Chmshgadzak/Çemişgezek, circa 1937-38 (Source: Private collection)

Dersim - Demography (Part II)

Author: George Aghjayan, 29/06/15 (Last modified: 29/06/15)

Chmshgadzak district

The Chmshgadzak district was the western most in the Dersim region. Ottoman records from the 16th century indicate the district was from two-thirds to three-quarters Christian. By the end of the 19th century, these proportions had been reversed.

The 1872 [1288 hidjra] Diyarbekir yearbook [salname] reported 3991 males (2680 Muslim and 1311 non-Muslim) in 1112 households for Chmshgadzak and the surrounding 28 villages of the sub-district.

Beginning with the 1874 [1290 hidjra] Diyarbekir yearbook and continuing through the 1876 [1293 hidjra] Diyarbekir yearbook, populations were only supplied for certain towns. While new towns were added each year, the population figures did not generally change. The 1875 [1292 hidjra] Diyarbekir yearbook reported 1860 males (1040 Muslim and 820 non-Muslim) in 753 households for the city of Chmshgadzak. These same population figures were reported in the yearbook for the following year.

Chmshgadzak: Bash Poughar or Charshuh Mayleh neighborhood

Chmshgadzak: Bash Poughar or Charshuh Mayleh neighborhood. Probably photographed in the 1930s (Source: Kasbarian family collection. Courtesy of Vazken Andréassian, Paris)

By 1881 [1298 hidjra], Chmshgadzak had become part of the recently created Mamuretul Aziz province and the yearbook that year reported the following data:

15 neighborhoods of Chmshgadzak town
1702 total males (935 Muslim, 698 Armenian Apostolic, 69 Protestant) in 753 households

94 villages of Chmshgadzak district
6905 total males (5419 Muslim, 143 Armenian Apostolic, 8 Greek Orthodox) in 3218 households.

Chmshgadzak, 1904: The Simonian family

Chmshgadzak, 1904: The Simonian family. The following people are identified: Seated from left to right are: Varter Prmerdjian (wearing a veil), the young lady (also wearing a veil) sitting next to her is Ghazar Simonian's wife (name unknown), then there's Vartan Simonian (wearing a fez), behind Vartan with his hand on Vartan's shoulder is Vartan's wife (name unknown), standing to her right is Srpouhi Mengyoughian. (Source: Vazken Andréassian collection, Paris)

Of these figures, the number of non-Muslim males in the villages surrounding Chmshgadzak seems suspect. The district had clearly changed from that which was reported in the earlier Diyarbekir yearbooks. The Muslim male population increased from 2680 to 6354 with the inclusion of 66 additional villages in the Mamuretul Aziz yearbook, yet the non-Muslim male population declined from 1311 to 918. This leads to a very low male population per household for the district, again highly suspect. However, if one utilizes the total population of 6905 for the surrounding villages of Chmshgadzak, then the implied non-Muslim male population would be 1486 versus 151. This makes much more sense and thus the population of 151 Armenian Apostolic and Greek Orthodox is assumed to be a clerical error.

The following table summarizes data for the Chmshgadzak district from three provincial yearbooks.

It cannot be determined whether the additional 6 villages reported as part of the district were simply newly formed or identified or whether there was a shifting in the borders of the district. Regardless, both the Muslim and non-Muslim (almost entirely Armenian) populations were recorded as declining in the town of Chmshgadzak while increasing in the surrounding countryside.

Of the 14 neighborhoods of Chmshgadzak, 5 were entirely Armenian, 5 were entirely Muslim and the remaining 4 contained a mixed population. The recorded population per household was 4.8 in the Armenian only neighborhoods, 4.0 in the Muslim only neighborhoods and 5.0 in the mixed neighborhoods which were recorded as two-thirds Muslim. In the countryside, there were 8 Armenian villages, 1 Greek Orthodox village, 73 Muslim villages and 18 villages with a mixed population. Again, we see slightly larger populations per household in non-Muslim villages (5.3) versus Muslim villages (3.9). The proportion of Muslims and non-Muslims in mixed villages was essentially equal and the average size of a household in these villages was recorded as 4.5.

The average population was 138 in Muslim villages, 153 in non-Muslim villages and 181 in mixed villages. The average size of a household increased slowly as size of the village declined:

The average population was 138 in Muslim villages, 153 in non-Muslim villages and 181 in mixed villages. The average size of a household increased slowly as size of the village declined:

Much has been written about the undercounting of women and children in the Ottoman registration system. The presumed undercounting of children cannot be evaluated from the data on Dersim, while the undercounting of women might be assumed from the gap in reported females versus males. For the Chmshgadzak district, there were 218 more Muslim men recorded than women and 133 more non-Muslim men than women. However, this is a very crude approximation – one would need to understand the impact of war, famine, and other critical events to fully evaluate such differences in reporting by gender. Regardless, it is interesting to note that in both the case of Muslims and non-Muslims, the male to female ratio is about 10% higher in mixed villages as opposed to wholly Muslim or non-Muslim villages. While there can be various interpretations, it is likely that women were more hidden in mixed villages.

Chmshgadzak: Akrag and Shuvod neighborhoods

Chmshgadzak: Akrag and Shuvod neighborhoods. Probably photographed in the 1930s (Source: Kasbarian family collection. Courtesy of Vazken Andréassian, Paris)

In March 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak conducted a census and recorded 4408 Armenians in 846 households. The population of the Chmshgadzak district was next recorded in 1913, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded 4133 Armenians in 835 households. The Armenian figures in both of these censuses include those recorded as Greek Orthodox. These were hay horoms, in other words they belonged to the local community of Armenian speakers who followed the Greek Orthodox Church. In the 1914 update to the 1906/7 Ottoman census, the Muslim population had grown to 16181 while the non-Muslim population had remained relatively unchanged at 4254 (3772 Apostolic Armenians, 267 Greek Orthodox and 215 Protestants).

A section of the family tree of the Narzagian family from the Iuchbeg neighborhood of Chmshgadzak

A section of the family tree (from the beginning to 1950) of the Narzagian family from the Iuchbeg neighborhood of Chmshgadzak. Further down, you can find the full family tree. Prepared by Hovhannes Adjemian, Boston, 1953 (Source: Hovhannes Adjemian archives, NAASR, Belmont, MA)

The following is detail on the 28 individual villages of Chmshgadzak that were recorded to have an Armenian population in the 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook.

1. Chmshgadzak, Chmshgadzak, Chemshgadzag [Çemişgezek]
39° 3'45.02"N 38°54'38.42"E
1348 Armenians 365 households
S. Asdvadzadzin church, S. Toros church

Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the town had 280 Armenian households. As noted in the above table, Ottoman sources record the Armenian male population of the town declining from 820 (1875) to 767 (1881) to 664 (1894). Similarly, the Muslim male population declined from 1040 (1875) to 935 (1881) to 897 (1894). The total population in the 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook was 1373 Armenians (664 males and 709 females) and 1784 Muslims (897 males and 887 females) living in 689 total households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 1298 Armenians in 259 households. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded an increased population of 1348 Armenians in 365 households. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 1450 Armenians in 361 households. Thus, while there was possibly a brief period of mild recovery just prior to the genocide, all sources agree in that there had been a long period of decline in the Armenian population of this significant town.

A portion of the family tree from an Armenian family of the Sisna village of Chmshgadzak

A portion of the family tree of an Armenian family from the Sisna village of Chmshgadzak. Further down, you can find the full family tree. Prepared by Hovhannes Adjemian, Boston, 1953 (Source: Hovhannes Adjemian archives, NAASR, Belmont, MA)

2. Ardga, Artagan, Ardekan, Ardegan, Erdik [hamlet of Anıl]
39° 5'46.09"N 38°52'52.94"E
11 Armenians 3 households
1 church in ruins

Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 4 Armenian households. The total population in the 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook was 19 Armenians (13 males and 6 females) and 56 Muslims (28 males and 28 females) living in 17 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 26 Armenians in 5 households. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded only 11 Armenians in 3 households. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 18 Armenians in 5 households.

3. Ashkouni, Ashkani, Eshgouni, Eshgunuzimyan [submerged]
38°53'18.61"N 38°54'16.10"E
7 households
Sp. Kevork church

A portion of the family tree of an Armenian family from the Sisna village of Chmshgadzak

A portion of the family tree of an Armenian family from the Sisna village of Chmshgadzak. Further down, you can find the full family tree. Prepared by Hovhannes Adjemian, Boston, 1953 (Source: Hovhannes Adjemian archives, NAASR, Belmont, MA)

The location of Ashkouni is an estimate as the village is now under the waters of the Keban reservoir. Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 6 Armenian households. The total population in the 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook was 27 Armenians (16 males and 11 females) and 16 Muslims (7 males and 9 females) living in 14 households. In 1902, the population of Ashkouni was included with the village of Bedretil. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded 7 households without specifying the population. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 30 Armenians in 6 households.

4. Bardizag, Baghchecik, Bakdjedjik [submerged]
38°56'40.08"N 38°54'35.51"E
145 Armenians 25 households
Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

The location of Bardizag is an estimate as the village is now under the waters of the Keban reservoir. Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 15 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village was entirely Armenian with 80 people (39 males and 41 females) in 16 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 98 Armenians in 16 households. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded the population growing to 145 Armenians in 25. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 124 Armenians in 26 households.

5. Bedretil, Patratil, Badratil, Beyretil [Harmanlar – submerged]
38°57'43.12"N 38°52'57.34"E
3 households
Sp. Hagop church

The location of Bedretil is an estimate as the village is now under the waters of the Keban reservoir. Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 12 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village was entirely Armenian with 42 people (22 males and 20 females) in 17 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 45 Armenians in 9 households, but this included Ashkouni. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded 3 households without specifying the population. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 30 Armenians in 6 households.

6. Bradi, Prati, Pardi, Brati [Arpaderen]
39° 1'41.80"N 38°51'40.15"E
no Armenians in 1914
no church

Chmshgadzak: a section of the Kala Mayle neighborhood

Chmshgadzak: a section of the Kala Mayle neighborhood. Probably photographed in the 1930s (Source: Kasbarian family collection. Courtesy of Vazken Andréassian, Paris)

Arpaderen is given as the current name, but the old village seems to have been just north of the new village. There is still a cluster of houses in the location and it is possibly known as a hamlet of Arpaderen. Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 6 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village contained 19 Armenians (13 males and 6 females) and 9 Muslims (6 males and 3 females) in 11 households. The number of households seems rather large for the small population (1.7 males per household). In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 15 Armenians in 3 households, including Brastik, but that the villages were now deserted. This is confirmed as no sources after 1902 record an Armenian population in the village.

7. Brekhi, Prekhi, Berakhi [Vişneli]
39° 1'1.71"N 38°53'46.59"E
50 Armenians in 15 households
Sp. Kevork church
Ruins of Sp. Manoug vank

A view from Chmshgadzak

A view from Chmshgadzak (Source: Kasbarian family collection. Courtesy of Vazken Andréassian, Paris)

Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 26 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village contained 88 Armenians (43 males and 45 females) and 33 Muslims (17 males and 16 females) in 35 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 117 Armenians in 35 households, including Deke. In this case and those mentioned previously, it is not entirely clear to me why certain villages were combined when reporting the population as they were not adjacent to each other. The most likely reason is that a single priest ministered to both villages. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded the population declining to 50 Armenians in 15. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 52 Armenians in 14 households.

8. Evrik, Avrik
38°58'45.07"N 38°55'15.56"E
no Armenians in 1914
no church

Evrik is no longer shown as a village, yet there is a grouping of homes in the location. It is most likely a hamlet of an adjacent village today. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook is the only source that indicates an Armenian population in the village. In fact, it indicates Evrik as wholly Armenian, albeit with a population of only 5 Armenians (3 males and 2 females) in 2 households.

A section of the family tree of the Hekimian family from the Sisna village of Chmshgadzak

A section of the family tree (from the beginning to 1954) of the Hekimian family from the Sisna village of Chmshgadzak. Further down, you can find the full family tree. Prepared by Hovhannes Adjemian, Boston, 1953 (Source: Hovhannes Adjemian archives, NAASR, Belmont, MA)

9. Garmri, Gemili, Kermissi [Gedikler]
39° 5'20.58"N 38°48'26.57"E
198 Armenians in 35 households
Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 40 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village contained 226 Armenians (119 males and 107 females) and 297 Muslims (141 males and 156 females) in 104 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 243 Armenians in 33 households. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded the population declining to 198 Armenians in 35 households. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 118 Armenians in 29 households. Adjemian’s population seems low for the number of households. Interestingly, Kévorkian indicates that 70 Armenian families in Garmri converted to Islam between 1770 and 1780. This would appear consistent with these figures and implies the village had been entirely Armenian Apostolic prior to the conversion. In 1935, the village had a population of 189 and as of the 2000 census it had risen to 561. As those living in the village today would appear to be descended from these 70 families, it would be interesting to find out if a supporting oral tradition has persisted.

10. Hazari [Anıl]
39° 7'11.20"N 38°53'19.58"E
351 Armenians in 75 households
Sp. Yerrortoutiun church

The family tree of the Narzagian family from the Iuchbeg neighborhood of Chmshgadzak

The family tree (from the beginning to 1950) of the Narzagian family from the Iuchbeg neighborhood of Chmshgadzak. Prepared by Hovhannes Adjemian, Boston, 1953 (Source: Hovhannes Adjemian archives, NAASR, Belmont, MA)

Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 50 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village was entirely Armenian and contained 334 people (177 males and 157 females) in 59 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 500 Armenians in 70 households. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded the population declining to 351 Armenians in 75 households. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 326 Armenians in 66 households.

11. Khachdoun, Khchdoun, Haston, Hachtun [submerged]
38°59'3.41"N 38°53'26.42"E
no Armenians in 1914
1 church in ruins

The location of Khachdoun is an estimate as the village is now under the waters of the Keban reservoir. Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 6 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village contained 22 Armenians (14 males and 8 females) and 5 Muslims (3 males and 2 females) in 6 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak included the population with Pasha Mezre. After this, only Adjemian indicates an Armenian population of 36 Armenians in 12 households in 1915.

12. Kharasar, Gharasar, Kharassar [Karasar]
38°58'42.29"N 38°48'38.65"E
223 Armenians in 34 households
Sp. Toros church

A view of the gardens near the town of Chmshgadzak

A view of the gardens near the town of Chmshgadzak. Probably photographed in the 1930s (Source: Kasbarian family collection. Courtesy of Vazken Andréassian, Paris)

Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 24 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village contained 159 Armenians (84 males and 75 females) and 143 Muslims (75 males and 68 females) in 62 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 161 Armenians in 25 households. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded the population increasing to 223 Armenians in 34 households. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 183 Armenians in 35 households.

13. Khntrgig
no Armenians in 1914
no church

I have been unable to determine the location of Khntrgig. It was most assuredly located somewhere in the approximately one mile separating Setrga [Güneybaşı] from Satsili [Engerler]. Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 8 Armenian households adhering to the Greek Orthodox faith (hay horom). The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook confirms the village was entirely populated by those professing Greek Orthodoxy, 40 people (20 males and 20 females) in 7 households. It is indicated that by 1915 these Armenians had moved to Mamsa.

14. Mamsa, Mamoussa [Alakuş]
39° 5'15.54"N 38°50'6.03"E
570 Armenians in 80 households
Sp. Kevork church
Sp. Toros church (hay horom)

Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 76 Armenian households, 40 Apostolic and 36 Greek Orthodox (hay horom). The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village contained 230 Armenian Apostolics (126 males and 104 females), 141 Greek Orthodox (67 males and 74 females) and 9 Muslims (4 males and 5 females) in 72 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 400 Armenians in 94 households (54 Armenian Apostolic and 40 Greek Orthodox). In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded the population increasing to 570 Armenians (320 Armenian Apostolic and 250 Greek Orthodox) in 80 households (42 Armenian Apostolic and 38 Greek Orthodox). Kévorkian appears to have added in error the Greek Orthodox population to the totals, my figures are based on Teotig. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 334 Armenians (171 Armenian Apostolic and 163 Greek Orthodox) in 82 households (44 Armenian Apostolic and 38 Greek Orthodox).

15. Mangoujag, Mengujek [submerged]
38°53'52.72"N 38°54'6.46"E
no Armenians in 1914
no church

The location of Mangoujag is an estimate as the village is now under the waters of the Keban reservoir. Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 3 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village contained 15 Armenians (6 males and 9 females) and 17 Muslims (9 males and 8 females) in 6 households. This is the last record of Armenians having lived in the village.

Population figures of the district of Chmshgadzak from the 1312 (1894) Mamuretul Aziz "salname"

16. Miadoun, Miyadoun, Germiji [hamlet of Erkalkan]
39° 5'26.67"N 38°44'42.12"E
44 Armenians in 11 households
Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

While Armenians called the village Miadoun, even prior to 1915 it was also referred to as Germiji. I do not see any homes there today from satellite imagery, but it is stated to be a hamlet of Sığnek [Erkalkan]. Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 54 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village was entirely Armenian with a population of 298 people (153 males and 145 females) in 57 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 362 Armenians in 71 households. By 1914, the village had been destroyed and only partially rebuilt. The Armenian Patriarchate recorded the population of the village as only 44 Armenians in 11 households. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 37 Armenians in 12 households.

17. Mouroushka, Morshga, Mouroushka, Morshukha
39° 2'29.98"N 38°51'52.79"E
164 Armenians in 36 households
Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

While there is clearly a cluster of homes in the location, Mouroushka must today be considered a hamlet of a nearby village. Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 35 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village contained 165 Armenians (85 males and 80 females) and 41 Muslims (25 males and 16 females) in 47 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 161 Armenians in 40 households. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded the population as 164 Armenians in 36 households. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 112 Armenians in 27 households.

18. Mirnav, Mournayi
39° 3'40.06"N 38°54'14.09"E
181 Armenians in 22 households
Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

Mirnav was located on cliffs overlooking the town of Chmshgadzak. Karekin Srvantsdiants does not mention the village. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village as entirely Armenian with a population of 163 people (86 males and 77 females) in 29 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 165 Armenians in 30 households. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded the population as 181 Armenians in 22 households. The household count is low and may be an error. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 145 Armenians in 32 households.

Chmshgadzak – Lower bridge

Chmshgadzak – Lower bridge. Probably photographed in the 1930s (Source: Kasbarian family collection. Courtesy of Vazken Andréassian, Paris)

19. Otskiugh [Paşacık]
39° 5'1.82"N 38°58'10.53"E
no Armenians in 1914
Sp. Prgich church
Sp. Zoravor vank

In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak states a population of 319 Armenians (46 Protestant) in 50 households (8 Protestant). However, it was indicated that most of the families had moved to the Chmshgadzak neighborhood of Iuchbek/Üçbek to escape Kurdish raids. They still were using the homes and fields in the summer for agriculture. The 57 Armenians in 8 households of the neighboring village of Boghosi also had moved to Iuchbek. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village as entirely Armenian with a population of 194 Armenian Apostolics (101 males and 93 females) and 48 Protestants (23 males and 25 females) in 31 households. By 1915, the village was completely abandoned by Armenians. In 1935, 150 people of unknown origin were living in the village.

20. Ouloukale, Ouloughala [Ulukale]
39° 2'5.06"N 39° 2'45.01"E
no Armenians in 1914
Sp. Minas church

Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 4 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village contained 18 Armenians (9 males and 9 females) and 427 Muslims (252 males and 175 females) in 127 households. This is the last record of Armenians living in what was essentially a Muslim village.

21. Pasha Mezre [submerged]
38°54'40.77"N 38°56'21.11"E
no Armenians in 1914
no  church

The location of Pasha Mezre is an estimate as the village is now under the waters of the Keban reservoir. Karekin Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 3 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village contained 5 Armenians (3 males and 2 females) and 30 Muslims (18 males and 12 females) in 12 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 37 Armenians in 8 households, but it also included those living in Khachdoun. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate did not record any Armenians living in Pasha Mezre. However, Adjemian indicated 16 Armenians in 4 households. I have assumed no Armenians were living in the village in 1914, but it could be that the Patriarchate census missed the village since there was no church or priest and the village was essentially Muslim.

22. Pazapoun, Bazaboun, Bazapon [Cebe]
39° 2'31.50"N 38°50'14.20"E
116 Armenians in 15 households
Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

Chmshgadzak – Upper bridge and surrounding gardens

Chmshgadzak – Upper bridge and surrounding gardens. Probably photographed in the 1930s (Source: Kasbarian family collection. Courtesy of Vazken Andréassian, Paris)

Srvantsdiants indicated the village had 21 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village contained 121 Armenians (64 males and 57 females) and 6 Muslims (4 males and 2 females) in 23 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 108 Armenians in 16 households. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded the population as 116 Armenians in 15 households. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 74 Armenians in 15 households.

23. Setrga, Satirge, Satirges, Satirkes, Seterkeh [Güneybaşı]
39° 6'59.16"N 38°49'21.27"E
33 Armenians in 6 households
Ruins of a church and monastery

Karekin Srvantsdiants states the village had 2 Armenian Apostolic households and 2 Greek Orthodox households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village contained 29 Armenian Apostolics (13 males and 16 females), 6 Greek Orthodox (2 males and 4 females) and 140 Muslims (67 males and 73 females) in 42 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 26 Armenians in 5 households. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded the population as 33 Armenians in 6 households. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 24 Armenians in 7 households.

24. Sisna, Sisne [Varlıkonak]
39° 4'55.00"N     38°50'3.00"E
235 Armenians in 35 households
Sp. Hovhannes church

Karekin Srvantsdiants states the village had 32 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village contained 196 Armenians (106 males and 90 females) and 165 Muslims (83 males and 82 females) in 71 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 215 Armenians in 35 households. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded the population as 235 Armenians in 35 households. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 140 Armenians in 35 households.

25. Tsntsor, Sinsor, Tsuntsor, Hintsor [Payamdüzü]
38°58'36.64"N 38°59'14.38"E
38 Armenians in 6 households
Sp. Asdvadzadzin church
Khachkar vank

A family tree of an Armenian family from the Sisna village of Chmshgadzak

The family tree of an Armenian family from the Sisna village of Chmshgadzak. Prepared by Hovhannes Adjemian, Boston, 1953 (Source: Hovhannes Adjemian archives, NAASR, Belmont, MA)

Two villages were named Tsntsor - one is under water near Pasha Mezre, the other is the Armenian village per the description in Kasbarian. Once again, it appears that the map in Ghazarian displays the wrong village. Karekin Srvantsdiants states the village had 3 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village contained 6 Armenians (3 males and 3 females) and 77 Muslims (39 males and 38 females) in 18 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 44 Armenians in 10 households. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded the population as 38 Armenians in 6 households. While Adjemian indicated 18 Armenians in 3 households.

26. Touma Mezre, Toma Mezre, Salim Bey Mezre [submerged]
38°57'18.06"N 38°49'32.24"E
200 Armenians in 25 households
Sp. Lousavorich church

The location of Touma Mezre is an estimate as the village is now under the waters of the Keban reservoir. Teotig lists the church as Sp. Nshan. Karekin Srvantsdiants states the village had 26 Armenian. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village contained 97 Armenians (61 males and 36 females) and 64 Muslims (37 males and 27 females) in 28 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 107 Armenians in 25 households. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded the population as 200 Armenians in 25 households. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 143 Armenians in 39 households.

The family tree of the Hekimian family from the Sisna village of Chmshgadzak

The family tree (from the beginning to 1954) of the Hekimian family from the Sisna village of Chmshgadzak. Prepared by Hovhannes Adjemian, Boston, 1953 (Source: Hovhannes Adjemian archives, NAASR, Belmont, MA)

27. Vasgavan, Vaskovan, Vazkvan [Akçapınar]
38°56'55.80"N 38°56'42.01"E
8 households
Ruins of 7 churches
Ruins of Sp. Vasliga vank

Karekin Srvantsdiants states the village had 18 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village contained 40 Armenians (21 males and 19 females) and 86 Muslims (41 males and 45 females) in 46 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 95 Armenians in 25 households. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate reported 8 Armenian households without detailing the***. While Adjemian did not supply any information on Vasgavan.

28. Yerits Akrag, Erets Akrag, Erets Agrak, Is Egreg, Ish Ekrek [hamlet of Arpaderen]
39° 2'32.40"N 38°53'12.93"E
226 Armenians in 29 households
Sp. Khach church

Karekin Srvantsdiants states the village had 34 Armenian households. The 1894 Mamuretul Aziz yearbook indicates the village was entirely Armenian with a population of 172 people (84 males and 88 females) in 40 households. In 1902, the Diocese of Chmshgadzak recorded 185 Armenians in 32 households. In 1914, the Armenian Patriarchate recorded the population as 226 Armenians in 29 households. While the material collected by Hovhannes Adjemian indicated 146 Armenians in 34 households.

Chmshgadzak: a section of Choukhour neighborhood

Chmshgadzak: a section of Choukhour neighborhood. Probably photographed in the 1930s (Source: Kasbarian family collection. Courtesy of Vazken Andréassian, Paris)

***************

Bibliography

  • Andréassian, Vazken. Hazari : vie et survie d'un village arménien après juin 1915. issuu.com/vazken/docs/1995-hazari__vie_et_survie_dun_village_armenien
  • Antranig, Տերսիմ. ճանապարհորդութիւն եւ տեղագրութիւն [Dersim: Travel and Topography], Tbilisi, Mnatsakan Mardirosiants Press, 1900.
  • Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA) Nüfus Defterleri (NFS.d.), folder 2689, “1256 (1840) Harput eyaleti, (Maadin-i Hümayun) sancağı, Palu kazası, reaya defteri. a.g.y.tt”.
  • Dahiliye Vekâleti, Vilâyetler İdaresi Umum Müdürlüğü. 6, Tunceli Vilâyeti. Ankara 1959.
  • Soukias (Fr.) Eprigian, Պատկերազարդ բնաշխարհիկ բառարան [Illustrated Dictionary of the Historic Homeland], Vol. 2, Venice, St Lazarus, 1907.
  • Ghazarian, Haigazn, Պատմագիրք Չմշկածագի [Chmshgadzak History Book], Beirut, Hamazkayin Press, published by Chmshgadzak Compatriotic Union, 1971.
  • Kevork Halladjian, Տերսիմի հայերի ազգագրութիւնը [Ethnography of Dersim Armenians], in “Armenian Ethnography and Folklore”, Vol. 5, Yerevan, 1973.
  • Kemal H. Karpat, Ottoman Population, 1830-1914: Demographic and Social Characteristics. Madison, Wisconsin 1985.
  • Hampartsoum H. Kasbarian, Չմշկածագ եւ իր գիւղերը [Chmshgadzak and its Villages], Boston, Baykar Press, 1969.
  • Raymond H. Kévorkian and Paul B. Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l'Empire Ottoman à la veille du genocide, Paris, ARHIS, 1992.
  • Mamuretül aziz Vilâyeti, 1298 (1881M) Tarihli Mamuretül aziz Vilâyeti Salnamesi. Elazig 2001.
  • Mamuretül aziz Vilâyeti, Mamuretül aziz Vilâyeti Salnamesi. 1312 (1894).
  • Justin McCarthy, Muslims and Minorities: The Population of Ottoman Anatolia and the End of the Empire, New York, New York University Press, 1983.
  • Boghos (Fr.) Natanian, Տեղեկագրութիւն ընդհանուր վիճակին Սեբաստիոյ եւ անոր կուսակալութեան ներքեւ գտնուղ մէկ քանի գլխաւոր քաղաքաց [A Report on the General State of Sepasdia/Sivas and some of the Main Cities within its Prefecture], Constantinople, Hayasdanyats Press, 1877.
  • Naci Okcu and Hasan Akdağ, Salname-i vilayet-i Erzurum (1287/1870-1288/1871-1289/1872-1290/1873): Erzurum il yıllığı, Erzurum 2010.
  • Dikran Papazian, Պատմութիւն Բալահովիտի [History of the Valley of Palu], Meshag Press, Beirut, 1963.
  • Antranig L. Poladian, Պատմութիւն հայոց Արաբկիրի [History of the Armenians of Arapgir], New York, Baykar Press, published by the Arapgir Association of America, 1969.
  • Safrastyan, A. Kh. Gosdantnoubolsi Hayots Badriarkarani Goghmits Tourkiayi Artaratadoutyan yev Tavanankneri Minisdroutyan Nergayatsvadz Haygagan Yegeghetsineri yev Vankeri Tsoutsagnern ou Takrirneru in Echmiadzin, Feb – Apr 1965. Pp. 184-187.
  • Karekin (Fr) Srvantsdiants, Թորոս Աղբար, Հայաստանի ճամբորդ [Toros Aghbar, a Traveler through Armenia], Vol. 2: printed by G. Baghdadlian (Aramian), Constantinople, 1884.
  • Teotig, Գողգոթա հայ հոգեւորականութեան եւ իր հօտին աղէտալի 1915 տարին [The Calvary of the Armenian Clergy and its Followers in 1915], New York, 1985.
  • Jean-Michel Thierry, Le Couvent Erkayn Enkuzik en Dersim, Revue des études arméniennes, vol. 20 (1986-1987), pp. 381-417.
  • Tunceli İl Yıllığı, Ankara 1973.
  • Mehmet Ali Ünal, XVI. Yüzyılda Çemişgezek Sancağı, Ankara 1999.
  • Kevork S. Yerevanian, Պատմութիւն Չարսանճագի հայոց [History of Charsandjak Armenians], Beirut, G. Donigian Printers, published by Pan-Charsandjak Union Central Board (Fresno), 1956.
  • İbrahim Yılmazçelik, XIX. Yüzyılın İkinci Yarısında Dersim Sancağı, Elaziğ 1999.