Keghi – Monasteries and Churches

Author: Robert Tatoyan, 14/01/2019 (Last modified: 14/01/2019) - Translator: Simon Beugekian

The Keghi Diocese before the Armenian Genocide

Prior to the Genocide, the Keghi Diocese had spiritual jurisdiction over the Keghi Sub-District of the Erzurum District of the Erzurum Province of the Ottoman Empire, with its approximately 50 Armenian-populated settlements and a total Armenian population of about 25,000 [1]. According to the figures of the Constantinople Armenian Patriarchate, at the start of the 20th century, the Keghi Diocese was home to four standing (and nominally functioning) monasteries and 47 functioning churches [2].

Tradition holds that the first prelate of Keghi or Geghi (Khortsian District of the Dzopk Province of historic Greater Hayk) was Archbishop Khat, who was ordained as archbishop of Pakrevant and Arshagounyats by Catholicos Nerses the Great, and who was later consecrated by the Armenian Apostolic Church [3]. Archbishop Khat’s tomb was located in the village of Haksdoun or Hanksdoun of the Keghi Sub-district. A church was built atop this tomb, bearing the name of the saint.

As an archbishopric, Keghi is first mentioned in sources from the 14th century. Pilibos, the “archbishop of Geghi,” was listed among the participants of an ecclesiastic summit held in Sis in 1307 [4].

A view of Keghi (Source: Dick Maloian Collection, Livonia, Michigan).

In subsequent centuries, Keghi was mentioned as among the areas falling under the spiritual jurisdiction of the Saint Garabed Monastery of Moush [5]. The monasteries of Keghi – Saint Garabed of Haksdoun, Saint Giragos of Hosnag, and the Holy Virgin of Arek – alternately took turns serving as the seat of the prelacy or collectively constituting a “spiritual diocese” subject to the authority of and paying taxes to the Saint Garabed Monastery of Moush [6].

In his work Champr (1765), Simon Yerevantsi stated that Keghi was subject to the authority of the Garin Diocese [7].

In 1767, under the auspices of the Constantinople Armenian Patriarchate, Keghi was organized into its own separate diocese, which continued functioning as such until the middle of the 19th century [8].

In 1863, the combined diocese of Keghi and Erzincan was created, but this merger did not last long. In 1868, the combined diocese of Keghi and Paghesh was created.

A view of the town of Keghi (Source: Dick Maloian Collection, Livonia, Michigan).

On May 10, 1880, Keghi gained the status of the second seat of the Garin Prelacy [9] (from 1880 to 1887, Maghakia Ormanian served as the prelate of Garin) [10]. From 1880 to 1889, Nerses Kharakhanian (renowned church leader and future prelate of the Daron Prelacy) served as the prelate of the Keghi Sub-prelacy. In future years, the prelates of the sub-prelacy included Senior Priest Khoren Shahnazarian (1889-1890), Father Mesrob Tovmasian (1890-1891), and Father Arisdages Khachadourian (1894-1899) [11]. The latter’s reign saw the Hamidian massacres, as a result of which the churches and monasteries of Keghi sustained substantial damage, as did Armenian religious establishments across Ottoman Armenia. To wit, the massacres and pogroms that took place in Keghi on October 10, 1895 resulted in the destruction and plundering of two monasteries and 20 churches, constituting about half of the Armenian religious establishments in the region [12].

In 1899, thanks to the efforts of Father Arisdages Khachadourian, the Keghi Diocese was removed from the jurisdiction of the Erzurum Prelacy, and obtained the status of a separate prelacy [13]. In subsequent years, until the Genocide, Keghi-Khortsian was identified in records as a separate prelacy or archbishopric [14].

1
2

1) Senior Priest Father Bsag Der Khorenian, prelate of the Armenian Church in Keghi from 1909 to 1912 (Source: Senior Priest Father Bsag Der Khorenian, Hovoun Tsayne, Keghiyen [The sound of the wind, from Keghi], Armash Series, Istanbul, 2012)
2) Houshamadyan of Keghi, Khoups Kyughi [Memory Book of the Khoups Village of Keghi], Compatriotic Union of the Khoups Village of Keghi, Fresno, 1968.

The diocese experienced a period of rebirth and progress during the short reign of Senior Priest Vahridj Shahlamian (1900-1901). Keghi intellectual Levon Srabian described the work of the prelate thus – “The energetic and educated armashian [an alumnus of the Armashian Seminary – R.T.] was even more successful than hoped. In a short time, he organized the affairs of the diocese, which had been neglected for many years. He organized local meetings, put additional effort into the resolution of the monasteries’ affairs, and asked the National Central Committee to establish an orphanage in Keghi to provide shelter to the diocese’s destitute orphans. As for the educational situation, Father Vahridj Shahlamian’s greatest achievement was the establishment and reforms of schools in Kasaba [a reference to schools that had been shut down in the mid-1890s as a result of the dissolution of the United Society – R.T.]” [15].

In 1901, records indicate that Father Paren Melkonian is was the interim prelate of Keghi [16]. In 1902, that same position was filled by Father Dadjad Yesayan [17]. Between 1904 and 1907, the interim prelate of Keghi was Father Yervant Peshdimaldjian [18]. Between 1907 and 1912, the interim prelate was Senior Priest Father Bsag Der-Khorenian [19]. Simon Vratsian, who visited Keghi in 1911, described the latter as “A robust and joyful youth, a good conversationalist, with an agile mind. He loves his bread and loves asking questions. His curiosity extends to everything.” The Dashnak leader also reported that Father Bsag Der-Khorenian had made a study of Keghi, and had collected a large amount of material, planning to publish it as a single volume [20].

One the eve of the Armenian Genocide, the Prelate of the Keghi Diocese was Father Kegham Tevekelian (who began his reign on December 1, 1912). He was described as an “energetic, scholarly, and diligent prelate,” and as a man who had “great talent and skill” in the social and psychological sciences [21]. He was the author of Nor Gshir yev Nor Arjekner [A New Balance and New Values], a socio-psychological study, as well as many other articles published by the Armenian media of Istanbul (the Hairenik and Azadamard newspapers) [22].

A view of Keghi (Source: Dick Maloian Collection, Livonia, Michigan).

The Protestant Community of Keghi

On the eve of the Genocide, the number of Protestant Armenians in Keghi was approximately 1,000 [23]. The Armenian Protestant community had a presence in the sub-district’s administrative center, the town of Keghi-Kasaba (where the community was founded in 1848) [24], where out of 500 Armenians households, about 100 were Protestant [25]. An Armenian Protestant community also existed in the village of Tarman (Temran), home to about 300 Protestants [26]. Scattered Protestant families and individuals also lived in the villages of Djermag, Chanakhchi, and Oror. Based on the administrative divisions of the Ottoman governmental bureau of Protestant churches, the Protestant communities of Keghi, Tarman, Djermag, and Oror were included within the region of Charsanchag of the eastern “union” [27].

Sources indicate that Protestant Armenians were more prosperous relative to their non-Protestant compatriots [28]. In our opinion, this could be explained by two principal factors – a) as a general rule, Protestantism was embraced mostly by wealthier Armenians, such as merchants and representatives of the intellectual class, and b) a larger number of Protestant Armenian families emigrated to the United States, and were able to send financial help to the family members they left behind in Keghi.

According to contemporary accounts, Protestant and Apostolic Armenians in Keghi collaborated in the domains of education, church affairs, and national affairs in a spirit of mutual love and tolerance [29].
 
On the eve of the Armenian Genocide, the leader of the Protestant Armenian community of the town of Keghi-Kasaba was Baghdasar Kalaydjian. The ministers serving the community were B. Khachadourian, Kh. Vartanian, and A. Simonian. The ministers of the Protestant community of Tarman were Garabed Melkonian (killed in 1915) and K. Enfiedjian [30].
 

The Monasteries of the Keghi Diocese

According to the figures of the Istanbul Armenian Patriarchate, in the second half of the 19th century and in the early 20th century, there were four functioning monasteries in the Keghi Diocese – Saint Garabed, Saint Giragos of Hosnag, Kedahayats [“looking upon the river”] Holy Virgin of Arek, and the Holy Savior of Sergevil. Aside from these monasteries, the sub-district was also home to the ruins of many abandoned monasteries and chapels.

Prior to the Armenian Genocide, the preeminent monastery in the sub-district was Saint Garabed of Haksdoun. The prelates of the Keghi Diocese were, by virtue of their position, also the abbots of the monastery [31].

Like in other parts of the Ottoman Empire, the monasteries of Keghi were pilgrimage destinations for the local population. “On holidays devoted to the monasteries, the people of Keghi would go on pilgrimages to the monastery sites, where they would pray fervently and attend the celebration of the Divine Liturgy, hoping for the fulfillment of their pilgrimage oaths.” Another account notes – “The sick were brought to the sites for healing. In times of drought, a special service was held to bless the fields and crops (sometimes, rain would fall before even the conclusion of the service)” [32].

A Bible illustrated by Hagop Choughayetsi in Keghi. Year: 1586 (Source: Claude Mutafian (ed.), Arménie. La magie de l’écrit, Paris/Marseille, 2007).

The Saint Garabed Monastery of Haksdoun (present-day Topraklık) (functioning)

The Saint Garabed Monastery was located at a distance of six kilometers north of Keghi, near the village of Haksdoun or Hanksdoun. Like many Armenian monasteries, it was also known by other names, including the Khlbash Hermitage (after the nearby Khale-Pash fort), the Abarou Monastery (after the city of Abar, destroyed by Shah Abbas in 1601), and the Kedahayats Sourp Garabed Monastery (the Kayl (Peri-sou) River flowed below the monastery) [33].
 
According to legend, the monastery was founded by Krikor the Illuminator, at the site of a destroyed pagan temple. According to another legend, the founder of the monastery was Nerses Bartev, and correspondingly, its first abbot was Prelate of Khortsian Province, Archbishop Khat (308-380) [34].
 
In both name and organization, the monastery was a smaller version of the Saint Garabed Monastery of Moush, with which it had close links. Throughout its history, monks of the Moush Saint Garabed Monastery repeatedly rebuilt Saint Garabed of Haksdoun and revived its order. Members of Saint Garabed’, prior to the Armenian Genocide, had free entry into the Keghi Sub-district, which had the status of a derouni (subject to authority) to the Moush Saint Garabed Monastery [35].

The monastery is first mentioned in documentary accounts from the 15th century [36]. From the 15th to the 17th century, the monastery prospered, as evidenced by the large number of handwritten and copied manuscripts that were produced there, and which have been preserved for us to examine; as well as the information provided in the annotations of these manuscripts [37].

In the second half of the 18th century, the Saint Garabed Monastery began losing its former significance. The destruction of the monastery in the 1770s or the 1780s (the exact date is not mentioned in sources) “at the hands of foreigners” (apparently Kurdish marauders from Dersim) contributed to this decline.

In 1808, Senior Priest Father Mardiros Pulpul oversaw the fundamental reconstruction of the Saint Garabed Monastery, building a school building adjacent to the monastery. In 1815, Mardiros Pulpul’s son, Father Hovhannes Pulpulian, was appointed abbot of the monastery. He would later follow in his father’s footsteps, also serving as the prelate of the Keghi Diocese (until 1839). His reign was characterized by large-scale church construction activities. Specifically, he oversaw the construction of the Saint Hagop Church in Keghi-Kasaba, the Holy Virgin in Djeber, and the Saint Khat in Haksdoun [38].

A view of Keghi. The Saint Sarkis Church is visible in the center, slightly to the left (Source: Dick Maloian Collection, Livonia, Michigan).

In 1845, the then-prelate of the Keghi Diocese, Senior Priest Father Israel Vanetsi (who served in that capacity until 1850), moved the seat of the prelacy to the city of Keghi, taking with him the members of the monastery’s order. The monastery was thus deprived of its permanent order and experienced a period of decline [39].

The monastery was listed among the spiritual institutions of Keghi that were damaged during the Hamidian massacres (which occurred on October 10, 1895 in the sub-district) [40].

In 1898, the Arevelk newspaper, published in Constantinople, published an article that described the Saint Garabed Monastery, alongside the other monasteries in Keghi, as being “abandoned” and in a “pitiful” state. The article mentioned that the monastery’s lands, which included 10 plots of farmland, enough to provide work for 50 farmhands, in addition to vast forests [41], were completely abandoned and were being cared for by random locals. “Everyone treats the monastery’s lands like they treat their own sheep. They make use of the pastures, then cut all the grass and fill their own barns with it. Gradually, the Armenians aghas have also started taking over the farmland, and there is no one to even complain about it” [42].

Some work was done to improve the monastery’s condition during the reigns of prelates of the Keghi Diocese Senior Priest Father Vahridj Shahlamian (1900-1901) and Senior Priest Father Bsag Der Khorenian (1907-1912). In particular, during the latter’s reign, a board of trustees was established to oversee the monastery, which commissioned construction work to renovate the portions of the monastery compound’s wall that had collapsed and the rooms reserved for the members of the monastic order [43].

The Saint Giragos Monastery of Hosnag/Khosnag (present-day Güngörsün) (functioning)

The Saint Giragos Monastery was located in the area of the Hosnag cluster of villages, in the vicninity of the Asdghapert village [44]. According to the information provided to the Ottoman authorities by the Constantinople Armenian Patriarchate, the monastery was founded or re-founded in 1748 [45].

The monastery was one of Keghi’s most celebrated seminaries, and sources mention that many manuscripts were written there [46]. For a period of time between the 18th and 19th centuries, the monastery served as the seat of the prelacy [47].

The monastery was rich in land, and possessed vast and flat farmlands and fields, all irrigated by plenty of water. The Asdghapert River flowed near the monastery, and two watermills belonging to the monastery were built on the river’s banks. The monastery’s properties also included dense forests and large pastures. The residents of more than 15 Armenian-populated villages of Keghi, according to ability, paid bdghi (a tax paid in the form of crops) and lousakin [“tributes of light”] (candles, oil, or other tributes) to the monastery [48].

Saint Giragos sustained serious damage during the Hamidian massacres. The wave of violence reached the Keghi Sub-district on October 10, 1895 [49]. The monastery was plundered and destroyed, and the school functioning on the monastery compound was shut down [50].

In subsequent years, the monastery was unable to recover from this catastrophe, and remained deprived of its permanent order. In 1898, the Armenian newspaper Arevelk, based in Istanbul, published an article that stated that like the other monasteries of Keghi, Saint Giragos was abandoned and in a pitiful state [51]. In 1900, Archbishop Drtad Belian noted that the monastery was ancient and renowned, but was in an unenviable state of dilapidation [52].

Silk altar picture from the St. Garabed Church of the village of Khoups (Source: Osep Tokat, Armenian Master Silversmiths, Tigran Mets Printing House, Yerevan, 2005).

Kedahayats Holy Virgin [“Holy Virgin Looking Upon the River”] of Arek (present-day Eskikavak) (functioning)

The monastery was located to the east of the village of Arek, on the eponymous mountain. It had been given the name “kedahayats” because the the Oror River flowed right by it. It was also called the High Holy Virgin Monastery, as it was built at a high altitude [53].

According to legend, the founder of the monastery was the apostle Thaddeus. However, according to the information provided to the Ottoman authorities by the Constantinople Armenian Patriarchate, the monastery was founded in 1447 [54].

In the 16th-18th centuries, the monastery served as a center of education, as well as the seat of the prelacy. A few manuscripts written in the monastery have survived to the present time, with corresponding annotations that attest to this fact [55].

The monastery is mentioned as the “Holy Virgin Mary, Mother of God” in Hagop Garnetsi’s work, Deghakir Verin Hayots [Guide to Upper Armenia] (written in the 1860s). It is listed as one of two monasteries located in the vicinity of the town of Keghi (the other being the Saint Garabed of Haksdoun) [56].

The ruins of Kedahayats Holy Virgin of Arek (present-day Eskikavak) (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Information about the monastery from the late 19th and early 20th centuries is scant. In 1895, the Nor-Tar newspaper of Tbilisi published an article that stated that the monastery lacked an abbot, and that one Mesrob Kasbarian was assigned to the position of the compound’s caretaker. It was reported that the local authorities, without any evidence of wrongdoing, had arrested Kasbarian and were keeping him in jail, accusing him of being involved in revolutionary activities and hiding weapons inside the monastery [57].

In 1898, the newspaper Arevelk published an article that stated that alongside the other monasteries of Keghi, the Holy Virgin was abandoned and in a pitiful state, and its lands were being administered by random locals (see the sections of the article on the Saint Garabed of Haksdoun and Saint Giragos of Hosnag monasteries) [58].

Archbishop Drtad Balian (in 1901) lists the Holy Virgin among the other monasteries of Keghi, but also notes that he was unable to obtain any additional information regarding the monastery’s location, status, and administration [59].

The ruins of Kedahayats Holy Virgin of Arek (present-day Eskikavak) (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

The Holy Savior of Sergevil (present-day Açıkgüney) (functioning)

The monastery was located at a distance of about five minutes from the Armenian-populated village of Sergevil, at the peak of a high hill [60].
 
According to the report submitted to the Ottoman authorities by the Constantinople Armenian Patriarchate, the monastery was founded in the year 1398 [61]. Sources mention that in the early 1870s, a philanthropist from Istanbul, Ms. Odetta Mradian, donated funds to completely renovate the compound. Specifically, the main cathedral building was renovated, and 25-30 rooms were built for visiting pilgrims [62].

The monastery was one of the favorite pilgrimage destinations of the Armenian population in the area, especially the 2,000 Armenian residents of the village of Khoups, located at a distance of approximately two kilometers from the monastery. On Sundays during the months of the summer, thousands of people from Keghi would gather at the site [63].

In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the monastery lacked a stable order, and was administered by a board of trustees.

The monastery’s income was generated by its watermill and supplemented by the donations of pilgrims [64]. The village cemetery was located adjacent to the monastery [65].

Saint Kevork Monastery of Asdghapert (present-day Adaklı) (functioning as a church)

According to the information provided to the Ottoman authorities by the Constantinople Armenian Patriarchate, Saint Kevork was built in the year 1592 [66].

The monastery is mentioned by Ghougas Indjidjian (in 1878) as having a bountiful spring, from which sprung delicious water [67]. Archbishop Drtad Balian (in 1901) includes the Saint Kevork in his list, adding that even the locals lacked all knowledge regarding the monastery [68].

Nazaret Posdoyan’s report (in 1915) mentions Saint Kevork as the church of the village of Asdghapert. It is noted that prior to the acceptance of Christianity as Armenian’s official religion, the site was occupied by a shrine dedicated to the Goddess Asdghig [69].

Saint Garabed Monastery of Akrag (present-day Yolgüden) (in ruins)

This monastery is mentioned by Senior Priest Bsag Der-Khorenian as one of Keghi’s seminaries that experienced a period of prosperity in the middle ages. By the time of the Armenian Genocide, it was abandoned and in a dilapidated state [70].

Saint Tavit (Saint David) Monastery (in ruins)

Saint Tavit was an offshoot of the Saint Garabed Monastery, and was located near the town of Keghi-Kasaba, near the eponymous mountain. In the mid-18th century it was mentioned as a functioning monastery, but was abandoned thereafter. By the time of the Armenian Genocide, it was in a dilapidated state [71].

Keleghegian Monastery (in ruins)

The Keleghegian Monastery was located at the site of the Khoups village. In the 14th-15th centuries, it was the primary educational center in Keghi, and one of the preeminent monasteries of Armenia. Representatives from the monastery (“Father Hovsep from Keleghagan Monastery” and “Father Hayrabed from Keleghagan Monastery”) participated in the ecclesiastic summits held in Sis in 1307 and 1345. By the early 17th century, the monastery was already abandoned and in ruins [72].

The Churches of the Armenian-populated settlements of the Keghi Prelacy

Below, we present the list of churches in the Armenian-populated towns and villages of the Keghi Sub-district prior to the Armenian Genocide (as provided by various surveys of the Constantinople Armenian Patriarchate [74]; the accounts of Nazaret Posdoyan, a native of Keghi [74], and other sources). We have also provided the dates of the churches’ construction (as provided by the list of churches and monasteries prepared by the Constantinople Armenian Patriarchate in 1912-1913 for the Ottoman Ministry of Justice and Religious Affairs [75]); as well as the names of serving clergymen (according to Teotig [76]). Population numbers for the towns and villages are given according to the figures of the census conducted by Keghi’s diocesan authorities at the request of the Constantinople Armenian Patriarchate [77], or according to other sources, as indicated.

According to the aforementioned census, on the eve of the Armenian Genocide, out of the 50 Armenian-populated settlements in the Keghi Sub-district, 41 had churches. Keghi-Kasaba, Arek, Khoups, Asdghapert, and Tarman had two churches each. Kholkhol/Yayladere, Khachadour/Kutluca, Lek/Akbıdak, Sandjag, Inakh/Aysaklı, Heolenk, Moz, and Horgab lacked functioning churches [78].

A panorama of the village of Lek (present-day Akbıdak) (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Keghi-Kasaba

396 households, 2,116 Armenians.

The Saint Hagop Church (seat of the prelacy, built in 1835) and Saint Sarkis Church (built in 1836). The serving clergymen were Father Pakarad Kharpourtlian and Father Mgrdich Hovhannisian (killed in 1915).

The city also had three chapels – the Saint Krikor the Illuminator (built atop a hill, with the eponymous Armenian-populated neighborhood located at the bottom of the hill), Holy Virgin, and Saint Nshan (or Saint Giragos, according to another source). Services were occasionally held inside these chapels [79].

The city’s Armenian Protestant community had a three-story meeting hall, with its adjacent higher primary school [80].

A panorama of the village of Khoups (present-day Yazgünü) (present-day Yazgünü) (Source: Houshamadyan of Keghi, Khoups Kyughi [Memory Book of the Khoups Village of Keghi], Compatriotic Union of the Khoups Village of Keghi, Fresno, 1968).

Akrag (present-day Yolgüden)

50 households, 350 Armenians.
 
The Saint Minas Church [81] (built in 1822). The serving priests were Father Dadjad Melkonian and Father Hmayag Sarkisian (both killed in 1915).

The ruins of the church of the village of Akrag (present-day Yolgüden) (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Altoun Hussein (present-day Altınhüseyin)

7 households, 96 Armenians.
 
The Holy Virgin Church.

Abevank (present-day Çiçektepe)

30 households, 178 Armenians.
 
A church (unidentified in our sources).

A panorama of the village of Abevank (present-day Çiçektepe) (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Aghpzoud (present-day Duranlar)

17 households, 79 Armenians.
 
The Saint Sarkis Church [82] (built in 1848).

Amaridj (present-day Ayanoğlu)

20 households, 139 Armenians.
 
The Saint Vartan Church.

Aboghnag (present-day Akbinek)

70 households, 457 Armenians.
 
The Saint Hagop Church (built in 1815). On the eve of the Genocide, the serving priest was Father Zakaria Der-Zakarian (killed in 1915).

Arek (present-day Eskikavak)

170 households, 1,165 Armenians.
 
The Saint Hovhannes Church (built in 1830) and Saint Kevork Church (built in 1830) [83]. In 1915, the serving priests were Father Souren Mouradian (a native of the village) and Father Dadjad Reyisian (both killed in 1915).

Arints (present-day Güzgülü)

37 households, 215 Armenians.
 
The Holy Savior Church (built in 1723).

The ruins of the Holy Savior Church in the village of Arints (present-day Güzgülü) (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Asdghapert (present-day Adaklı)

116 households, 828 Armenians.
 
The Saint Sarkis Church (built in 1709) and the Saint Kevork Church (formerly a monastery). On the eve of the Genocide, serving priest was Father Parnapas Asdigian (killed in 1915).

Avertnig (present-day Nacaklı)

27 households, 163 Armenians.
 
The Holy Trinity Church (built in 1833).

Tarman (Temran) (present-day Bağlarpınarı)

330 households, 1,843 Armenians.
 
The Saint Sarkis Church (built in 1767). On the eve of the Genocide, the community was served by three priests – Father Housig Aprahamian, Father Toros, and Father Hovhannes (all three killed in 1915).
 
Tarman was also home to an Armenian protestant community, which was led by Pastor Garbed Melkonian (killed in 1915 in his birthplace of Khnous).

A scene from the village of Tarman/Temran (present-day Bağlarpınarı), July 1912. The large building on the left is the village’s Armenian Protestant school, which also served as the residence of the local Protestant pastor (Source: The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions archives, Harvard University, Houghton Library).

The ruins of the Saint Sarkis Church in Tarman/Temran (present-day Bağlarpınarı) (left) and the stone pool of the village (right) (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Ldjig (present-day Kaynarpınar)

42 households, 384 Armenians.
 
The Saint Sarkis Church (built in 1740). The serving priest was Father Shmavon Der-Simonian (killed in 1915).

Khoshkar (present-day Sancak)

21 households, 168 Armenians.
 
The Saint Nigoghos Church (built in 1803).

Khoups (present-day Yazgünü)

280 households, 1,980 Armenians.

The Saint Garabed Church (built in 1811, or, according to another source, in 1760 [84]) and the Saint Sarkis Church [85]. Saint Garabed was described as “large and beauteous,” where services were held twice a day in the presence of many pious residents of the village [86].

On the eve of the Genocide, the serving priest was Father Parnag Der-Mgrdchian (killed in 1915).

The ruins of the Saint Garabed Church of Khoups (present-day Yazgünü) (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Khoubek (present-day Haktanır)

13 households, 115 Armenians.

The Holy Virgin Church (built in 1840). The village was served by the priests of neighboring Akrag.

Kezel Chiboukh (present-day Kızılçubuk)

20 households, 141 Armenians.

The Saint Sarkis Church [87] (built in 1840).

The ruins of the Armenian cemetery of the village of Kezel Chiboukh (present-day Kızılçubuk) (left) and and a panorama of the same village (right) (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Haksdoun (present-day Topraklık)

62 households, 421 Armenians.

The Holy Cross Church (built in 1752) [88]. The serving priest was Father Sahag Der-Khatian (killed in 1915).

The church site included the tomb of Archbishop Khot, who was the first Prelate of the Khortsian Prelacy. This tomb that was the object of reverence and ardent worship for the region’s Armenian population [89].

The ruins of the Holy Cross Church in Haksdoun (present-day Yolgüden) (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Herdif (present-day Alpekmez)

100 households, 700 Armenians.

The Saint Kevork Church (built in 1860). On the eve of the Genocide, the serving priest was Father Khoren Mouratian, who died prior to the massacres. After his death, the community was were served by the priests of neighboring Akrag.

South of Herdig was the Sourp Louys [Holy Light] Mountain, which was a celebrated pilgrimage site for both the Armenians and the Kurds of Keghi (its pilgrimage day was the Feast of Vartavar) [90].

A scene from the village of Herdif (present-day Alpekmez) (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Hoghas (present-day Dallıca)

55 households, 450 Armenians.

The Holy Mother-of-God Church (built in 1796). The serving priests were Father Krikor Der-Kirkorian (killed in 1915) and Father Hovhannes Der-Boghosian (died prior to the Genocide).

Khazi (present-day Kadıköy)

25 households, 122 Armenians.

The Saint Yeghia Church (built in 1864). On the eve of the Genocide, the church had no serving priest. Whenever necessary, the priests of Keghi-Kasaba or the Djeber would visit the village.

Karabeg (present-day Karabey)

40 households, 320 Armenians.

The Saint Minas Church (built in 1800). The serving priest was Father Nershabouh Charchian (killed in 1915).

Djermag/Dzermag (present-day Yeldeğirmeni)

165 households, 1,155 Armenians.

The Saint Kevork Church (built in 1767). On the eve of the Genocide, the serving priest was Father Arsidages Ghougasian (killed in 1915).

The ruins of the Saint Kevork Church, and a panorama, of the village of Djermag (Dzermag) (present-day Yeldeğirmeni) (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Djeber (present-day Güneyağıl)

56 households, 340 Armenians.

The Holy Mother-of-God Church (built in 1825) [91]. The church was rich in land, including farmland and a small orchard (of strawberry). On the eve of the Genocide, a sum of 500-600 pounds was kept at the church, set aside for the village schools and other needs of the community [92]. The serving priests were Father Nerses Donoyan (killed in 1915) and Father Nerses Pznouni (died before the Genocide).

Melikhan (present-day Döşengi)

48 households, 398 Armenians.

The Holy Virgin Church (built in 1710). The serving priest was Father Knel Der Sarksian (killed in 1915).

Yolmez (present-day Ölmez)

17 households, 101 Armenians.

The village had a church (its name is not mentioned in our sources). The community was served by the priests of Keghi-Kasaba.

The waterfall of the village of Yolmez (present-day Ölmez) (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Shen (present-day Şenköy)

18 households, 128 Armenians.

The Saint Hagop Church (built in 1910).

Chan (present-day Çan)

32 households, 249 Armenians.

The Saint Minas Church (built in 1649).

A panorama of the village of Chan (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Chanakhchi (present-day Çanakçı)

177 households, 1,216 Armenians.

The Saint Giragos Church. It was built in 1800 (or 1817, according to another source [93]), by Zadour, an architect native to Keghi who had received his education in Constantinople (in later years, he would also build the churches of Haksdoun and Djeber, as well as the Saint Krikor the Illuminator Cathedral of Palou) [94].

On the eve of the Genocide, the serving priest was Father Housig Ashdjian (killed in 1915).

The ruins of the Saint Giragos Church of Chanakhchi (present-day Çanakçı) (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Charibash

21 households, 116 Armenians.

The Saint Hovhannes Church (built in 1814).

Chelebi (present-day Çelebi)

12 households, 100 Armenians.

The Saint Toros Church (built in 1843).

The ruins of the Armenian cemetery of the village of Cheleb (left) and the ruins of the Saint Toros Church (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Chiftlig (present-day Çiftlikköy)

40 households, 390 Armenians.

The Holy Virgin Church (built in 1765). The serving priest was Father Movses Der-Movsisian (killed in 1915).

Chomakh (present-day Çomak)

7 households, 55 Armenians.

The Saint Kevork Church.

Cherman/Cherme (present-day Yedisu)

24 households, 175 Armenians.

The Saint Kevork Church (built in 1808).

Sakatsor (present-day Kuşluca)

73 households, 456 Armenians.

The Saint Sarkis Church (built in 1793). On the eve of the Genocide, the serving priests were Father Kourken Vartanian and Father Hovhannes Derderian (both killed in 1915).

Seghank (present-day Döşlüce)

22 households, 179 Armenians.

The Saint Minas Church (built in 1785). The serving priest was Father Nerses (killed in 1915).

Sergevil (present-day Açıkgüney)

117 households, 658 Armenians.

The Holy Virgin Church (built in 1717) [95]. In 1915, the serving priest was Father Karekin Der-Krikorian (killed in 1915).

The Holy Virgin Church of Sergevil (present-day Açıkgüney) (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Dinek (present-day Akımlı)

26 households, 214 Armenians.

The holy Virgin Church (built in 1800).

Kerboz (present-day Kuşbayırı)

57 households, 352 Armenians.

The Saint Sarkis Church (built in 1811).

Osnag/Hosnag/Khosnag (present-day Güngörsün)

104 households, 684 Armenians.

The Saint Minas Church (built in 1859).

The site of the Armenian cemetery of the village of Osnag/Hosnag/Khosnag (present-day Güngörsün) (Source: Osep Tokat collection, Los Angeles).

Oror (present-day Gökçeli)

72 households, 524 Armenians.

The Holy Virgin Church [96] (built in 1718). On the eve of the Genocide, the serving priest was Father Soukias Nersesian (killed in 1915).


  • [1] The total population of Keghi Sub-district given according to our calculations (see R. Tatoyan, “Erzurumi nahanki Hay pnagchoutyan tvakanage Medz Yegherni nakhoryagin (agphurneri hamemadagan verloudzoutyan ports)” [“The size of the Armenian population in Erzurum Province on the Eve of the Genocide (an attempt at a comparative analysis of sources)”], Tseghasbanakidagan Hantes [Review of Genocide Studies], Yerevan, 2014, 2(1), pages 42-43.
  • [2] “1904 Entartsag Oratsouyts S. Prgchian Hivantanotsi Hayots [“1904 Comprehensive Calendar of the Saint Savior Armenian Hospital”], Constantinople, H. Madteosian Printing Press, 1904, pages 365-366.
  • [3] The History of Armenians as told by Pavsdos [Faustus] of Byzantium, Fourth Tome, XII.
  • [4] Ghougas Indjidjian, Sdorakroutyun Hin Hayasdanyayts [Signatures of old Armenia], Venice, Saint Lazarus Island, 1822, page 43; Archbishop Maghakia Ormanian, Azkabadoum [History of the Nation], Volume II, Mother See of Holy Echmiadzin, 2001, page 2086 (§ 1230).
  • [5] Arshag Alboyadjian, “Arachnortagan Vidjagner” [Jurisdictions of Prelacies], 1908 Entartsag Oratsouyts S. Prgchian Hivantanotsi Hayots, Constantinople, June 23, 1908, N. 24, page 309.
  • [6] Senior Priest Bsag Der-Khorenian, “Keghii Arachnortoutyan Badmoutyune” [The History of Keghi Diocese], Dadjar Popular Weekly, Constantinople, 1912, June 23, Number 24, page 355.
  • [7] Ormanian, Azkabadoum, page 3504 (§2078).
  • [8] Ibid.
  • [9] Archbishop Maghakia Ormanian, Azkabadoum, Volume C, Mother See of Holy Echmiadzin, 2001, page 5063 (§ 2867).
  • [10] Ghazar-Charek, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki. Garinabadoum [Memory Book of Upper Hayk. History of Garin], Beirut, 1957, page 129.
  • [11] Senior Priest Bsag Der-Khorenian, “Khortsian Kavari Tbrevankere” [The Seminaries of Khortsian District], Darekirk Keghii Hayrenagtsagan Mioutyan [Yearbook of the Keghi Compatriotic Union], A., 1937, Detroit, MI, 1937, page 47.
  • [12] For a list of churches and monasteries that were damaged during the Hamidian massacresm see the Ararad Religious-Moral, Literary-Historic, Rhetorical-Pedagogic, National and Official Monthly, Mother See of Holy Echmiadzin, 1896, February, page 88.
  • [13] Puzantyon [Byzantium] Armenian Daily, Constantinople, 1899, May 12/24, Number 782 (the commentary entitled Keghi since its Foundation).
  • [14] “1900 Entartsag Oratsouyts S. Prgchian Hivantanotsi Hayots”, Constantinople, 1900, page 345; Maghakia Ormanian, Hayots Yegeghetsin yev ir Badmoutyune, Vartabedoutyune, Varchoutyune, Paregarkoutyune, Araroghoutyune, Kraganoutyune, ou Nerga Gatsoutyune [The Armenian Church and its History, Priesthood, Administration, Reforms, Rituals, Literature, and Current State], Constantinople, 1911, page 261.
  • [15] Levon Srabian, Keghi (Deghakragan yev Azkakragan) [Keghi (Geographic and Ethnographic)], Antilias (Lebanon), Printing House of the Armenian Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia, 1960, page 65.
  • [16] Bsag Der-Khorenian, “Khortsian Nahanki Tbrevankere”, page 47; “1901 Entartsag Oratsouyts S. Prgchian Hivantanotsi Hayots”, Constantinople, 1901, page 407.
  • [17] Bsag Der-Khorenian, “Khortsian Nahanki Tbrevankere”, page 47; “1902 Entartsag Oratsouyts S. Prgchian Hivantanotsi Hayots”, Constantinople, 1902, page 528.
  • [18] Bsag Der-Khorenian, “Khortsian Nahanki Tbrevankere”, page 47; “1906 Entartsag Oratsouyts S. Prgchian Hivantanotsi Hayots”, Constantinople, 1906, page 416; “1907 Entartsag Oratsouyts S. Prgchian Hivantanotsi Hayots”, Constantinople, 1907, page 365.
  • [19] Bsag Der-Khorenian, “Khortsian Nahanki Tbrevankere”, page 47; “1908 Entartsag Oratsouyts S. Prgchian Hivantanotsi Hayots”, Constantinople, 1908, page 251.
  • [20] Simon Vratsian, “Tebi Keghi” [“To Keghi”], Darekirk Keghii Hayrenagtsagan Mioutyan [Yearbook of the Keghi Compatriotic Union], pages 56-57. The only extant portions of Senior Priest Father Bsag Khorenian’s work are isolated excerpts published in the contemporary press, and which have been used as sources for this article.
  • [21] Teotig, Koghkota Hay Hokevoraganoutyan yev ir Hodin Aghedali 1915 Darin [The Calvary of Armenian Clergy and its Flock's Catastrophic Year of 1915], New York, 1985, pages 190-191.
  • [22] Ibid., page 191.
  • [23] Ormanian, Hayots Yegeghetsin…, page 261; K. Karpat, Ottoman Population 1830-1914: Demographic and Social Characteristics, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin Press, 1985, page 170.
  • [24] G.B. Adanalian, Houshartsan Hay Avedaranaganots yev Avedaranagan Yegeghetsvo (Knnagan Dzanotoutyunnerov) [Memorial of Armenian Evangelicals and the Evangelical Church (with Critical Notes)], Fresno, 1952, page 471.
  • [25] Nazaret Posdoyan’s report “Vshdabadoum Garno gousagaloutyan Keghii kavarin yev shrchani kugherou badmagan, avantagan, sovorouyti yev 1914 t. aghedali yev arunali tebkerou deghegakroutyun” [“The tragic history of the Keghi District of the Garin Province and the nearby villages; their history, traditions, and customs; and a chronicle of the catastrophic and bloody events of 1914”] (Armenian National Archives, f. 57, ts. 5, c. 140, was published in Hayots Tseghasbanoutyune Osmaniam Tourkiayoum: Verbradzneri Vgayoutyunner: Pasdatghteri Joghovadzou, Volume III: Erzurumi, Kharperti, Diyarbekiri, Sepasdyayi, Drabizoni Nahanker, Barsgahayk, senior editor A. Virapian, Yerevan, Armenian National Archives, 2012, pages 123-148). By birth, N. Posdoyan was form the Khoups village of Keghi. At the time of the report (April 17, 1917), he was serving as the senior principal of the orphanage established in the Oumoudoum village of the Erzurum Sub-District by the Armenian refugees’ committee of Moscow.
  • [26] Teotig, Koghkota, page 195.
  • [27] In order to more easily administer the Protestant communities across the country, the Ottoman authorities divided them based on geography, into “regions” and “unions.” The other communities included in the Charsanchag Region were Pertag, Pashaghag, Til, Kharesig, and Pir (Dikran Dj. Khrlopian, Vosgemadian [Book of Gold], Volume A., Badmoutyun Mertsavor Arevelki Hay Avedaranagan Mitouyan [History of the Armenian Protestant Communities of the Near East], Beirut, 1950, pages 23-24).
  • [28] Arevigian, “Enthanour agnarg me Keghii vra” [“A general overview of Keghi”], Darekirk Keghii Hayrenagtsagan Mioutyan…, page 18.
  • [29] According to N. Posdoyan’s report (see Hayots Tseghasbanoutyune Osmanian Tourkiayoum: Verabradzneri Vgayoutyunner…”, Volume III, page 127).
  • [30] Teotig, Koghkota…, page 192; Adanalian, Houshartsan, page 479.
  • [31] Bsag Der-Khorenian, “Khortsian Nahanki Tbrevankere”, page 47.
  • [32] Parantsem Mouradian, Keghi (Khortsian Kavar) [Keghi (Khortsian Province)], Darekirk Keghii Hayrenagtsagan Mioutyan…, page 103.
  • [33] Bsag Der-Khorenian, “Khortsian Nahanki Tbrevankere”, page 24.
  • [34] Ibid.
  • [35] Ibid.
  • [36] H. Vosgian, Partsr Hayki Vankere [The Monasteries of Upper Hayk], Vienna, Mkhitarine Press, 1951, page 217. The report provided by the Constantinople Armenian Patriarchate to the Ottoman Ministry of Justice states that the monastery was founded or re-founded in 1413 (see Safrasdian, Gonstantoubolsi Hayots badriarkarani goghmits Tourkyayi artaratadoutyan yev tavanankneri minisdroutyan nergayatsvatdz tegeghetsineri yev vankeri tsousagners ou takrirnere” [“The lists and reports of Armenian churches and monasteries, as provided by the Constantinople Armenian Patriarchate to the Ottoman Ministry of Justice”], Echmiadzin, the Official Monthly Magazine of the Mother See of Echmiadzin, 1965, B-C-D, page 177).
  • [37] Bsag Der-Khorenian, “Khortsian Nahanki Tbrevankere”, pages 26-41; H. Vosgian, Partsr Hayki Vankere, pages 217-223.
  • [38] Bsag Der-Khorenian, “Khortsian Nahanki Tbrevankere”, pages 43-44.
  • [39] Ibid., page 46.
  • [40] Ararad Religious-Moral, Literary-Historic, Rhetorical-Pedagogic, National and Official Monthly, Mother See of Holy Echmiadzin, February 1896, page 88.
  • [41] Archbishop Drtad Balian, Hay Vanorayk [Armenian Monasteries], Holy Echmiadzin, Printing Press of the Holy See of Mother Echmiadzin, 2008, page 164; Puzantion Hayatert Amenoria, Constantinople, 1901, September 27/October 10, number 1521.
  • [42] Arevelk National, Literary, and Political Newspaper, Constantinople, December 9/21, 1898, Number 3882 (article entitles “The Abandoned Monasteries of Keghi”).
  • [43] Bsag Der-Khorenian, “Khortsian Nahanki Tbrevankere”, page 46.
  • [44] For this reason, in some sources, Saint Giragos is mentioned among the educational institutions of Asdghapert.
  • [45] Safrasdian, “Gonsdantnoubolsi…”, page 177.
  • [46] For a list of some of the manuscripts kept at the monastery, see “Darekirk Keghii Hayrenagtsagan Mioutyan…”, pages 188-189.
  • [47] Arevigian, “Enthanour agnarg me Keghii Vra”, page 16; Bsag Der-Khorenian, “Khortsian Nahanki Tbrevankere”, page 41 and 43; and Vosgian, Partsr Hayki Vankere, page 215.
  • [48] Arevelk National, Literary, and Political Newspaper, Constantinople, Number 3887, December 15/27, 1898 (commentary entitled “The Saint Giragos Monastery of Keghi”).
  • [49] Ararad Religious-Moral, Literary-Historic, Rhetorical-Pedagogic, National and Official Monthly, Mother See of Holy Echmiadzin, February 1896, page 88.
  • [50] Arevigian, “Enthanour Agnarg me Keghii vra”, page 16.
  • [51] Arevelk National, Literary, and Political Newspaper, Constantinople, 1898,0December 9/21, Number 3882 (article entitles “The Abandoned Monasteries of Keghi”).
  • [52] Archbishop Drtad Balian, Hay Vanorayk, page 164; Puzantion Daily Newspaper, Constantinople, 1901, September 27/October 10, number 1521.
  • [53] Vosgian, Partsr Hayki Vankere, pages 211-212.
  • [54] Safrasdian, “Gonsdantnoubolsi…”, page 177.
  • [55] Vosgian, Partsr Hayki Vankere, pages 212-213.
  • [56] We present the concise, but compelling description of the Keghi Sub-district by Hagop Garnetsi – “And there in the land of the Khortsounyats, there are many cities and villages. It is adorned with orchards and fruit trees. It has a town called Keghi, which is small fort where a lord has his seat. There was also a pleasant cemetery and residence blessed by holy priests, and there were two monasteries, which currently have resident monks, one called Saint Garabed and the other the Holy Virgin Mary. There is also the tomb of the holy Archbishop Khat, who protects the world, which is now called Haksdoun” (Hagop Garnetsi, Deghakir Verit Hayots, Vaghrashabad, Printing Press of the Mother See of Holy Ehcmiadizin, 1903, page 10.
  • [57] Nor-Tar, Tbilisi, September 1, 1895, N. 158.
  • [58] Arevelk National, Literary, and Political Newspaper, Constantinople, 1898, December 9/21, Number 3882 (article entitles “The Abandoned Monasteries of Keghi”).
  • [59] Archbishop Drtad Balian, Hay Vanorayk, page 164; Puzantion Hayatert Amenoria, Constantinople, 1901, September 27/October 10, number 1521.
  • [60] The monastery was also referred to as being located near the village of Khoups (see Houshamadyan Keghi, Khoups Kughi [Memory Book of the Khoups Village of Keghi], Compatriotic Union of the Khoups Village of Keghi, Fresno, 1968, page 189).
  • [61] Safrasdian, “Gonsdantnoubolsi…”, page 177.
  • [62] According to N. Posdoyan’s report (see Hayots Tseghasbanoutyune Osmanian Tourkiayoum: Verabradzneri Vgayoutyunner…”, Volume III, pages 130-131.
  • [63] S. Eprigian, Badgerazart Pnashkharhig Pararan [Dictionary of the Indigenous World], Volume B., Venice, Saint Lazarus Press, 1907, page 212.
  • [64] According to N. Posdoyan’s report (see Hayots Tseghasbanoutyune Osmanian Tourkiayoum: Verabradzneri Vgayoutyunner…”, Volume III, pages 130-131).
  • [65] Ibid.
  • [66] Safrasdian, “Gonsdantnoubolsi…”, page 177.
  • [67] Vosgian, Partsr Hayki Vankere, page 214.
  • [68] Archbishop Drtad Balian, Hay Vanorayk, page 165.
  • [69] Hayots Tseghasbanoutyune Osmanian Tourkiayoum: Verabradzneri Vgayoutyunner…”, Volume III, page 141.
  • [70] Bsag Der-Khorenian, “Khortsian Kavari Tbrevankere”, page 24.
  • [71] Srabian, Keghi, page 12; Bsag Der-Khorenian, “Khortsian Kavari Tbrevankere”, pages 41-42; Vosgian, Partsr Hayki Vankere, page 214.
  • [72] Arevigian, “Enthanour Agnarg me Keghii Vra”, page 18; Vosgian, Partsr Hayki Vankere, page 225; Houshamadyan Keghi, Khoups Kughi…, page X and pages 188-189.
  • [73] “1904 Entartsag Oratsouyts S. Prgchian Hivantanotsi Hayots”, pages 365-366; Teotig, Koghkota…, pages 190-199; Raymond H. Kévorkian and Paul B. Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman à la veille du Génocide, ARHIS, Paris, 1992, pages 435-437.
  • [74] See footnote #24.
  • [75] Safrasdian, “Gonsdantnoubolsi…”, pages 176-177.
  • [76] Teotig, Koghkota…, pages 190-199.
  • [77] Kévorkian and Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, pages 435-437.
  • [78] Hayots Tseghasbanoutyune Osmanian Tourkiayoum: Verabradzneri Vgayoutyunner…”, Volume III, pages 157-158 (Document N. 34. The testimony of a group of residents of Keghi regarding the massacres in the villages of Keghi-Kasaba of the Garin Province).
  • [79] Srabian, Keghi, pages 19-20; Puzantion Daily Newspaper, Constantinople, 1899, May 12 (24), number 782.
  • [80] Ibid.
  • [81] According to Teotig, it was called the Holy Mother-of-God Church.
  • [82] According to Teotig, it was called the Saint Kevork Church.
  • [83] Teotig and Nazaret Posodyan mention only one church – Saint Hovhannes. According to the 1913 census, the second church was called the Holy Virgin (Kévorkian and Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 437).
  • [84] Houshamadyan Keghi, Khoups Kughi…, page XI.
  • [85] According to Posdoyan, Saint Sarkis was a chapel.
  • [86] Ibid., page 88.
  • [87] According to Teotig, it was called the Saint Hagop Church.
  • [88] Sources also refer to it as a monastery, which is perhaps the result of a mistake (according to Parantsem Mouradian, “Keghi (Khortsian Kavar)”, page 103; Vosgian, Partsr Hayki Vankere, page 214).
  • [89] Bsag Der-Khorenian, “Khortsian Kavari Tbrevankere”, page 25.
  • [90] Hayots Tseghasbanoutyune Osmanian Tourkiayoum: Verabradzneri Vgayoutyunner…”, Volume III, pages 136 and 154.
  • [91] May have previously been a monastery (Mouradian, “Keghi (Khortsian Kavar)”, page 103; Vosgian, Partsr Hayki Vankere, page 211).
  • [92] According to Posdoyan’s report (Hayots Tseghasbanoutyune Osmanian Tourkiayoum: Verabradzneri Vgayoutyunner…”, Volume III, page 128).
  • [93] Badmoutyun Garno Gousagaloutyan Keghi Kavari Chanakhchi Kughi [History of the Chanakchi Village of the Keghi District of the Garin Province], written and edited by Arakel Yeghian and Soghomon Kaprielian, Belleville, Illinois, USA, 1977, page 14.
  • [94] Ibid., pages 14-15.
  • [95] The name of the church in Sergevil is given according to the 1904 Comprehensive Calendar and the 1913 census of the Keghi Diocese. According to Teotig, the church was called Saint Nshan, while according to Nazaret Posdoyan, it was called Saint Sarkis.
  • [96] According to Teotig, it was called the Saint Kevork Church.