Ajemian genealogy wheels for Hazari

The Armenians of Hazari: Recreating the Demographic History

Author: George Aghjayan, 10/08/17 (Last modified: 10/08/17)

The village of Hazari (today known as Anıl) lies to the north of the town of Chmshgadzak (now called Çemişgezek). Adminstrative borders changed frequently, but Chmshgadzak was most often associated with the Dersim region that was attached to the Mamuret ul-aziz [Harput/Kharpert] province during the last century of the Ottoman Empire. Hazari was entirely Armenian before the genocide begun in 1915. (1) At its peak, Hazari contained as many as 500 Armenians in 70 households. The village had a functioning church, Surp Yerrortoutiun (Holy Trinity), and school. On the eve of the genocide, the population had already declined to under 400. (2) Since 1923, the population of Hazari has never fully recovered from the loss of the Armenians. The 2000 census of the Republic of Turkey stated the population of Hazari was only 85 people (42 males and 43 females). (3)

Ajemian genealogy wheels for Hazari. Click on the image to see a bigger version.

Sources

After the genocide, Hovhannes Ajemian compiled a significant amount of material on the Armenian villages of Chmshgadzak. While some portions were referenced in two books on the Chmshgadzak region, most of Ajemian’s work remains unpublished. (4) Included with the Ajemian material were a number of genealogy wheels, a way of presenting the family trees beginning with the oldest known ancestor and fanning out for descendants. As more of the genealogy wheels come to light, it is clear many still remain in private hands.

Recently, Vazken Andréassian, grandson of the author of a series of books on Hazari, shared six genealogy wheels detailing the origins of 21 surnames associated with the village. (5) The information contained in the family trees is very detailed and in most cases dates to prior to 1800. I have compared the information in the wheels with an Ottoman census undertaken in 1840. (6) The comparison offers an important glimpse into the strengths and weaknesses of each source.

Ajemian genealogy wheels for Hazari

Beginning around 1830, a renewed effort by the government of the Ottoman Empire at registering the population was begun with the goal of taxation of non-Muslims and military conscription for Muslims. As such, only men were enumerated. It was only much later that women were included. A full treatment of the Ottoman registration system is outside the scope of this article. (7) Only one non-Muslim register from 1840 for the region of Chmshgadzak is available in the Ottoman archives. While later registers surely exist, particularly one recorded around 1906, researchers are not currently allowed access to this most crucial census.

In addition to the genealogy wheels and 1840 Ottoman census, I have culled relevant data from the records of those who migrated to the United States. Of particular note is that a great many of the men from Hazari traveled to Lawrence, Massachusetts. The tenement houses at 230 and 280 Common Street served as the initial home for these men. Nine men from Hazari arrived in the United States on the same ship, the SS La Bretagne on 11 Jan 1909. While not exhaustive, the U.S. records are useful in adding context to the overall trees.

There were three primary resources used for the United States records. First, Mark Arslan’s Armenian Immigration Project website was an indispensible tool. (8) Arslan has gathered information on Armenians from ship manifests, census records, military records, etc. Of particular value is his combined query of the entire database by standardized surname. In addition, ancestry.com and familysearch.org were utilized to access source records.

Images from the 1840 Ottoman census

Methodology

The 1840 Ottoman census was recorded in Ottoman Turkish. Thus, a thorough translation of the records was required. (9) The surname convention varied greatly by village in the Ottoman system. Most often, the household identification used in 1840 was not the same as the surname of the family post-genocide. Especially in small villages, like Hazari, the head of household was simply identified by the name of the father.

Some families retained the patronymic surnames. For example, it was easy to identify the Nersesian family as the census only included one man named Nerses. However, additional matching names were required to gain comfort that the household did, in fact, contain the presumed family. The household containing the priest’s family assisted in identifying an additional match.

For other households, I had to rely completely on the matching of men’s names with the genealogy wheel. The accuracy of oral tradition lessens with the passage of time. Thus, there was a certain subjective threshold that I required to attain confidence in the matching of 28 census households with 21 genealogy wheel families.

With some level of confidence, I identified 14 of the 21 genealogy wheel families in 15 households of the Ottoman census. Possible connections are offered for an additional 3 families with much less confidence. This left 4 families and 10 households unidentified. Two of the families, Der Pilibosian and Der Mateosian, are stated to have left the village, but a year of emigration was not given to know whether it was prior to 1840 or not. I speculate on a couple of others, but some questions are just not solvable.

The unidentified households from the census could be additional families that emigrated from the village. It could also be that their male lines died out prior to the oral tradition that formed the basis of the genealogy wheels. Without more current Ottoman census records, especially those that include women, it is impossible to determine.

A similar methodology was utilized for United States records. Since many names are common, additional confirmation was required prior to accepting the record as related to Hazari. Of course, if Hazari was stated as the place of birth, that was accepted. In addition, the ship manifest on arrival was a key source as often they include the closest relative remaining in the place of origin as well as the name and relationship of those they were joining in the U.S. Family relations, living at the same address, etc. increased the confidence level. The wife or parent remaining in Hazari or the brother they were joining in the United States served as additional important validating points. While most of the men traveled to Lawrence, Massachusetts, that was not absolute. For instance, some traveled to New York and Connecticut.

Because of the various ways Armenian names and surnames can be transliterated into English, wildcard searches were often employed. For example, the suffix “*an” was used in searches in order to return surnames ending in “ian”, “ean” or “yan.”

More complex searching was also used, for instance limits based solely on a range of years of birth and immigration year might be used to locate a ship manifest. However, even the best of efforts would sometimes not yield any results. The gaps were not significant and do not compromise the extensive amount of information. I was able to identify 137 men from Hazari in over 500 records from the U.S.

Ajemian genealogy wheels for Hazari

Armenian Surnames

The origin of Armenian surnames fall into certain categories. The most common by far are patronymic surnames – those rooted in male first names, such as Garabedian, Melkonian, Kevorkian, etc. Other surnames are based on occupation, most often using the Ottoman Turkish word. Examples of this include, Demirjian (blacksmith), Najarian (carpenter), Kazanjian (cauldron maker), Berberian (barber), etc. Some surnames are based on the town of origin for those that had migrated – Palutsian, Marashlian, etc. The “ts” suffix being Armenian while the “li” suffix is Turkish. Still other surnames were descriptive of a physical trait, for instance Topalian (lame) and Altiparmakian (six fingers).

Armenian surnames are rarely perpetuated from ancient noble families. Though some do exist, for example, Suni and Artzruni. In some cases the origin may in fact be patronymic. For example, Mamigonian is not necessarily linked to nobility.

When working with the various records, it becomes obvious that the popularization of Armenian surnames was a recent phenomena. Surnames are simply a way of more specifically referencing a particular person. The need arises in business and particularly in dealings with the government. Thus, the Ottoman registration system begun in 1830 most likely served as the impetus for Armenian surnames. Which Hagop? Hagop the son of the priest (Keshishian) or Hagop the son of Bedros (Bedros) or lame Hagop (Topalian) or Hagop from Palu (Palutsian). As such, surnames could and did change frequently. The son of Hagop Bedrosian becomes Hagopian and so on. As households grew and divided, the descendants of different sons might go by different surnames. For instance, Hagop has two sons, Kevork and Bedros. The descendants of Kevork might go by Kevorkian or Hagopian. Similarly, the descendants of Bedros might go by Bedrosian or Hagopian. Larger cities would be earliest to adopt more nuanced surnames.

Surnames continued to change, sometimes even after the genocide. As can be imagined, this complicates research and the ability to conclusively identify individuals.

Images from the 1840 Ottoman census

1840 Ottoman census

The 1840 Ottoman census for Hazari details 129 Armenian men in 28 households. Information on tax classification, height, facial hair, occupation and age were included.  While the sample size is small, some interesting details can be observed.

The following table contains the number of males in 5-year age groupings:

The small sample size and lack of secondary source make it difficult to draw any conclusions from the data. There are most assuredly misstatements of age as occurs in all censuses, particularly when age is recorded as opposed to year of birth. In addition, age heaping is often found in census data. For instance, there can be tendencies to state ages rounded to the nearest quinquennial age or to have heaping at ages just below the age of taxation or military service.

There were 90 males in the census whose fathers were also listed. This allowed for an analysis of the age of the father when the son was born. The data is incomplete as females and children that have died or left the village were missing. Nonetheless, it is worth noting that the average age of the father was 27 when the sons were born (i.e. average years per generation). The youngest age recorded for the father upon the birth of a son was 15 and the oldest 53. Again, these are noted while still understanding the limitations of age data and the small sample size.

The average years per generation increased to 30 years when including data from the United States. A combination of reasons can be offered for the increase. First, the eldest son would inherit the responsibilities for the household and, thus, the youngest sons would have been more likely to travel to the United States. Second, the U.S. records include those born after the extended rupture caused by the genocide. Third, throughout the 19th century, the average age when having children could have increased along with life expectancies. Lastly, it might simply be attributed to the small sample size.

Any boy age 11 and over was taxed. There were three tax classifications (high, middle and low). In Hazari, 8 men were classified as high income, 79 as middle income and 4 as low income. Those classified as low income were the youngest, ages 11 or 12, although some 12-year old boys were classified as middle income.

Of those where height was mentioned, nearly 60% were classified as tall. This was extremely unusual. Only two men were classified as short. Some were classified as simply youth. Occasionally, records from the United States would include height. Based on a sampling of these records and assuming descendants generally grew to a similar height, it would seem that approximately over 5’8” was deemed tall and below 5’3” was short.

Facial hair was supplied for those over the age of 20. Those 25 years old and younger were often just described as beardless or with a beginning mustache. The following table breaks down the number of men by type and color of facial hair.

14 auburn mustache
9 beginning mustache
1 auburn beard
7 beardless
10 black mustache
5 gray beard
13 blond mustache
2 white beard
5 gray mustache
 

There was one priest in the village. All other men were classified as farmers, farmhands, or shepherds.

Over 30% of the recorded males had left for Istanbul for work. This was a common practice throughout the 19th and early 20th century. While many traveled as bachelors, most often it was recently married men, those with newborns or those with pregnant wives to ensure they would return to the village. They ranged in age from 15 to 57 years old with an average age of 30. On average, they had been gone 4 years. Thus, for those where the year was recorded, their average age had been approximately 26 when leaving for Istanbul. By comparison, of the 84 ship manifests I found for arrival in the U.S. prior to 1915, the average age of the Hazari men was 24.

Thus, it can be seen how the immigration to the U.S. was a continuation of a practice already in place for nearly 100 years, if not longer. The 1840 census records show Adana and Istanbul as the primary destinations for work for the men of Chmshgadzak. The U.S. would replace Adana and Istanbul for a great many men beginning in the late 19th century. As some men never returned from Adana and Istanbul, so to men stayed in America.

Family Trees

For the representation of the family trees, the initial number in brackets is a unique identifier for each person. The second number represents the generation in the family. To follow the line of ascent, follow the next lowest number generation above the person. I have included a graphical representation of the family tree to aid in visualizing the family relationships. Capitalized names are those who appear in the genealogy wheel. If a year of birth prior to 1840 is given, the person is listed in the 1840 Ottoman census. Any descriptive data is also from the census. There were cases in the genealogy wheel where multiple sons carried the same name. This was assumed to be when a son was named for a previously deceased brother. While certainly there is value in naming each duplicate son, for this purpose I have only listed the name once.

Yarumian/Antreasian/Gosdanian Wheel

The first wheel includes, appropriately, the Antreasian family, the family so closely associated with Hazari. In fact, three separate surnames (Yarumian, Antreasian, and Gosdanian) have origins in this one family according to the genealogy wheel. Based on the ages in the Ottoman census, we can speculate that the ancestor of this extensive clan, [#001] Sdepan, lived in the early 1700’s.

Click HERE to see the Yarumian/Antreasian/Gosdanian Wheel.

Naturalization papers for [#107] Mgrdich Yarumian

Antreasian Branch

Click HERE to see the Antreasian branch.


Surprisingly, the source of the surname, Antreasian, cannot be determined from the data (i.e. there is no person with the name Antreas). The Ottoman census detailed 10 men across 4 generations.  One child in the census, [#043] Khachadour, was not found in the genealogy wheel. Presumably, he died in infancy and maybe was not known to future generations. Another equally likely possibility is that the father of Khachadour was misidentified as Hagop when it should have been Ghougas, thus he would be the same person as [#056].

The branch under [#071] Garabed cannot be readily identified in the census. Household #21, headed by a Garabed born in 1799 and having a son Manoug born in 1828, is a reasonable possibility. However, that is where the similarities end. Thus, I have left the link as inconclusive.

Based on the years of birth for [#005] Bedros and [#013] Armenag, it would seem that [#006] Baghdasar must have been alive in 1840. Yet he is not listed in the Ottoman census.

[#021] Hovhannes is listed as Ovagoum (variant of Hovagim) in the genealogy tree. In addition, the father of [#004] Ghazaros is given as Ghougas in the census while Hagop in the genealogy wheel. As Ghazaros named two of his sons Hagop and Ghougas, it is difficult to say which name is appropriate for his father. Another possibility is that the father’s name was Hagop but that the family was known as Ghougasian from an earlier time.

On 9 Dec 1913 Mgrdich Antreasian arrived in the United States on the SS Rochambeau. It was stated he was joining his brother, Shmavon. I have assumed that [#051] Shmavon had lived in the United States from at least 1914 through 1925. Lacking a ship manifest for Shmavon, I have relied solely on his having lived with the other Antreasian’s from Hazari at 230 Common Street, Lawrence, Massachusetts. Yet, the genealogy wheel did not indicate Shmavon had a brother. [#049] Mgrdich arrived in 1919 based on the ship manifest stating he was joining his brother Levon at 230 Common Street. In addition, the middle initial “B” would seem to confirm Mgrdich’s father was [#046] Boghos. However, in 1922 Shmavon was living with Mgrdich B at 146 Maple Street, Lawrence. Adding to the confusion, there were three Mgrdich Antreasian’s listed in the 1924 Lawrence city directory and none of them were listed after 1925. While I have only listed [#049] Mgrdich in the family tree above, it is quite possible, even likely, that Shmavon had a brother Mgrdich that was missing from the genealogy wheel.

Already, the strengths and weaknesses of each source become apparent. The 1840 census is the only official Ottoman source available to researchers. As noted, more useful censuses taken after 1840 are inaccessible. The census supplies detail about individuals not found elsewhere. While suffering all the usual issues around age, still it supplies a valuable reference for the men recorded. In this case, the genealogy wheel covers a 200-year period enhancing the limitations of the census. Differences in names and relationships are not always resolvable, but clearly the two sources are complimentary and should be used together.

Of the 81 Antreasian men listed above, the estimated year of birth was determined for 32 of them. In analyzing the data from Unites States records, the average length of a generation was 29 years. The minimum length was 21.5 years ([#013] Armenag and his great-great-grandfather Bedros) while the longest was 41 ([#061] Ardavazt and his father Vahan). All of the results seem reasonable and, thus, the sources are generally in agreement. Interestingly, Vazken Andreassian assumed 25 years for each generation in estimating the years of birth in his family tree.

Declaration of intention for [#091] Karekin Gostanian

Gosdanian Branch

The Gosdanian family was another branch from [#003] Ghougas/Hagop. Already living in separate households in the census, the brother of [#004] Ghazaros was identified as Pilibos whereas the genealogy wheel stated his name as Krikor. Once again, based on the continuing tradition of naming boys after their grandfathers, it cannot be determined with certainty which name is correct. [#083] Gostantin would appear to be the source for the surname. This is an example of what has been discussed in regards to surnames. The Ottoman census identifies the household as Pilo oghlou, son of Pilibos. Yet the descendants took the name of Gosdanian for the patriarch of the clan in 1840. Here is the Gosdanian family tree as presented in both the census and genealogy wheel.

Click HERE to see the Gosdanian branch.

It cannot be determined whether [#084] Hagop from the genealogy wheel is the same as [#085] Krikor from the census. Otherwise, the sources are in agreement.

According to the available records, [#086] Minas was 52 years old when his son, Hovhannes, was born. That skews the average length of a generation (35 years) higher for the Gosdanian clan. Even excluding Hovhannes, the average was almost 32 years.

Yarumian Branch

One generation prior to the separation into the Antreasian and Gosdanian families, the Yarumian family was formed from Mardiros, son of [#002] Manoug. The origins of the Yarumian surname are unclear. Andreasian offers Heybetgants (meaning majestic) as an alternate name. (38) Presumably, the surname reflects someone having the name Yarum or a corruption of a similar variant. But Yarum does not appear in the genealogy wheel. Another possible explanation is that yarım means half in Turkish, though how that would lead to a surname is unknown. (39)

Click HERE to see the Yarumian branch.

The family should have been included in the 1840 census of Hazari. [#098] Bedros and his sons presumably were alive in 1840. However, the Yarumian branch cannot be clearly identified in the Ottoman census. There are a number of possibilities (household 12 in particular), but the discrepancies are too numerous to be conclusive. (48)

The genealogy wheel indicates [#119] Sdepan moved to Bulgaria in 1850. [#108] Herant/Khachadour apparently went by both names. The genealogy wheel lists both names. He entered the U.S. under the name Khachadour but used Herant (Harold) the remainder of his life.

Parounagian/Bekerian/Soghigian Wheel

The next genealogy wheel details the common origin of three families, the Parounagian, Bekerian and Soghigian clans. Each clan was headed by a son of [#120] Bedros, the patriarch. Based on the ages of those contained in the Ottoman census, most likely Bedros was born in the mid-1700’s.

Click HERE to see the Parounagian/Bekerian/Soghigian branch.

Parounagian branch

Click HERE to see the Parounagian branch.

The Ottoman census stated the head of household as Nazar instead of [#121] Parounag. In addition, Nazar’s father was stated to be Hovhannes instead of [#120] Bedros. I have no explanation for these discrepancies other than that the men were known by various names. As the family came to be known as Parounagian, Parounag would seem to be fairly well verified. In addition, as we shall see from the other sons of Bedros, that also is at least corroborated. The three sons of [#121] Parounag are consistently named in the genealogy wheel and census and this was how I identified the family.

Similar to the other trees, the years per generation was 31 years when utilizing records from the United States. The longest generational gaps occurred with those born after the genocide.

Declaration of intention for [#153] Bedros Bekerian

Bekerian Branch

Click HERE to see the Bekerian branch.

In this case, the census confirms the name of the patriarch as [#120] Bedros. At the time of the census, the sons of Bedros had already split into their respective households. The Bekerian surname is associated with being single or a bachelor. In this particular case, I am not sure how the surname came to be associated with this branch of the family. The household map contained in Antreasian’s book seems to list the Bekerian clan under the name Depoian. As Depo is an alternate form of Sdepan, it would seem that the family was also known in the village by this surname.

In the census, the son of [#149] Nigoghos is given as Mardiros whereas in the genealogy wheel the name is given as Sdepan. While not conclusive, the recurrence of Mardiros in the family could indicate it is the correct name. Possibly the most probable explanation is that Sdepan was another son of [#149] Nigoghos that never married. Maybe upon the death of his brother Mardiros, Sdepan adopted his son Giragos. Thus, both the Bekerian and Depoian surnames would be applicable and Mardiros and Sdepan should be listed as brothers as opposed to the same person.

[#153] Bedros appears to have been the only member of the family to survive the genocide. Sixty-six years separated the birth of Bedros from the birth of his grandfather, Giragos, a reasonable 33 years per generation. Bedros and his wife, Aghavni, did not have any sons. Thus, it would appear the Bekerian surname from Hazari has died out.

Petition for citizenship for [#169] Dikran Soghigian

Soghigian Branch

Click HERE to see the Soghigian branch.

Clearly, the Soghigian branch obtained its name from [#156] Soghomon. The census identified him as Soghig as well. His father was identified in the census as [#155] Abdal, yet the genealogy wheel identified his name as Hovhannes. Again, we see grandsons carry both the name Hovhannes and Abdal. Thus, it is difficult to say which name is accurate or if both names are applicable. Abdal or Abdal Mesih (servant of the messiah or servant of Christ) is the name of a Syrian saint that is also venerated by the Armenian church. Based on the known years of birth, it would seem likely that [#155] Abdal was the oldest of the three sons of [#120] Bedros.

Soghomon’s son, [#198] Hovagim, was not listed in the 1840 census and, thus, may not have yet been born. It appears he died without leaving any surviving male offspring. Soghomon’s other four sons are consistently named in the census and genealogy wheel.

The United States records are mostly consistent with the Ottoman census dates of birth. The greatest generation gap was between [#195] Haroutiun and his son, [#196] Arshag. Thus, it could be that Arshag was born earlier than 1885 as implied by the 1920 census. Overall, the average number of years per generation was a reasonable 31.

The descendents of [#188] Bedros went by the surname Bedrosian as opposed to Soghigian.

Atamian/Klshian/Kalousdian/Der Pilibosian/Papazian/Der Mateosian Wheel

This extensive tree begins with, presumably, two brothers, Simon and what looks to be Margos. (78) There are some significant discrepancies between the genealogy wheel and the Ottoman census. The family tree presented below represents my interpretation of the available information. Unfortunately, some portions of the family cannot be clearly identified in the census, thus limiting what can be determined conclusively. From the available dates of birth, it can be presumed that Simon and Margos lived in the early to mid-1700’s.

Click HERE to see the Atamian/Klshian/Kalousdian/Der Pilibosian/Papazian/Der Mateosian Wheel.

Atamian/Klshian Branch

Click HERE to see the  Atamian/Klshian Branch.

The Klshian branch of the family begins with [#226] Mikayel. The rest of the family is shown as Atamian. The genealogy wheel deviates from the census almost immediately. The father of [#201] Toros was alive at the time of the census and named Minas whereas the genealogy wheel lists his name as Ghougas. Similarly, the father of [#226] Mikayel, [#229] Simon and [#239] Boghos was alive at the time of the census and his name was given as Hagop whereas the genealogy wheel lists his name as Ghazar. In addition, Hagop’s father was given as Boghos in the census. According to the wheel, Hagop and Toros should have been brothers, but instead it appears their fathers were brothers.

The next significant discrepancy is that [#208] Ghougas, [#217] Avedis and [#220] Khachadour were not [#201] Toros’ sons but instead his brothers according to the census. Ghougas was 20 years younger and Avedis 24 years younger than Toros. Once [#200] Minas had passed away, it could be that Toros became essentially the father figure for his brothers and the relationship was remembered that way in oral tradition. At the time of the census, Khachadour had already passed away. Clearly, there are other possible explanations including the census being in error.

It is interesting to note that already in 1840 the family had split into two households. The family of [#200] Minas/Ghougas formed one household and the other contained the descendants of his brother, [#224] Boghos.

[#228] Garabed is known to have had a son, Aram, born in Massachusetts on 22 Jun 1927. It is unclear why he was not shown on the genealogy wheel. It is possible that [#238] Aram from the genealogy wheel really should have been listed as Garabed’s son instead of Khosrov’s son. The 1920 census as well as the Massachusetts birth index indicate Khosrov’s son as Hagop. He would later be known as Raymond H. Atamian.

Once again, the United States records are consistent with the Ottoman census records. The average years per generation was 32 years. The longest gap was between [#212] Ghougas and his father, Bedros (51 years).

Kalousdian Branch

Click HERE to see the Kalousdian branch.

I have not been able to conclusively identify the Kalousdian branch in the 1840 Ottoman census. It seems highly likely to be household #19, although numerous differences exist. As a result, it is difficult to say much about the information presented in the genealogy wheel. Based on the known ages of others in the wheel, both [#240] Garabed and [#241] Kalousd could have already passed away by the time of the 1840 census. In addition, [#243] Garabed may not have yet been born. At the very least though, [#242] Simon should have been recorded in the census. So, if it is not household #19, either this family was excluded from the census in error or they avoided it so as not to incur tax debt. Another possibility is that the census takers missed the Kalousdian men because they were working outside the village.

While both Minas and Yeranos lived in the United States, I could not find any records for their sons, Simon and Kalousd. In the case of Minas, his wife Altoun joined him in 1922, but her ship manifest makes no mention of Kalousd. The genealogy wheel indicates this male line died out and it can be presumed that Kalousd was killed during the genocide.

Der Pilibosian branch

Click HERE to see the Pilibosian branch.

As stated above, [#251] Margos was the brother of  [#199] Khachadour/Simon. The three sons of Der Mikayel each formed their own household and followed their father into the priesthood. The Der Pilibosian branch was the smallest of the three. The genealogy wheel indicates they had moved to Bulgaria. It is unclear at what point this occurred. While most likely it was at the end of the 19th or beginning of the 20th century, it could have been prior to the 1840 census. I have not been able to identify the Der Pilibosian family in the census and if not in Bulguria yet, possibly Der Pilibos was serving another community at the time.

Papazian branch

Click HERE to see the Papazian branch.

Including Der Mikayel, the Papazian branch contained 4 generations of priests, thus more than justifying the surname. The Ottoman census listed only one priest in Hazari and it was Der Hagop, apparently his son not yet having been ordained in 1840. Der Mikayel is presumed to have passed away prior to 1840. Thus, it is likely his sons had already divided into separate households, which is born out by the census.

In addition, the Ottoman census data implies that the brothers, [#251] Margos and [#199] Khachadour/Simon, were born prior to 1750. The records from the United States are consistent, the average years per generation was 26.5.

Der Mateosian branch

Click HERE to see the Mateosian branch.

The genealogy wheel notes that the Der Mateosian family had moved to the neighboring village of Sisna [now called Varlıkonak], approximately 3 miles to the southwest of Hazari. The Ajemian material on Sisna confirms this. Thus, the move to Sisna may have occurred prior to the recording of the 1840 census. However, I also did not find the family in the census for Sisna.

Khanbegian Wheel

Click HERE to see the  Khanbegian wheel.

Khanbegian branch

The Khanbegian family was extensive. In the 1840 census, there were two separate households, one headed by [#274] Bedros and the other by his oldest son, [#275] Movses. The census indicated Bedros’ father was named Sarkis while the genealogy wheel states Mardiros. Other than that, the census and genealogy wheel are in agreement. Considering [#274] Bedros was born in 1768, his father, the patriarch of this clan, was most probably born prior to 1750. Though the 10-year span between the births of Movses and Bedros is unlikely, thus Bedros could have been born even earlier.

There are questions regarding the portion of the genealogy wheel relating to [#316] Avak. On 18 Jan 1921, the SS Belvedere arrived in New York city with two passengers, Mariam and Boghos Khanbegian, joining Avak. The ship manifest indicated that Mariam was Avak’s daughter-in-law and Boghos was his grandson. The genealogy wheel stated Avak had no male offspring. Avak’s wife was named Mariam and from 1921 through 1927, she was listed as living with him in Lawrence, Massachusetts. It seems likely that the Mariam on the SS Belvedere was Avak’s wife instead of daughter-in-law. The unanswered question then becomes who was Boghos?

The number of years per generation was 33 based on those who immigrated to the United States.

Verdanian/Chngrian/Nersesian/Amirkhanian Wheel

These four families originate from [#332] Mardiros and his two sons, Khachadour and Manoug. Based on the available information, Mardiros must have lived during the first half of the 18th century.

Click HERE to see the Verdanian/Chngrian/Nersesian/Amirkhanian wheel.

Verdanian branch

Click HERE to see the Verdanian branch.

There are a number of discrepancies in names, but enough agreement to confirm the Verdanian household in the 1840 Ottoman census. The two sons of [#334] Krikor were living in the same household. In the census, the sons are listed as Mardiros and Ghazar but on the genealogy wheel they are listed as Hovhannes and Babo. The genealogy wheel lists Mardiros as one of the sons of Hovhannes. The tree above adheres to the census, although other interpretations are equally likely. Thus, [#340] Mardiros, not Hovhannes, is presented as the son of Krikor.

[#335] Ghazar was shown to have a son named Ohan in the census. The genealogy wheel does not include Ohan. I have presented Ohan as a fourth son that might have passed away as a child, but it could also be that Ohan was the name of one of the other sons. The genealogy wheel indicates the descendants of [#335] Ghazar/Babo moved to Bulgaria in 1878.

The census also included a son named Avak to [#340] Mardiros which I have assumed was the same person as [#344] Hovagim from the genealogy wheel.

The records of the United States indicate that the number of years per generation was high (34) for this family, though the sample size is very small and the results skewed by [#353] Ghazaros (56 years) and [#359] Serop (47 years).

Descendents of [#358] Movses went by Movsesian.

Chngrian branch

Click HERE to see the Chngrian branch.

According to the genealogy wheel, the Chngrian branch originates from a son of [#333] Khachadour. The name of the son appears to be Serop. However, in the Ottoman census the head of the household was [#366] Khachadour, son of Krikor. Also living in the house was his paternal uncle, [#364] Hovhannes, son of Mgrdich. Problematically, [#333] Khachadour had a son [#334] Krikor that was the head of the Verdanian branch, as already noted above. Thus, it is extremely unlikely that he would have another son Krikor. In addition, if Hovhannes was a paternal uncle of [#366] Khachadour, then Mgrdich would be a brother of [#333] Khachadour. Mgrdich is not mentioned in the genealogy wheel. While speculative, I have presented Krikor and Serop as the same person while listing Mgrdich as a brother.

The remainder of the tree is consistent between the genealogy wheel and Ottoman census. In addition, the number of years per generation from U.S. records was a reasonable 30.

Nersesian branch

Click HERE to see the Nersesian branch.

The genealogy wheel and 1840 Ottoman census are in agreement for the Nersesian clan. This branch descends from [#391] Sahag, another son of [#333] Khachadour. While Sahag was not alive in the 1840 Ottoman census, his son Nerses (presumably the source for the surname) was listed as 57 years old.

The average years per generation based on the United States records was high at 37 years. One possible explanation is that the year of birth for [#393] Manoug in the Ottoman census should have been later than 1814.

Ship manifest for SS La Bretagne sailing from Le Havre on 5 Jan 1909 arriving New York City 11 Jan 1909

Amirkhanian branch

Click HERE to see the Amirkhanian branch.

The genealogy wheel and Ottoman census are almost in complete agreement. The genealogy wheel indicated there were two sons of [#415] Garabed named Haroutiun and Mateos. However, the 1840 Ottoman census implies only one son named Krikor. I have retained the genealogy wheel’s treatment of [#450] Baghdasar as a son of Haroutiun. I have also assumed that Krikor from the census is the same as Mateos from the genealogy wheel.

The average years per generation based on the United States records was rather high at 36 years.

World War 1 draft registration for [#421] Mardiros Amirkhanian

Tatian/Mihranian/Hovnanian/Tashjian Wheel

These four families originate from [#453] Boghos, his son [#454] Manoug and grandson [#455] Hovsep/Bedros.

Click HERE to see the Tatian/Mihranian/Hovnanian/Tashjian wheel.

Tatian branch

Click HERE to see the Tatian branch.

I was unable to identify with certainty the Tatian family in the Ottoman census. I have included information based on the head of household named Tateos. However, there are differences from the genealogy wheel. The Ottoman census listed Tateos’ father as Nerses where as the genealogy wheel stated the name as Boghos. In addition, Tateos’ son was identified as Giragos in the census while the genealogy wheel stated the name as Garabed.

The year of birth for [#461] Armenag is questionable. If his father Boghos was indeed born around 1875 as U.S. records indicate, then Armenag could not have been born in 1885. Upon arrival to the United States, he stated his age as 21 in 1920 which would make his year of birth a more reasonable 1899. According to the 1940 U.S. census, he was 52 years old, making his year of birth approximately 1888. However, Armenag’s World War II draft registration and death certificate state he was born in 1885. I have shown the year as 1885 although it was likely that either Armenag was born later or his father was born earlier. Including both Boghos and Armenag, the average years per generation was 26 years.

Mihranian branch

Click HERE to see the Mihranian branch.

It is unclear why this branch of the family went by Mihranian as there does not appear to be any ancestor named Mihran. [#473] Avak possibly spent time in the United States prior to 1910, but had returned to Hazari by the time his son, [#474] Vahram, arrived in 1909.

The genealogy wheel stated the father of [#463] Manoug and [#470] Hovhannes was named Sarkis, yet he was alive at the time of the 1840 Ottoman census and his name was given as Hagop. In addition, Hagop’s father was named Hovsep according to the census while the genealogy wheel instead stated Bedros. The sources are in agreement for the remainder of the tree.

[#468] Manoug could well have been born up to a decade earlier as some records indicate. However, I left the year of birth at 1883 per Manoug’s naturalization papers and World War II draft registration. The average years per generation was 34 years.

Ajemian genealogy wheels for Hazari

Hovnanian branch

Click HERE to see the Hovananian branch.

Clearly, [#478] Hovnan is the source of the surname. I could not identify the family in the 1840 Ottoman census. Household #9 is the most likely one, but the differences are too great to be definitive. However, many of the men immigrated to the United States. [#487] Hovhannes had a son named Khazhag that was born in Massachusetts on 16 Jun 1924. It is unclear why he was not included on the genealogy wheel. In addition, on the genealogy wheel [#489] Vram was shown as the son of [#490] Hovnan, yet census records make it clear Vram was the son of [#488] Khachadour. Similarly, the genealogy wheel displays [#493] Haigaz as the son of [#491] Garabed whereas he should be listed as the son of [#492] Marouke. In 1937, Marouke would have another son named Hovsep.

The years of birth are consistent with what is known from the portions of genealogy wheel related to the Mihranian branch.

On 1 February 1919, Avak Kupelian arrived at the port of Seattle Washington on the SS Kashima Maru sailing from Yokohama. Traveling with Avak were his wife, Nazeli, and sons, Markar and Souren. He had been born in 1884 in Chmshgadzak and traveled the long path from there through Russia before arriving in the United States. In the 24 May 1919 issue of the periodical Gotchnag, Avak detailed a list of those from Chmshgadzak that, like him, had passed to Russia following the retreat from Erzurum in 1917. The list of those from Hazari is interesting in the context of the genealogy wheels. For the purpose of this article though, I simple repeat the information as presented.
Heybatian - Mardiros, wife, children, brother, Marta, Antranig
Antreasian - Aghajan, Taniel, Vahan, Satenig, child, Vahan's wife, Aleksan's son
Parounagian - Dikran, child, wife, Brother's wife Marta
Atamian - Adom, child, wife, sister
Soghigian - Partogh, wife, Dikran, wife
Amirkhanian - Hampartsoum, child, wife
Not Stated - Antranig, wife, mother-in-law

Tashjian branch

Click HERE to see the Tashjian branch.

I could not identify the Tashjian household in the Ottoman census nor could I find any records for the family in the United States. The genealogy wheel stated [#497] Haroutiun had moved to Smyrna [Izmir] in 1898.

    • (1)  Even in the 16th century, Hazari was noted to be entirely Armenian with approximately 30 households. Ünal, Mehmet A. Xvi. Yüzyılda Çemişgezek Sancağı. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 1999. Though one source indicates there was the family of a single Kurdish shepherd living in the village in 1915. Gasparean, Hambardzum H. Chʻmshkatsag Ew Ir Giwgherě. Boston: "Paykʻar" Tparan, 1969.
    • (2) For a demographic analysis of the Chmshgadzak region, see part 2 of my article on the Dersim region www.houshamadyan.org/en/mapottomanempire/vilayetofmamuratulazizharput/sandjak-of-dersim/locale/demography-part-ii.html
    • (3) 2000 Genel Nüfus Sayımı: Nüfusun Sosyal Ve Ekonomik Nitelikleri : Il 62 - Tunceli = 2000 Census of Population : Social and Economic Characteristics of Population : Province 62 - Tunceli. Ankara: T.C. Başbakanlık Devlet İstatistik Enstitüsü, 2002.
    • (4) Copies of the Ajemian material can be found at the National Association of Armenian Studies and Research (Belmont, MA) and the Armenian Museum of America (Watertown, MA).
    • (5) Vazgen A. Andreassian, Hazaribadoum [History of Hazar/Anıl], Vol. 1: Beirut, G. Doniguian Press, 1985, 319pp.; Vol. 2: Beirut, G. Doniguian Press, 1984, 304pp.; Vol. 3: Beirut, G. Doniguian Press, 1994, 657pp.
    • (6) Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA) Nüfus Defterleri (NFS.d.), folder 2605, “1256 (1840) Harput eyaleti, Keban Maadin-i Hümayun, (Arapgir) sancağı, Çemişgezek, Sini? nahiyesi, Abad Nahiyesi, Kirnir? nahiyesi, reaya defteri”.
    • (7) Karpat, Kemal H. Ottoman Population, 1830-1914: Demographic and Social Characteristics. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985. Shaw, Stanford J. “The Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Tax Reforms and Revenue System.” International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 6, no. 4, 1975, pp. 421–459.
    • (8) arslanmb.org/ArmenianImmigrants/shiplists.html
    • (9) See Appendix A HERE.
    • (10) Ship manifest SS La Touraine arriving New York on 23 Feb 1908, 1910 U.S. census, 1920 U.S. census, Petition for Naturalization dated 18 Feb 1929, World War II draft registration card and U.S. Social Security death record. The ship manifest confirms Bedros as the father of Armenag and that he was the closest relative remaining in Hazari. Armenag was joining his uncle Adam Atamian at 230 Common St., Lawrence, Massachusetts. He was traveling with his distant cousin [#047] Levon.
    • (11) Ship manifest SS Alice arriving New York on 7 Jan 1910. I could not locate any other record of Baghdasar in the United States although possibly he was a jeweler in New York City in 1911. The closest relative left in Hazari was his brother Bedros. He was stated to be traveling with his wife, Vergin, as well as Karakin Nersesian, also of Hazari. The genealogy wheel does not list a wife for Baghdasar, but perhaps coincidentally his brother Dikran’s wife was also named Vergin. The year of birth is estimated from Baghdasar’s age on the ship manifest.
    • (12) 1900 U.S. census. Khachadour Antreasian was living as a boarder in New Britain, Connecticut. The month and year of birth was included in the 1900 census. It was also indicated that he arrived in the United States in 1892. I could not find the ship manifest and, thus, it is not conclusive that this Khachadour was from Hazari. In addition, it could either be [#025] Khachadour or [#050] Khachadour. The year of birth would be consistent for either. The year of arrival is consistent with the year of birth of his son Hovhannes. Presumably, as no further records were located, Khachadour returned to his family in Hazari between 1900 and 1909, as noted on Hovhannes’ ship manifest. I have decided to include the date of birth for both [#025] Khachadour and [#050] Khachadour.
    • (13) Ship manifest SS Oceanic arriving New York on 28 Jul 1909, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, Petition of Citizenship dated 11 Aug 1930, World War II draft registration and U.S. Social Security death record. As noted in footnote 7, Hovhannes’ father, Khachadour, was identified as the closest relative remaining in Hazari. Hovhannes was joining his cousin, Minas Kaloustian, at 230 Common St., Lawrence, Massachusetts. Like his father, he would spend time in Connecticut as well. In this case, the date of birth was consistent in all sources.
    • (14) Ship manifest SS Alice arriving New York on 7 Jan 1910. Taniel’s name was crossed out on the ship manifest, yet it confirms the genealogy wheel that the closest relative remaining in Hazari was his wife, Nazlou. I have found a number of records for a Manuel Antreasian from Chmshgadzak beginning with a World War I draft registration. However, the name Manuel is not found in the genealogy wheel and I could not locate his ship manifest. The 1920 U.S. census stated Manuel arrived in 1909. The World War II draft registration initially lists his name as Manuel, but then the “M” is crossed out and replaced with a “T” thus indicating Tanuel. It is possible that Manuel and Taniel are the same person in which case his date of birth would be 24 Dec 1889 and date of death 4 Sep 1977.
    • (15) Ship manifest SS Chicago arriving New York on 27 Apr 1909 and World War I draft registration. The ship manifest stated Hagop’s wife, Elmas, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari and that he was joining his nephew Levon in Worcester, Massachusetts. The draft registration may not be for this Hagop Antreasian even though he listed Chmshgadzak as his place of birth. It was stated that he had no wife, thus he would have had to have already known by 1917 that Elmas had perished in the genocide.
    • (16) Ship manifest SS Alesia arriving Providence, Rhode Island on 2 Dec 1930. In 1907, there was a Boghos Antreasian living at 230 Common St., Lawrence, Massachusetts. As has been mentioned, this tenement building housed many of the early Hazari immigrants. However, I could not find any other records prior to 1915 to discern which Boghos this might refer to. In 1930, the manifest indicates he was joining his son Levon in Belmont, Massachusetts and that a daughter, Akabi, was remaining behind in Constantinople [Istanbul]. The ship manifests for many from Hazari who came to the United States in the early 1920’s listed Boghos as the closest relative remaining in Constantinople.
    • (17) Ship manifest SS La Touraine arriving New York on 23 Feb 1908, Petition for Naturalization dated 21 May 1918, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration, and California death record. The ship manifest listed his father, Boghos, as the closest relative remaining in Hazari and that he was joining his brother-in-law, B. Nersesian, at 14 Market St., Worcester, Massachusetts.
    • (18) Ship manifest SS Alice arriving New York on 7 Jan 1910, World War I draft registration, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and California death record. Similar to his brother Levon, Setrag listed their father, Boghos, as the closest relative remaining in Hazari.
    • (19) Ship manifest SS Tenyo Maru arriving San Francisco on 15 Mar 1919. The ship manifest indicated Mgrdich was joining his brother Levon at 230 Common Street, Lawrence, Massachusetts. He was traveling with a group of Armenians, including others from Hazari, under the sponsorship of the American Red Cross. From 1922 to 1925, Lawrence city directories list Mgrdich living at 146 Maple Street and having a middle initial of “B” which likely was for his father’s name, Boghos. I could find no further records for Mgrdich.
    • (20) See footnote 12.
    • (21) World War I draft registration and 1920 U.S. census. City directories for Lawrence, Massachusetts indicate Shmavon lived there between 1914 and 1925 when he was indicated to have moved to Methuen, Massachusetts.  Vazken Andréassian states he ultimately lived in Lebanon and I find no other records from the United States. I could not locate his ship manifest.
    • (22) Ship manifest SS Rhaetia arriving New York on 14 Aug 1893. Early passenger lists offer little in the way of information to confirm the identity of a person. He was traveling with cousins [#420] Garabed and [#423] Boghos Amirkhanian. However, I include the information on Sdepan as it is consistent.
    • (23) Ship manifest SS La Savoie arriving New York on 25 Jun 1910, ship manifest SS St. Paul arriving New York on 28 May 1920, Petition for Naturalization dated 13 May 1927, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and Social Security death record. The information for Vahan and his sons primarily comes from Vahan’s Petition for Naturalization. It appears that Vahan first entered the United States at the port of New York on 25 Jun 1910 on the SS La Savoie. The manifest stated that Vahan’s closest relative remaining in the country whence came was his mother Sara. He was coming to join his cousin Dikran, though the manifest incorrectly listed them as brothers. The naturalization papers, however, indicate Vahan’s arrival to New York on 28 May 1920 on the SS St. Paul. On this passenger list, the closest relative left behind is a brother named Boghos in Constantinople. The genealogy wheel does not indicate a brother named Boghos, but the reference must be to [#046] Boghos.
    • (24) Ship manifest SS Leviathan arriving New York on 28 Nov 1927, ship manifest SS Providence arriving Providence, Rhode Island on 27 Jan 1928 and 1930 U.S. census.
    • (25) Ship manifest SS Providence arriving Providence, Rhode Island on 8 Apr 1928 and 1930 U.S. census.
    • (26) Ship manifest SS Providence arriving Providence, Rhode Island on 27 Jan 1928, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census. Nevada death certificate and Social Security death record.
    • (27) Ship manifest SS Leopoldina arriving New York on 18 Dec 1920, 1930 U.S. census and obituary in the Armenian Weekly (http://armenianweekly.com/2009/07/17/in-memoriam-jack-antreassian-1920-2009/). Note that due to an error on the ship manifest, Ardavazt surname was listed as his mother’s name, Satenik.
    • (28) Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vazken_Andr%C3%A9assian).
    • (29) 1910 U.S. census. In 1910, Ghougas Antreasian was living in the same boarding house as [#070] Dikran. It was stated he had arrived in the United States in 1909. I have not been able to locate that ship manifest. However, it seems highly likely that Ghougas was Dikran’s brother and I have included the calculated year of birth.
    • (30) Ship manifest SS La Savoie arriving New York on 29 Feb 1908 and 1910 U.S. census. The ship manifest confirms that Dikran’s father, Sarkis, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari. He was joining a friend, Adam Atamian. The Lawrence city directories indicate Dikran most likely returned to Hazari around 1913.
    • (31) Ship manifest SS Kaiser Wilhelm Der Grosse arriving New York on 18 Nov 1903, Petition for Naturalization dated 12 Sep 1906, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and Pennsylvania death certificate. There are inconsistencies among the various sources, primarily as to the date of immigration for Sarkis. The census records indicate Sarkis had arrived in 1912, but I could not find a second entry for that year. While the Petition for Naturalization nor the ship manifest supply conclusive proof, it is nonetheless compelling that he was living at 230 Common St., Lawrence, Massachusetts, the tenement building so many men from Hazari lived in when first arriving in the United States. Still, it seems likely that Sarkis returned to Hazari after attaining U.S. citizenship where he married Makrouhi and had two sons, Garabed and Moushegh, then returned to the U.S. in 1912. In 1923, Sarkis married Martha Garabedian, yet in the 1930 census it states that his first marriage had been 25 years earlier.
    • (32) Ship manifest SS Rotterdam arriving New York on 21 Sept 1902. The ship manifest indicates Gostantin was joining his friend Bedros Papazian in Worcester, Massachusetts. While inconclusive, the information is consistent with that provided by Gostantin’s brother Hovhannes and, thus, reasonable to include.
    • (33) World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and U.S. Social Security death record. I was unable to locate Yessai’s ship manifest. The 1930 census indicates he arrived in 1917, but the 1920 census indicated 1912. The year 1912 seems to be correct as Yessai was mentioned on the 1913 ship manifest of Ghougas Atamian. In addition, the 1913 Lawrence city directory listed Yessai as living at 222 Common St.
    • (34) Ship manifest SS La Lorraine arriving New York on 26 Jan 1907, 1910 U.S. census and 1920 U.S. census. The ship manifest indicates Hovhannes was joining his brother-in-law B(edros) Papazian. The 1929 Lawrence city directory stated Hovhannes had died on 7 Feb 1928. The records variously state his year of birth as between 1868 and 1872.
    • (35) 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and California death record. The census records indicate Setrag arrived in the United States in 1921, however I was unable to locate the ship manifest. In 1940, his uncle, Bedros Papazian, was living with him and his mother.
    • (36) Ship manifest SS Haverford arriving Philadelphia on 18 Aug 1913, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, Declaration of Intent dated 26 Sep 1935, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and U.S. Social Security death record. The ship manifest stated his mother, Mariam, as the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his father at 230 Common St., Lawrence, Massachusetts. The World War I draft registration indicated he was supporting his mother and two siblings in Hazari, a brother and sister. The naturalization papers indicate Karekin married on 17 Nov 1923.
    • (37) Ship manifest SS Caroline arriving New York on 25 Mar 1910 and 1910 U.S. census. Living with Hovhannes at 230 Common St., Lawrence in 1910 was Hagop Gosdanian who had come to the U.S. that same year. While the ship manifest does not clearly list Pilibos as Hagop’s father, it does indicate he was joining his cousin, H. Gosdanian, at 230 Common St. It seems likely then that both records pertain to [#093] Hagop. I have used the year of birth implied from the census record. The ship manifest implied 1870 as the year of birth.  
    • (38) Vazgen A. Andreassian, Hazaribadoum [History of Hazar/Anıl], Vol. 1: Beirut, G. Doniguian Press, 1985, page 10.
    • (39) Gasparean, Hambardzum H. Chʻmshkatsag Ew Ir Giwgherě. Boston: "Paykʻar" Tparan, 1969. Page 190.
    • (40) The Armenian Church of Our Saviour in Worcester, Massachusetts conducted a census of its parishioners in 1929. The document is truly valuable as it is often the only document listing the names of the parents of the first generation of immigrants. Also, as it predates the separation of the Armenian Apostolic church in America, it encompasses all but the Protestant Armenian community. The record of [#104] Hovhannes stated his parents’ names were Harout and Badoukha.
    • (41) Ship manifest SS Caroline arriving New York on 11 Aug 1920, 1930 U.S. census, World War II draft registration, and Armenian Church of Our Saviour (Worcester) funeral record for wife Zvart 11 Aug 1970. The ship manifest stated he was joining his brother Hovhannes and traveling with his wife, Zvart, sister-in-law, Marta, and nephew, Antranig. According to a ship manifest in 1907, his brother Hovhannes stated he was joining Mardiros in Worcester. I could not find this earlier arrival, however Worcester city directories indicate he was a barber from at least 1903 through 1909. In 1910, he had returned to Hazari while his brother had taken over the barbershop in Worcester. It was through the funeral record of his wife that we learn he had passed away in 1961.
    • (42) 1930 U.S. census and U.S. Social Security death record.
    • (43) Ship manifest SS La Lorraine arriving New York on 26 Jan 1907, 1910 U.S. census, World War I draft registration, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and Armenian Church of Our Saviour (Worcester) funeral record for Hovhannes 16 Jun 1962. The ship manifest stated he was joining his brother Mardiros in Worcester, Massachusetts. His cousin, Mgrdich, was listed as the contact on the World War I draft registration.
    • (44) Ship manifest SS Caroline arriving New York on 11 Aug 1920, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and U.S. Social Security death record. Antranig arrived in the United States with his mother, Marta, and his uncle, Mardiros. He was joining his father, H. (Hovhannes) Yarumian, at 146 Washington St., Worcester, Massachusetts.
    • (45) Ship manifest SS Scotia arriving New York on 2 Apr 1896, Naturalization papers dated 29 Jan 1900, 1910 U.S. census, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census and 1940 U.S. census. The naturalization papers state Mgrdich arrived in the United States on 16 April 1890. However, Mgrdich’s son was born in 1893 and the census records state his arrival as 1883, 1895 or 1896. The referenced ship manifest is for Mekerditch Yarvumian. There is not information to be conclusive, but it is likely based on age and name to be Mgrdich Yarumian and would be consistent with him leaving for the U.S. soon after the birth of his son.
    • (46) Ship manifest SS Amsterdam arriving New York on 19 Nov 1902, 1910 U.S. census, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and U.S. Social Security death record. Herant arrived in the United States with his mother, Anna, to join his father, Mgrdich.
    • (47) Ship manifest SS Roma arriving New York on 22 Jun 1913. The ship manifest stated that Boghos’ father, Manoug, was the closest relative remaining and that he was joining his cousin, Hovhannes Hovnanian, in New Britain, Connecticut. Nothing more is known of Boghos.
    • (48) Household 12 included brothers Mardiros and Manoug. But that is where the similarities end. Manoug had a son, Hagop, while Mardiros had a son, Sdepan. Neither of which match the genealogy wheel. In addition, their father was named Artin and grandfather Hovhannes, again neither matching the genealogy wheel. However, it is possible nonetheless, especially if one considers that Sdepan could have been listed as Mardiros’ brother in error. As can be seen from the other family trees, the census names do not always match oral tradition, but the differences in this case are significant.
    • (49) Ship manifest SS Obdam arriving New York on 19 Oct 1896, 1900 U.S. census and 1910 U.S. census. The last reference to Garabed in the United States was the 1910 U.S. census as well as the 1910 Lawrence city directory. His son, Vahan, had already joined him. It seems likely that he returned to Hazari sometime around 1911.
    • (50) Ship manifest SS La Provence arriving New York on 13 Jan 1913, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and Massachusetts death index. The ship manifest indicated Manoug’s wife, Yeghsa, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari and that he was joining his brother Vahan in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
    • (51) United States Social Security death record.
    • (52) Ship manifest SS Celtic 8 Jul 1906 arriving New York on 8 Jul 1906, 1910 U.S. census, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and Massachusetts death index. The ship manifest indicated Vahan was joining his father, Garabed. As was common, he had left Hazari soon after the birth of his son, Levon. Vahan supplied dates of birth ranging from 1880 to 1884. 15 May 1880 was from stated on his World War II draft registration.
    • (53) Ship manifest SS Pannonia arriving New York on 22 Jan 1920, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record. The ship manifest indicated Levon was traveling with his mother, Santoukht, and was joining his father, Vahan.
    • (54) 1930 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record.
    • (55) 1910 U.S. census, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and United States Social Security death record. In 1930, Sahag was living with his cousins, Vahan and Manoug Parounagian, though they were indicated to be his brothers. While the census records indicate Sahag arrived in the United States in 1909, I was unable to locate the ship manifest.
    • (56) Parounag most likely arrived in the United States between 1900, the year of birth for his son Bedros, and 1902. From 1903 through 1906, he was shown as living in Lawrence, Massachusetts. During the last three years, he was living in Lawrence with [#123] Garabed. Presumably he returned to Hazari sometime around 1907. I was unable to locate the ship manifest for Parounag’s arrival. His wife, Nartouhi, and son, Bedros, arrived in the United States in 1920.
    • (57) 1930 U.S. census. As with his father Parounag, I was unable to locate the ship manifest of arrival for Bedros. Beginning in 1921, Lawrence city directories show Bedros and Nartouhi. By 1930, Nartouhi was no longer shown.
    • (58) Ship manifest SS La Savoie arriving New York on 16 Jan 1909 and 1910 U.S. census. There were two Dikran Parnagian’s that arrived in the United States in 1909 and lived in the New England area. In addition, they were of the same age. The ship manifest indicated Dikran’s wife, Anna, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari. He was joining his brother, Vahan, in Lawrence, Massachusetts, though Vahan was actually a cousin. Lawrence city directories list Vahan only for the years 1909 through 1912 when presumably he returned to Hazari.
    • (59) Ship manifest SS Chicago arriving New York on 27 Apr 1909, 1910 U.S. census, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census World War II draft registration and Oakwood Cemetery (Syracuse, NY) gravesite. The ship manifest confirms Hovhannes’ wife, Marta, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his brother, Dikran, in Worcester, Massachusetts. Marta would join Hovhannes in 1919, sailing from Yokohoma, Japan on the SS Tenyo Maru arriving in San Francisco on 15 Mar 1919.
    • (60) 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record.
    • (61) Ship manifest SS Floride arriving New York on 22 Dec 1910, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, Declaration of Intention dated 2 Jun 1932, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and United States Social Security death record. According to the declaration of intention, Bedros and Aghavni were married on 25 May 1909 in Hazari. Within six months he had left for the United States. The ship manifest stated that Aghavni was Bedros’ closest relative remaining in Hazari and that he was joining his brother-in-law, Mesrob Soghigian, in Lawrence, Massachusetts. However, his name was given as Bedros Nigoghosian, in reference to his father as opposed to Bekerian. Aghavni was finally able to join Bedros in the U.S. in 1920 and soon thereafter they would have three daughters.
    • (62) Ship manifest SS La Savoie arriving New York on 24 Mar 1906 and Massachusetts death certificate. The ship manifest indicated Mardiros was joining his brother-in-law, Manase Verdanian (identified as Manase Aramian). As can be seen, Mardiros died less than seven months after arriving in the United States.
    • (63) Ship manifest SS New York arriving New York on 15 Aug 1909, 1910 U.S. census, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, Massachusetts death index and Armenian Church of Our Savior (Worcester, Massachusetts) funeral record. The ship manifest stated Soghomon’s wife, Akabi, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his brother Hagop in Lawrence, Massachusetts. The date of death shown is actually the date of the funeral.
    • (64) Ship manifest SS France arriving New York on 20 Jun 1920, Petition for Naturalization dated 17 Jan 1928, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record. Aleksan was traveling with his brother, Hampartsoum, and joining his father, Soghomon, in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
    • (65) Ship manifest SS France arriving New York on 20 Jun 1920, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record.
    • (66) Ship manifest SS La Bretagne arriving New York on 11 Jan 1909, 1910 U.S. census, Declaration of Intention dated 6 Oct 1937, 1940 U.S. census, and World War II draft registration. The ship manifest stated Hagop’s father, Boghos, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his uncle, Mesrob Soghigian, in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
    • (67) Ship manifest SS La Bretagne arriving New York on 11 Jan 1909, 1910 U.S. census, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, Declaration of Intention dated 28 Jul 1939, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and Massachusetts index of deaths. The ship manifest indicated his father, Mgrdich, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his cousin, Mesrob Soghigian, in Lawrence, Massachusetts. Both 1882 and 1883 were given as birth years in various records.
    • (68) Ship manifest SS La Bretagne arriving New York on 11 Jan 1909, 1910 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, Petition for Citizenship dated 16 May 1931, World War II draft registration and United States Social Security death record. The ship manifest stated his father, Mgrdich, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his cousin, Mesrob Soghigian, in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
    • (69) Ship manifest SS Megali Hellas arriving New York on 29 May 1921, 1930 U.S. census, Petition for Citizenship dated 16 May 1931 and United States Social Security death record.
    • (70) Ship manifest SS St. Germain arriving New York 16 Apr 1900, marriage certificate dated 5 Feb 1901, 1910 U.S. census, 1920 U.S. census, Church of Our Saviour (Worcester, Massachusetts) census dated 10 Jun 1929, 1930 U.S. census and 1940 U.S. census. The ship manifest indicated that Minas had been in the United States previously from 1895-1899. It also stated he was single. The marriage certificate is interesting as it lists his father as Parsegh Hovhannesian, Parsegh being his father’s name and Hovhannes his grandfather’s name. His mother’s name was given as Nazlou Sarkisian. For many years Minas went by Parseghian instead of Soghigian. While Minas’ wife is listed as Lousia in the marriage certificate, records after 1920 state her name as Shoghagat. The census of the Church of Our Savior indicate that Lousia and Shoghagat were two different women and, thus, it is likely that Lousia died or became separated from Minas sometime around 1910.
    • (71) Ship manifest SS La Bretagne arriving New York on 14 May 1906, 1910 U.S. census, Declaration of Intention dated 10 Sep 1913, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and United States Social Security death record. Mesrob supplied various dates of birth. In the 1910 census, Mesrob stated he had been married 11 years which was consistent with his given age of 32. Thus, I have used 1878 as the year of birth. Mesrob’s wife, Anna, joined him during the 1920’s, but I find no record of his son, Kerop, being with them.
    • (72) World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and Massachusetts death index.
    • (73) 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record.
    • (74) 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record.
    • (75) Ship manifest SS Chicago arriving New York on 29 Jul 1913, ship manifest SS France arriving New York on 20 Jun 1920, 1910 U.S. census and cemetery record Bellevue Cemetery, Lawrence, Massachusetts. The 1910 census stated Partogh had arrived in the United States in 1907 and that he was single. It appears soon thereafter he returned to Hazari and was married. The 1913 ship manifest stated his wife, Takouhi, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his cousin, Mesrob Soghigian, in Lawrence. It also indicated he had been in the United States previously from 1904 to 1910. Again, it appears he returned to Turkey as in 1920 he arrives in the U.S. with his wife Takouhi and 7 month old daughter Arpenig. Sadly, his wife died soon thereafter in 1920 and he died in 1930.
    • (76) Ship manifest SS Oceanic arriving New York on 28 Jul 1909 and 1910 U.S. census. The ship manifest indicates Mardiros was joining his brother, Mesrob Soghigian, in Lawrence, Massachusetts, though Mesrob was his nephew. Lawrence city directories list Mardiros for the years 1910-12 only. It would seem he then returned to Hazari and was killed during the genocide. The year of birth is an average of the two records.
    • (77) Ship manifest SS Majestic arriving New York on 24 Oct 1912, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, Declaration of Intention dated 5 May 1932, 1940 U.S. census and World War II draft registration. On the ship manifest, Arshag’s wife, Santoukht, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his cousin, Mesrob Soghigian, in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
    • (78) The writing is smudged on the genealogy wheel, but looks to be Marko which could be short for Margos or Markar. I have leaned toward Margos under the assumption his grandson was named for him.
    • (79) Ship manifest SS Rochambeau arriving New York on 9 Dec 1913, World War I draft registration, 1930 census, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and United States Social Security death record. The ship manifest stated Ghougas’ wife, Vartanoush, was the closest relative left remaining in Hazari while he was joining a cousin, Yessai Gosdanian, in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
    • (80) 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record. The genealogy wheel contains Beglar faintly written while in U.S. records Ghougas’ son was named Peter. I have assumed they are one and the same.
    • (81) 1910 U.S. census. In 1910, Avedis was living with his son, Garabed, in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. While it was stated he had arrived in 1898, I was unable to locate the ship manifest. In addition, he is no longer found in any records after 1910 and, thus, most likely returned to Hazari.
    • (82) Ship manifest SS La Gascogne arriving New York on 6 Apr 1909, 1910 U.S. census, World War I draft registration, Petition of Naturalization dated 14 Aug 1918, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and United States Social Security death record. Garabed applied for U.S. citizenship while serving in the army at Camp Jackson in South Carolina.
    • (83) Ship manifest SS La Bretagne arriving New York on 7 Nov 1906 and 1910 U.S. census. The ship manifest stated Adam was joining a friend, Stepan Nersesian. He was traveling with Stepan’s brother, Bedros. He does not appear in city directories after 1911 and most likely returned to Hazari.
    • (84) Ship manifest SS Alice arriving New York on 30 Oct 1912, ship manifest SS Merion arriving Philadelphia on 19 Dec 1912 and World War I draft registration. Initially, Ghazaros was denied admittance to the United States, but two months later he was able to enter. He listed his father, Hagop, as the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his brother, Khosrov. Ghazaros joined the Legion d’Orient and does not appear to have returned to the U.S. after the war.
    • (85) Ship manifest SS Haverford arriving Portland, Maine on 2 Feb 1909, 1910 U.S. census, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, Petition of Naturalization dated 5 Dec 1938, World War II draft registration and United States Social Security death record. The ship manifest stated Khosrov’s father, Hagop, as the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining an uncle, Samarin Atamian, in Lawrence, Massachusetts. I was not able to determine who the uncle was in reference to.
    • (86) United States Social Security death record.
    • (87) Ship manifest SS Statendam arriving New York on 22 Apr 1901 and 1910 U.S. census. The ship manifest indicated Yeranos was joining Manoug Parounagian. After 1916, I no longer find records for Yeranos in the United States.
    • (88) Ship manifest SS Moltke arriving New York on 3 Jun 1902, 1910 U.S. census, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and 1941 Lawrence city directory. The ship manifest indicated Minas was joining his brother E. (Yeranos) Kalousdian in Worcester, Massachusetts. The 1941 Lawrence city directory supplied the date of death. The date of birth is an average of that given on the various records.
    • (89) 1900 U.S. census and 1940 U.S. census. It appears Bedros eluded most records in the United States. He was the first of the family to arrive in the United States sometime in the 1890’s, however I have not found the ship manifest.
    • (90) Ship manifest SS France arriving New York on 15 Nov 1912, Declaration of Intention dated 25 Mar 1916, World War I draft registration, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and United States Social Security death record. The ship manifest stated his mother, Mariam, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his father, Bedros, in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
    • (91) Ship manifest SS La Bretagne arriving New York on 11 Jan 1909, 1910 U.S. census, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, Declaration of Intention dated 29 Aug 1932 and 1940 U.S. census. The ship manifest stated his wife, Kohar, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his brother, Bedros.
    • (92) Ship manifest SS Pannonia arriving New York on 26 Oct 1920, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record. The ship manifest indicated Hagop was traveling with his mother, Kohar, and joining his father, Boghos, in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
    • (93) Ship manifest SS La Champagne arriving New York on 7 Dec 1903. The ship manifest indicated Pilibos was joining a cousin, Boghos Abajian. The Ajemian material on the village of Sisne confirms that Boghos Abajian was a native. The last record for Pilibos was the 1921 Lawrence city directory.
    • (94) Ship manifest SS Volturno arriving Halifax on 1 Apr 1909 and 1910 U.S. census. The ship manifest stated his wife, Unnfar (?), was the closest relative remaining and that he was joining his brother, Pilibos, in Lawrence, Massachusetts. Based on the genealogy wheel, Pilibos would have been his cousin not brother. The last record for Mgrdich was the 1921 Lawrence city directory.
    • (95) Ship manifest SS La Bretagne arriving New York on 5 Mar 1907 and 1910 U.S. census. The ship manfest stated Markar was joining his cousin, Manoug, in Lawrence, Massachusetts. Information is sparse on Markar, but from 1921 through 1922 he was living with Simon, Avak, Garabed and Movses Khanbegian at 64 Concord Street, Lawrence.
    • (96) 1910 U.S. census, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and Petition for Naturalization dated 2 Jan 1942. The certificate of arrival stated Mardiros arrived in New York on the SS Martha Washington on 17 Sep 1909. I have searched the entire ship manifest, but could not locate Mardiros.
    • (97) Ship manifest SS Adriatic arriving New York on 14 Apr 1911, marriage certificate dated 22 Jun 1914, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census and Massachusetts death index. Yeghia first arrived in the United States in 1902. The 1911 ship manifest was from his second arrival. His father, Parnag (misstated as Movses) was the closest relative remaining in Hazari. The marriage certificate listed his father as Parnag and his mother as Varter Arabian.
    • (98) Ship manifest SS La Savoie arriving New York on 16 Jan 1909, 1910 U.S. census, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and the 1949 Annual Report of the Town Officers and Committees of the Town of West Bridgewater. The ship manifest indicated his mother, Varter, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his brother, Manoug.
    • (99) 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record.
    • (100) Ship manifest SS La Gascogne arriving New York on 10 Dec 1899 and 1910 U.S. census. There are no records after 1910 for Manoug and, thus, he most likely returned to Hazari.
    • (101) Ship manifest SS Uranium arriving Halifax on 23 Nov 1909, 1910 U.S. census, marriage certificate dated 28 Dec 1913, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and United States Social Security death record. The ship manifest indicated his mother, Altoun, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari and that he was joining his brother Manoug in Lawrence, Massachusetts. The marriage certificate stated Garabed’s father was Nshan and mother was Altoun Hagopian.
    • (102) 1930 U.S. census, obituary Goundrey & Dewhirst Funeral and Cremation Care and Ancestry.com U.S. Public Records index.
    • (103) 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record.
    • (104) 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record.
    • (105) Ship manifest SS Oceanic arriving New York on 28 Jul 1909, 1900 U.S. census, 1910 U.S. census, 1920 U.S. census and 1930 U.S. census. Avak first arrived in the United States prior to 1900 and he was already married. Between 1900 and 1909, he had returned to Hazari. The ship manifest for his return in 1909 stated his wife, Mariam, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining a cousin, Manoug Khanbegian, in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
    • (106) Ship manifest SS Britannia arriving Providence on 27 Jan 1921 and 1930 U.S. census. The ship manifest stated a friend, Boghos Antreasian was the closest relative remaining in Constantinople [Istanbul] and that he was joining his son, Garabed, at 64 Concord Street, Lawrence. He was traveling with Elmas Verdanian and her son Sarkis as they joined her husband, Ghazar. As Garabed’s father was Nshan, this error was most likely purposeful to allow entry into the U.S. Simon did live with the other Khanbegian’s at 64 Concord Street in 1921 and 1922. In 1930, Simon was living with the Verdanian’s as a boarder.
    • (107) 1910 U.S. census. It was stated that Manase had arrived in the U.S. in 1904. The 1906 ship manifest for Mardiros Bekerian stated he was joining his brother-in-law, Manase Aramian, at 230 Common Street, Lawrence, Massachusetts. I found no other records for Manase though the genealogy wheel indicated he had two sons, Hovhannes and Khachadour. The census stated he had been married 12 years to his first wife. This would be consistent with his year of birth and marrying at age 21. Thus, his sons could have been born before his arrival in the United States and Manase returned to Hazari after 1910. I could not find the ship manifest for his arrival.
    • (108) Ship manifest SS La Bretagne arriving New York on 11 Jan 1909, World War I draft registration, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and United States Social Security death record. The ship manifest indicated Ghazaros’ mother, Dirouhi (genealogy wheel stated the name as Nazlou), was the closest relative remaining in Hazari and that he was joining his cousin in Worcester.
    • (109) Ship manifest SS Britannia arriving New York on 27 Jan 1921, ship manifest SS Olympic arriving New York on 15 Apr 1930, ship manifest SS Berengaria arriving New York on 13 Nov 1934, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record. Sarkis first arrived in the U.S. in 1921 with his mother, Elmas. It appears he continued to travel back and forth to France before permanently living in the U.S. after 1934.
    • (110) Ship manifest SS La Lorraine arriving New York on 16 Dec 1907, 1910 U.S. census, ship manifest SS Megali Hellas arriving New York on 1 Oct 1921, Petition for Naturalization dated 11 Jan 1939 and Cedar Grove Cemetery (Flushing, New York) grave.  In 1907, Serop’s wife, Nazlou, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari and he was joining his uncle, Sarkis Hovsepian, in New York. In 1921, he stated there were no relatives remaining and he was joining his brother, Garabed, at 258 Hampshire Street, Lawrence, Massachusetts. The petition for naturalization stated his wife had died in 1925 or 1926 in Turkey.
    • (111) Ship manifest SS Caroline arriving New York on 8 Jan 1909, 1910 U.S. census, 1920 U.S. census, Declaration of Intention dated 2 Aug 1932 and 1940 U.S. census. The ship manifest indicated Garabed’s wife, Odia, was the closest relative remaining in Aleppo, Syria, while he was joining a friend, Movses Kalousdian in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
    • (112) In 1924, both Levon and Krikor were listed in the Lawrence city directory as living with their parents, Garabed and Odia. The Declaration of Intention for Garabed stated Krikor was born in Syria and was residing in Brooklyn, New York. I could not locate any other records for Krikor or Levon.
    • (113) 1910 U.S. census and Petition for Naturalization dated 14 Nov 1904. Vahan arrived in the United States between 1893 and 1895, however, I could not locate the ship manifest. The last records mentioning Vahan in the U.S. date to 1910 and most likely he returned to Hazari thereafter.
    • (114) Ship manifest SS Floride arriving New York on 22 Sep 1909 and 1910 U.S. census. Khoren seems to have only lived a couple of years in the United States and most likely returned to Hazari sometime around 1912.
    • (115) Ship manifest SS Pennsylvania arriving New York on 10 Nov 1900. Very little can be determined regarding Smpad. The ship manifest indicated he was already married. As late as 1909, he was still living in Lawrence, Massachusetts, but by 1910 he had most likely returned to Hazari.
    • (116) Ship manifest SS Madonna arriving Providence on 1 Nov 1923, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security claim and index of Massachusetts deaths. Manoug was traveling with his wife Aghavni and son Karekin as well as members of the Hovnanian family from Hazari. He was joining his son, Mateos, in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
    • (117) Ship manifest SS Pannonia arriving New York on 22 Jan 1920, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record. Mateos was traveling with his sister Aghavni and they were joining her husband, [#153] Bedros Bekerian.
    • (118) Ship manifest SS Madonna arriving Providence on 1 Nov 1923, 1930 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record.
    • (119) 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, Index to Petitions for Naturalization filed in New York City and United States Social Security death record. The 1930 census indicated Drtad arrived in the U.S. in 1918, but I could not locate the ship manifest.
    • (120) 1940 U.S. census, Laurel Hill Cemetery (Brookfield, Connecticut) grave, Connecticut death record and United States Social Security death record. I could not determine when Kourken arrived in the United States. The 1940 census listed an infant son, Papken, that was not included in the genealogy wheel.
    • (121) Ship manifest SS Hansa arriving New York on 12 May 1939, 1940 U.S. census and Index to Petitions for Naturalization filed in New York City. The ship manifest indicated that Vazken’s father, Hovhannes, was still alive and living in Constantinople [Istanbul]. He was joining his brother Kourken in New York.
    • (122) Ship manifest SS La Bretagne arriving New York on 11 Jan 1909 and 1910 U.S. census. The ship manifest indicated Garabed’s wife, Mariam, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari and that he was joining a Yarumian cousin in Lawrence, Massachusetts. He is not listed in the U.S. after 1910 and, thus, most likely returned to Hazari.
    • (123) Ship manifest SS Germania arriving New York on 24 Nov 1912, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and headstone applications for military veterans. The ship manifest indicated Boghos’ mother, Anna, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari. Boghos was joining his cousin, Manoug Nersesian, in New Britain, Connecticut.
    • (124) Ship manifest SS La Bretagne arriving New York on 7 Nov 1906. The ship manifest indicated Bedros was joining his brother, Sdepan. Bedros was living at 230 Common Street according to the 1907 Lawrence city directory. I find no further record of him in the U.S.
    • (125) Ship manifest SS L’Aquitaine arriving New York on 1 Jun 1902. I could not identify any additional records for Sdepan. Presumably he returned to Hazari prior to 1910. In 1920, it appears he was living in Constantinople [Istanbul].
    • (126) From city directories, Apraham lived in the United States continually from 1912 through his death in 1930. However, I was unable to find anything more than the city directories.
    • (127) Ship manifest SS La Touraine arriving New York on 4 Feb 1912, World War I draft registration, Declaration of Intention dated 7 Apr 1917, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record. The ship manifest indicated Armenag’s mother, Khacher, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his father, Apraham, at 230 Common Street, Lawrence, Massachusetts. Armenag served in the United States army from 1932 through 1948.
    • (128) Ship manifest SS La Touraine arriving New York on 4 Jan 1909, World War I draft registration and Declaration of Intention dated 6 Oct 1917. The ship manifest indicated Manoug’s brother (should have stated father), Nerses, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his cousin, Sdepan Nersesian, in Lowell, Massachusetts.
    • (129) Ship manifest SS Alice arriving New York on 7 Jan 1910. The ship manifest indicated Karekin’s father, Nerses, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari and that he was joining an uncle in New York City. The 1913 Lawrence city directory was the last to list Karekin.
    • (130) Ship manifest SS Rhaetia arriving New York on 14 Aug 1893 and 1910 U.S. census. The birth year is an average from the sources. In 1914, his wife Yeghsa joined him in Lawrence. The date of death is from the 1925 Lawrence city directory.
    • (131) Ship manifest SS La Bretagne arriving New York on 11 Jan 1909, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and Illinois death index. The ship manifest indicated Mardiros was joining his father, Garabed, in New Britain, Connecticut, while his mother, Yeghsa, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari. The naturalization papers for Yeghsa confirm that Mardiros also went by Martin Amira and was living in Chicago.
    • (132) Ship manifest SS Rhaetia arriving New York on 14 Aug 1893. Boghos was living with Misak and Srabion at 323 Common Street, Lawrence, Massachusetts in 1905. Presumably he returned to Hazari thereafter. Traveling on the same ship was [#054] Sdepan Antreasian and [#420] Garabed Amirkhanian.
    • (133) Ship manifest SS Oceanic arriving New York on 28 Jul 1909. It is not entirely clear that the Hampartsoum arriving on the Oceanic was from Hazari. The ship manifest listed his wife, Makrid, as the closest relative remaining and the genealogy wheel listed his wife as Makrouhi. Also, it was stated that he was joining his brother, Misak, in Lawrence, Massachusetts. While Hampartsoum did not have a brother Misak, his cousin, [#446] Misak, was living in Lawrence in 1909.
    • (134) Ship manifest SS La Bretagne arriving New York on 11 Jan 1909, 1910 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record. The ship manifest indicated Hapet was joining his brother, Misak, at 230 Common Street, Lawrence, Massachusetts. Interestingly, it also stated that he left no relatives remaining in Hazari whereas two years later his brother, Setrag, stated their father, Avedis, was still living.
    • (135) Ship manifest SS La Provence arriving New York on 5 Aug 1911 and ship manifest SS Tenyo Maru arriving San Francisco on 15 Mar 1919. In 1911, Setrag joined his brother, Hapet, in Lawrence, Massachusetts. As noted in footnote 121, he had left his father, Avedis, as the closest relative remaining in Hazari. In 1916, Setrag left the United States. In 1919, he returned to the United States with his wife, Mariam. They were traveling from Vladivostok, Russia under the auspices of the American Red Cross. Mariam’s petition for naturalization stated they had been married at Erzurum on 12 Oct 1917. Also of interest is that multiple sources indicate Setrag was born in Urmia, Iran.
    • (136) Ship manifest SS Majestic arriving New York on 24 Oct 1912, 1910 U.S. census, Declaration of Intention dated 5 Nov 1936, World War II draft registration and United States Social Security death record. The ship manifest indicated Misak had been in the United States between 1901 and 1910. The 1910 census indicated he had arrived in 1903.
    • (137) United States Social Security death record and Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery grave (Hollywood Hills, CA).
    • (138) Ship manifest SS Moltke arriving New York on 3 Jun 1902. The ship manifest stated Srabion was joining his uncle, Avak Mihranian, at 14 Market Street, Worcester, Massachusetts. Between 1903 and 1909, Srabion lived between Worcester and Lawrence. Thereafter, he no longer appears in records and most likely returned to Hazari.
    • (139) Ship manifest SS Rochambeau arriving New York on 23 Oct 1920, 1930 U.S. census and Massachusetts index of deaths. The ship manifest indicated Boghos was joining his son, Armenag, at 230 Common Street, Lawrence.
    • (140) Ship manifest SS La Savoie arriving New York on 30 May 1920, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration, Virginia death certificate and United States Social Security death record. The ship manifest indicated Armenag’s father, Boghos, was the closest relative remaining in Aleppo, Syria and that he was joining a cousin, Garabed Verdanian, in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
    • (141) Ship manifest SS La Bretagne arriving New York on 11 Jan 1909, 1910 U.S. census, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, Declaration of Intention dated 10 Feb 1940, World War II draft registration and United States Social Security death record. The ship manifest indicated Manoug’s wife, Prapion, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari.
    • (142) 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record. Boghos arrived in the United States around 1920, but I was unable to locate the ship manifest.
    • (143) Ship manifest SS La Bretagne arriving New York on 11 Jan 1909, 1910 U.S. census and ship manifest SS Columbia arriving Glascow, Scotland on 10 Apr 1910. Vahram was only in the United States for one year. Between 1917 and 1918, he was a volunteer in the Caucasus. It does not appear that he ever returned to the U.S.
    • (144) Ship manifest SS La Provence arriving New York on 4 May 1912, World War I draft registration, ship manifest SS Majestic arriving New York on 15 Apr 1924, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and United States Social Security death record. In 1912, Armenag’s father, Avak, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his brother Vahram in Lawrence. Armenag joined the Legion d’Orient and returned to the United States in 1924 with his wife, Mariam.
    • (145) Ship manifest SS Majestic arriving New York on 24 Oct 1912, World War I draft registration, Declaration of Intention dated 18 Oct 1919, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census and 1940 U.S. census. The ship manifest stated Manoug’s first wife, Srpouhi, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his cousin, Marouke Hovnanian, at 230 Common Street, Lawrence.
    • (146) 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record.
    • (147) Ship manifest SS Madonna arriving Providence, Rhode Island on 1 Nov 1923. The date of death was recorded in the 1925 Lawrence city directory.
    • (148) Declaration of Intention dated 10 May 1912, World War I draft registration, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and United States Social Security death record. Hovhannes arrived in the U.S. from Canada having traveled through Halafax. I was unable to find the crossing with certainty though.
    • (149) Ship manifest SS Calabria arriving New York on 15 Aug 1911, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, Petition for Naturalization dated 19 Sep 1939, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and United States Social Security death record.
    • (150) 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census and United States Social Security death record.
    • (151) Ship manifest SS Chicago arriving New York on 29 Jul 1913, 1920 U.S. census, 1930 U.S. census, Declaration of Intention dated 29 Aug 1932, 1940 U.S. census and World War II draft registration. The ship manifest indated Hovnan’s wife, Srpouhi, was the closest relative remaining in Hazari while he was joining his brother, Hovhannes, in New Britain, Connecticut. The date of death was stated in the 1950 Lawrence city directory.
    • (152) Ship manifest SS Britannia arriving Providence, Rhode Island on 20 May 1925, 1930 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, World War II draft registration and United States Social Security death record. The date of death was recorded in the 1947 Lawrence city directory.
    • (153) Ship manifest SS Madonna arriving Providence, Rhode Island on 1 Nov 1923, 1920 U.S. census, 1940 U.S. census, Declaration of Intention dated 15 Jul 1940 and World War II draft registration.
    • (154)  Ship manifest SS Madonna arriving Providence, Rhode Island on 1 Nov 1923, 1940 U.S. census and United States