Ourfa. Joining him were several experts from Friesdorf, including Emma Geitner (designer), Karl West (weaver and dyer), Karl Otto (machine technician), and Richard Schäfer (machine technician). The German experts remained in Ourfa for a relatively brief period and returned to their country after having transmitted their knowledge to local Armenians.

Among the Armenian master craftsmen are renowned designer Garabed Vosgerichian and expert dyers Garabed and Mgrdich Kiledjian. Among the well-known carpet makers are Hovhannes Tashdjian, Levon Chamichian, Sarkis Vartanian, Zareh Vorperian, and Hagop Aghgoyents. [16]

Masmana's carpets are also sold in various European markets. [17]

Announcement in Germany of a sale of carpets woven by Armenian orphan boys and girls in the German orphanage of Ourfa. The announcement appeared in the publication of the German mission running the orphanage, printed in Berlin and later in Potsdam (Source: Der Christliche Orient, Marz-April 1900, Verlag der Deutschen Orient-Mission, Berlin)

In the same German periodical, samples of carpets for sale, woven by the Armenian orphans of Ourfa (Source: Der Christliche Orient, 1. Jahrgang, 1900, Verlag der Deutschen Orient-Mission, Berlin / Der Christliche Orient, November/December 1900, Verlag der Deutschen Orient-Mission, Berlin)

In the German carpet factory of Ourfa, Armenian women display carpets they've woven (Source: Der Christliche Orient, 14. Jahrgang, 1913, Dezember 11, Verlag der Deutschen Orient-Mission, Potsdam)

Needleworking

The term "Ourfa work" is well known in needlework. Ourfatsi women's needlework (kerchiefs, table covers, pillow covers, attire, etc.) bears a unique stamp that easily distinguishes it from the needlework of other regions. In Ourfa, these forms of the handicraft are called "Bouloukhtou" or "Tatar work." This craft also gained momentum after the 1895 massacres, when institutions that had been established in Ourfa, especially by missionary organizations, begin to teach needlework to orphaned girls. [18]

The needlework workshop was established in 1896 in the American orphanage (in the western part of the city), at the initiative of Corinna Shattuck (known to the locals as Miss Shattuck). The workshop was better known to the populace as nshkhin doun, ["design/decoration house"]. The teachers here are women who are masters of needlework: Shahmel Kalaydjian, Khorozents Khanum, mistress Horom, mistress Yeva, and H[a]zarvart Tashdjian. The names of other master needleworkers have also been recorded, including Mariam Dzarougian, Lousia Kivirian, Yeva Alahaydoyian, Yeghsa Arisdagesian, Khatoun Jamgochian, Koudtsi Aghasian, Haygouhi Garoyian, Lousia Kiupelian, Khatoun Korkigian.

Miss Shattuck's needlework workshop was initially established on Saghatelents' street [literally, "the street of the Saghatel[ian] family"], and was subsequently relocated to the Shaghoghlonts' home, near the meeting house. The number of women working for this workshops numbers up to one thousand. The success of the Ourfa workshop was so important, that Miss Shattuck opened a branch in the nearby village of Garmoudj, and the management of the branch was entrusted to Yeva Alahaydoyian. Similar branches are established outside the Ourfa region, including Beredjik, Severek, Adiyaman, and Marash. [19]

Ourfa needlework is also sold in European markets. [20]

Armenian women and girls while needleworking in Ourfa (Source: Ferdinand Brockes, Quer durch Klein-Asien, Gütersloh, 1900)

Ironworking

There are approximately 200 ironsmiths in Ourfa, and they are Armenians. They have their own market, where they make agricultural and construction implements, such as plows, shovels/spades, hoes, etc. An ironworking workshop was established in the American orphanage, where Armenian orphans learned the trade under the tutelage of master ironsmiths. [21]

Tailoring workshop in Ourfa's German orphanage, where Armenian orphan girls learn the trade (Source: Der Christliche Orient, März 1909, X., Heft 3., Verlag der Deutschen Orient-Mission, Potsdam)

Horseshoeing/Blacksmithing

Farriers and blacksmiths (nalband) are numerous in Ourfa, considering that the city is surrounded by many villages and is a major commercial center on a caravan route; accordingly, horses and mules are frequently used for transporting cargo. Ourfa's farriers make the rounds of surrounding villages during spring to offer their shoeing services to the villagers.

Among the well-known farriers of Ourfa are the Yotneghpayrian brothers, who have a shop in Nalbndonts Khan ["Farriers' Inn"], which is not in the Armenian quarter. This inn is always full of people who travel in caravans or on horseback. As the case of the Yotneghpayrian brothers indicates, farriers or blacksmiths are often also gunsmiths and veterinarians. We also know that some of the Yotneghpayrian brothers are absent from Ourfa for most of the year and work as farriers among the Kurdish and Arab tribes in the areas surrounding the city. [22]

Mule-driving

The trade of driving mules is widespread in the village of Garmoudj, which houses some 500 pack animals. Merchants often hire Garmoudjtsi muledrivers to transport goods as far as Aleppo and Diyarbekir/Dikranagerd. The villagers of Garmoudj themselves engage in commerce as well. Traditionally, after Great Lent, for three months they pack foodstuffs (bulgur, cracked wheat, raisins, fruit leather) onto their mules and head toward neighboring Kurdish and Arab tribes. They exchange their goods primarily for animal fat, wool, and cheese. [23]

Milling

Ourfa's grist mills are located outside of the city, principally in an area called Boulounti. Many of the millers are Armenians who have emigrated from Sasoun and thereabouts. Aside from watermills, there are other types of mills, primarily those that function by means of mule power. In 1908, after the re-establishment of constitutional order in the Ottoman Empire, some Armenians began to make investments in mills, as a result of which gasoline-powered steam mills were introduced for milling flour. The Kiulahian and Falabashian families own such modern mills. [24]

The millers in the village of Garmoudj similarly tend to be Sasountsis. [25]

Tinsmithing

Many tinsmiths (whitesmiths) are Armenians. Although they have their shops in the city, during various seasons of the year they tour neighboring villages to offer their services—i.e., the tin-plating of villagers' copper utensils. [26]

Bread-making

Most Ourfatsis bake their daily bread (tondri hats ["tandoor bread"] and bedinkesh ["wall-stretched"]) in tandoors located in their homes. There are also standalone bakeries in the market and various sections of town, many of which belong to Armenians who have immigrated to Ourfa from Sasoun. [27]

Kebab-making

Among the Armenians of Ourfa, the kebab made with eggplant (aubergine) is famous. Its savory varieties can be found among the kebab-makers of the city. Armenians as well as Turks operate kebab shops. [28]

Meat-selling

There are Turkish and Armenian butchers in the city. Among Turks, the selling of cow and camel meat is more common, whereas Armenians tend to sell lamb and goat meat. [29]

Ourfa: American missionary Corinna Shattuck presides over the aid-distribution body established after the 1895 anti-Armenian massacres. From left to right: unknown, Kevork Severeklian, Hovhannes Vosgerichian, Hovhannes Djeredian, Corinna Shattuck, Kevork Roumian, Aghadjan Der Bedrosian, Garabed Imirzian, Haroutiun Kaghtatsian (Source: Aram Sahagian, Heroic Ourfa and Her Armenian Offspring, Beirut, 1955)

Grocery provisioning

In Ourfa, grocery stores belonging to Turks, Armenians, Kurds, Jews, and Assyrians [Suryani, or Syriac-speaking Christians]. Occasionally, two provisioners partner to conduct their grocery business together. [30]

Spice and Medicinal-Herb Selling

The attar (aktar) is an herbalist who sells spices and medicinal herbs. Ourfa has Armenian, Turkish, and Jewish herbalists. These herbalists have become so skilled in their work, that they are de facto pharmacists in the city. By combining various herbs, they make remedies that are used in popular medicine, in particular. [31]

Among the well-known herbalists in Ourfa are Attar Sarkis, Haroutiun and Nazaret Kevodjanian, Sarkis Kazandjian, Giragos Tertzagian, Sarkis Berberian, and Hovhannes Dadanian. [32]

There are also trained, professional pharmacists in Ourfa: Apraham Attarian (killed in 1915), Hagop Sarigian (killed in 1915), Sarkis Djerahian (killed in 1915), Giragos Keoseian (killed in 1915), Melkon Kabbendjian (killed in 1915), Haroutiun Aprahamian (killed in 1915), and Soghomon Arevian. [33]

Commerce/Wholesale Trade

Well-known centers of trade in the city are Gömrük Khan (Gümrük Hanı ["customhouse inn"]), Bedesten ["covered market"], and Terzi Bazar ["tailor bazaar"], all three adjacent to one another. The goods traded wholesale in Ourfa include cloths, cereal grains, animal fat, wool, and hides. In Ourfa, Armenians occupy the most prominent place in commerce. There are houses of commerce where Armenian and Turkish merchants work in partnership. There are also Jewish merchants in the city. Some Armenian merchants have branches in Aleppo, which is one of Ourfa's most important trading partners. [34]

The villages around Ourfa are the most important sources of raw material for the city's merchants. They are, for example, where merchants acquire cereals (wheat and barley) and sesame, wool, animal fat, licorice (liquorice), raisins, chickpeas, and leather, which constitute Ourfa's chief exports. It's tradition that when a supplier from a village arrives in Ourfa to sell goods, the Ourfa merchant escorts the supplier to his home, where the supplier is received as a guest and often stays overnight. This protocol is prevalent among the Armenian merchants. They have thus established de facto partnerships with Turkish, Kurdish, and Armenian villagers. When necessary, the Armenian merchant provides capital, sheep, draft animals, and seed for planting. In short, such assistance forms a part of the merchant's operating activities. [35]

1) American missionary Corinna Shattuck (center, while writing) disbursing wages to Armenian women and girls working for the needlework workshop. She established the workshop with the goal of providing a source of income for Armenian women and girls widowed or orphaned as a consequence of the 1895 massacres (Source: Michel Paboudjian collection, Paris)
2) The carpentry workshop of the German mission. In the center (first row, at the right of the table), Krikor Tashdjian (Source: Michel Paboudjian collection, Paris)

The following are among Ourfa's eminent Armenian merchants:

Brothers Nshan and Aghadjan Der Bedrosian: They import goods made of fine cloth, silk cloth, woolen cloth, and fabric (manifatura); they export wool, animal fat, sheep, sesame, cereals, and hides.

Brothers Garabed and Hovhannes Imirzian: They import woven-fabric goods, and they export wool, sheep, animal fat, and sesame.

Brothers Mgrdich, Hovagim, and Nazaret Chalian: They import woven-fabric goods, and they export animal fat, sheep, wool, and cereals.

Nazaret and Hagop Kiulahian: They import goods of fine cloth, silk cloth, and woolen cloth; they export wool, sheep, sesame, and animal fat.

The Haladjian brothers: They import fine-cloth goods.

Khacher Beredjiklian: He imports yarn, copper, tin, and textiles.

Markar Beredjiklian: He imports glassware and timber.

Haroutiun Kekligian: He imports woven-cloth goods and leather goods.

Brothers Tavit and Hovhannes Melkonian: They import woven-cloth goods.

Toros Ketendjian: He imports fine-cloth goods and exports sheep, cereals, and animal fat.

Brothers Garabed and Mgrdich Karakashian: They import yarn and woven-cloth goods; they export cereals and wool.

Nazaret Shamlian and brothers: They import woven-cloth goods.

Haroutiun Cherkezian: He imports coffee, sugar, soap, and spices.

Hovhannes Karakashian: He engages in the buying and selling of items made of gold (including jewelry).

Nerses Karakashian: He is a gold/jewelry merchant.

The Shishoyian brothers: They export sheep and sheepskin.

Hovhannes Djanoyian: He exports wool and animal fat.

Kevork Momdjian and Haroutiun Yaghdjian: They export hides and animal fat.

Garabed Yaghdjian: He imports iron goods.

Dikran Tiufenkdjian: He imports leather goods.

The Marashlian brothers: They export linen and printed fabric (basma).

Garabed Proudian: He imports yarn and tin; he exports animal fat and sesame.

Hovhannes Taptapian: He imports iron and copper.

Habib Dabbaghian: He imports iron, paint, and copper.

Hovhannes Kiledjian and Hagop Tatarian: They engage in fine-cloth commerce.

Yezegel Oundjian: He imports fine-cloth goods.

The brothers Toros and Mgrdich Touloughian: They engage in woven-cloth and cereals commerce.

Mgrdich Gendj Vanesian: He imports woven-cloth goods.

Kevork Keoseian: He imports woven-cloth goods.

Agheksantr Kaghtatsian: He's a merchant of woven-cloth goods.

Boghos Arzouhaldjian: He's a merchant of woven-cloth goods.

Basma worker (fabric printer) Arakel Misirian at work (Source: Aram Sahagian, Heroic Ourfa and Her Armenian Offspring, Beirut, 1955)

The clothing merchants are Mgrdich Beredjiklian, Hagop Tatarian, Hovhannes Knadjian, Apraham Kalemkerian, and Hagop Spendjian (their stores are adjacent to the Holy Mother of God [Sourp Asdvadzadzin] church); Garabed Bakkalian (his store is near the Holy Mother of God church); Krikor Biulbiulian (his store is on the Buchakdji Meydan [Bıçakçı Meydanı, "Knife-Seller Square"]); Boghos Djerahian (his store is in the quarter that contains the Buckakdji Meydan); Hagop Sanosian (his store is in the same quarter as the Masmana [the German-run carpet factory]); Hagop Chengeian (his store is on Chengents' street).

The importers of European goods for domestic use are Nazaret Shahinian, Sarkis Kazandjian, Taniel Attarian, Maghak Attarian, Avedis Moughalian, Garabed Yergaynian, Haroutiun Kiledjian, Matos Matosian, and Sarkis Tashdjian. [36]

Among non-Armenian merchants are Habib Dabbagh, who imports iron goods and exports animal intestines; Davoud Deyan, who exports wool and sesame; the Sabbagh brothers and Shama brothers, who also export wool and sesame; the Hindiye brothers, who import yarn and export wool; Nebozade Hadji Imam Efendi, who imports soap and sugar, and exports animal fat and sesame; Hadji Karalok, who exports animal fat; Mkhayel Abadji, who exports wool and sesame; Hadji Jiuma Zade Efendi, who exports animal fat and sesame; Hadji Omer Kasab Efendi, who imports soap, sugar, and coffee; Hadji Hamza Tutundji Efendi, who imports woven-cloth goods; and Rustem Nebegli, who imports gasoline/petrol. [37]

A group photo of Armenian notables in Ourfa (Source: Der Christliche Orient, Mai 1904, Verlag der Deutschen Orient-Mission, Berlin)

  • [1] Aram Sahagian, Heroic Ourfa and Her Armenian Offspring, Beirut: Ourfa Compatriotic Union, 1955. 601-602.
  • [2] Ibid., 666.
  • [3] Ibid., 602-603.
  • [4] Ibid., 603.
  • [5] Ibid., 461-464, 497, 603-604.
  • [6] Ibid., 604.
  • [7] Ibid., 464-465, 853; Wadie Jwaideh, Kurdish National Movement: Its Origins and Development, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, New York, 2006. 136.
  • [8] Sahagian, Heroic Ourfa and Her Armenian Offspring, 604.
  • [9] Ibid., 605-606.
  • [10] Ibid., 739.
  • [11] Ibid., 193, 198, 201, 218, 227.
  • [12] Ibid., 252-253.
  • [13] Ibid., 495, 606.
  • [14] Ibid., 606-607.
  • [15] Ibid., 607.
  • [16] Ibid., 499-503, 607.
  • [17] Piuragn, Volume 25, Series 2, Issue 9-10: 239. January 27, 1907, Constantinople.
  • [18] Sahagian, Heroic Ourfa and Her Armenian Offspring, 459, 607.
  • [19] Ibid., 451, 455-461.
  • [20] Piuragn, Volume 25, Series 2, Issue 9-10: 239. January 27, 1907, Constantinople.
  • [21] Sahagian, Heroic Ourfa and Her Armenian Offspring, 607.
  • [22] Ibid., 607, 992-994.
  • [23] Ibid., 667.
  • [24] Ibid., 608-609.
  • [25] Ibid., 668.
  • [26] Ibid., 609.
  • [27] Ibid.
  • [28] Ibid.
  • [29] Ibid., 610.
  • [30] Ibid., 609.
  • [31] Ibid., 610.
  • [32] Ibid., 732.
  • [33] Ibid., 738.
  • [34] Ibid., 610. Also, Piuragn, Volume 26, Series 3, Issue 28: 888. July 5, 1908, Constantinople.
  • [35] Sahagian, Heroic Ourfa and Her Armenian Offspring, 729. Also, Piuragn, Volume 26, Series 3, Issue 23: 730. May 31, 1908, Constantinople.
  • [36] Sahagian, Heroic Ourfa and Her Armenian Offspring, 729-732. Also, Piuragn, Volume 26, Series 3, Issue 28: 888-889. July 5, 1908, Constantinople.
  • [37] Piuragn, Volume 26, Series 3, Issue 28: 888-889. July 5, 1908, Constantinople.