Dörtyol - Trades

Author: Vera Sahakyan, 20/06/14 (Last modified: 23/06/14) - Translator: Hrant Gadarigian

The market of Dörtyol [1] was located on the road dividing the town into four quarters. The municipality, where Armenian and Turkish officials worked side by side, was located at the center of the market [2]. The market’s many adorned shops were veritable storehouses of local and European goods. Throughout Cilicia, the Dörtyol market was famous for its oranges.

The market had about 300 shops, including small weaving factories and retail outlets, spice sellers, shoemakers, cafes, ironmongers, saddle makers [3], butchers, bread bakers, grocers, house painters and grain sellers. It was always full of people because residents of the Sandjak of Djebel Bereket [4] always hurried to the market to get whatever they needed [5].

Dörtyol also served as the central market for the mixed neighboring Armenian and Turkish villages of Eozerli (Özerli) and Odjaklu, as well as for the purely Turkish populated villages of Chaylu, Gouzouloudj and Gharakiliseh. On Saturdays, residents of these villages would flock to the market, tripling and quadrupling the number of people there.

The Balian family hails from Dörtyol. Later, they lived in Beylan (present-day Belen, Hatay province), which was a part of Syria until 1939 after which it was annexed by Turkey. Seated (from left) - Sinan Efendi Balian, with Ardemis on his lap. Standing to Sinan’s right - Berta (Marta). Standing in front of Berta - Mari. Seated - Lousaper (born Der Haroutyunian). Second row (standing from left) – Garabed and Haroutyun (Source: Berta Der Bedrossian (née Balian) collection, San Francisco)

Each retail shop had its customers who either came from adjacent villages, the town itself, or from other countries. Buyers and sellers respected one another due to their mutual interests. During the harvest season purchases on credit, including financial loans described as usury by the locals, were based on this mutual respect [6]. Despite the existence of interest rates, the loans were beneficial to both parties. Loans swelled in April, when implements and other necessities for sowing were obtained on credit. For each three gold pieces received as loans in April, debtors had to pay four pieces after the harvest [7]. The merchants came from Dörtyol’s affluent and educated strata.

The sale of fabrics

The merchants of Dörtyol were divided into two main groups – the importers and the exporters. Importers would guarantee the rich and varied variety of weaved materials sold by commercial stores called manifactura and tuhafiye [8]. The sale of weaved goods was originally a home-based trade, but it quickly became a market-based trade as well.

Silk shawls, tablecloths, fanela [9], basdma [10], ketenli [11], zefir [12], European shirts and numerous and high quality fabrics [13] imported from Istanbul, Izmir, Beirut, Damascus and other countries were sold in the market.

Imports had their specific times. Before the harvest, merchants would go to the aforementioned trading towns and would make cash purchases of needed goods, in the required quantity according to type. When selecting goods for import, merchants would always take into account the tastes and needs of buyers. The Karayaghoubian brothers (Hagop, Khacher and Krikor) commanded the top position in the woven goods market. Also prominent were Iskender Keoroghlian, Garabed Barsamian and his sons Hampartsoum and Tateos, Hovhannes Aprahamian and his partner Hovhannes Karavartanian, Mikayel Karasarkisian, Minas Shakelian, Vartavar Keosian, Hakop Melkonian, and others [14]. With their rich stores of fabrics, the merchants Keoroghlian, Shyukri and Partsoumian were even competitive with Adana, the administrative centre of the villayet [15].

On site sales were either by cash or exchange. Sometimes, merchants merely accepted a promissory note or agreed to installment payments, taking into account the reputation of the buyer and his financial resources.

The case of merchants involved in export was different. A wide variety of silk and woolen items produced in Dörtyol was exported from here. The same items were also sold locally and in neighboring villages.

The sale of karsambaç (dessert made from snow topped with fruit syrup)

Non Armenian residents of Dörtyol and adjacent villages plied their unique trade in the market. Turkish villagers inhabiting the slopes of Mt. Mgher would dig deep wells on their farms. The walls of the wells were fired with clay to store large quantities of snow. Come summer, the snow would be transported to the town by mules. A cool refreshing treat, karsambaç, was made by topping the snow with rose water or orange syrup [16]. This summer snack was mostly sold by itinerant Turks in the market, but it was also available at special stalls set up during the summer along the town’s streets [17].

Adana: An itinerant seller of the refreshing syrup called ashlama/aşlama (Source: Michel Paboudjian collection, Paris)


Due to the great reserves of silver, local craftsmen originally fabricated silver adornments. With the introduction of new fashions, silver fell out of favor with local residents and was replaced with gold.

Along with the simple and jewel encrusted rings crafted by local masters, wedding rings, inscribed with the names of the newlyweds, as per tradition, are of great interest [18].

Local jewelers were skilled at making necklaces, biroş (brooches) [19], pistol engravings, silver or gold spoons and silver trays to serve coffee to esteemed guests, religious vessels, and chest crosses for baptisms or to be worn by the faithful [20].

The pious respect shown by local Armenians towards the cross was manifest by the widespread tradition of wearing chest crosses.

After kneading the bread dough, women would make the sign of the cross over the dough with these crosses and then cover it. Those without crosses would merely use their hands. According to Samvel Boranian, Turkish women were also known to perform such a reverent custom [21].

Some prominent Dörtyol jewelers were Zakaria Bastadjian, Garabed Madjarian, Kevork Madjarian, Minas Kyoumdjian, Iskender Shakourian and Kevork Daldalian [22].

The town of Dörtyol in 1921. Street life during the French occupation period (Source: Grégoire Tafankejian, Valence)

Iron Mongers

In simple furnaces, the iron mongers of Dörtyol produced nails, bolts, hinges, butcher knives, ploughshares, shovels, pickaxes, pitchforks and rakes. Parallel with the development of manufacturing, the introduction of European tools and equipment both simplified this trade in Dörtyol and made it all the more profitable.

Prominent ironmongers in Dörtyol included Movses Keoroghluyan, Boghos Nigoghosian, Boghos Hovsepian, Avedis Balian, Garabed Balian and Hagop Balian.
In a short period of time, the craftsmen Garabed Keokoghlanian, Khoren Kayian and Manoug Boranian were able to master the art of repairing European iron tools and machines [23].

Ironmongers were in great demand in Dörtyol since the export of oranges was carried out via the wagons and carts they produced.

Sericulture (silkworm farming)

Residents of Dörtyol were widely engaged in silk farming before the advent of the orange trade. Each household had a silkworm hut. In the span of a month and a half, this fairly easy work would provide the family a livelihood for one year.

That residents in earlier times were engaged in silkworm farming is evidenced by the large centuries-old mulberry trees that dot the town and its environs.

Prominent Dörtyol silkworm farmers included Deli Boran Movses and his son Minas, Maroukeh (Saroukhan) Balian, and many from the Keokoghlian clan who continued in the business even after the advent of the orange trade. These people would both convert the cocoons into thread and would also care for the silkworm eggs; passing down the craft to successive generations.

Later on, residents began to import eggs from Corsica and Bursa. The large-scale export of cocoons to Europe was conducted by merchants who had come to the town from Europe, the Syrian provinces and Mount-Lebanon [24].

After the bulk of the work was finished in April, silk farming families would focus on converting a portion of the raw material into thread, followed by the start of the flax/linen making. They would make wedding veils, delicate and practical silk items for dowries, and other garments. Those engaged in silk making would sell some of their product to visiting foreign merchants. The rest would be bartered for cheese, oil, and other essential foodstuffs in other communities throughout the empire; thus ensuring their daily food needs for the year [25].

Pages from the Samvel Boranian typewritten work about Dörtyol (Source: Vera Sahakyan collection, Yerevan)


When animal hides were available, local residents would take preliminary measures for leather curing. They would pound the hot hides with mountain salt and then dry them under the scorching sun.  One needed to be careful to dry the hides thoroughly; otherwise they could easily rot, get maggoty, and be of no use. After the preliminary curing, the leather was sold to shoemakers. The bigger the hide, the more prized it was.

Shoemakers would sometimes take care of collecting and curing the hides themselves. Cow, sheep and lamb hides were mostly used. These would be prepared by the master leather tanners [26]. Lime water mixed with pomegranate and sumac tree leaves would be poured into the tanneries carved out of stone. Afterwards, they would remove the superfluous pieces of leather. The hides would undergo as number of curing stages. After the dyeing, the leather was ready for use but it was still quite rough.

In the past, local shoemakers would sew a type of half-boot/chukka (yemeni) or a heel-less boot (posdal) more suitable for the rural regions.

With the development of the market and possibilities afforded by innovation, merchants began to import a wide variety of footwear deemed fashionable. This, in turn, spurred Dörtyol shoemakers who had learnt the craft of making European footwear to create new types of shoes. Some in the first generation of shoemakers were Manoug Keokoghlanian, Vahe Shakulian, Kakig Balian, Garabed Bayrakdarian, Hagop Yaghoubian, Ispir Madjarian and Khacher [27]

These individuals became the first master craftsmen of Dörtyol who were able to fulfill the demand for making the following types of footwear regarded as innovative and fashionable at the time – boots, high-top military shoes, leather leggings, slippers, half-boots, and other fashionable footwear [28].

A page from the Samvel Boranian typewritten work about Dörtyol (Source: Vera Sahakyan collection, Yerevan)


Dörtyol residents used meat quite a lot in their tasty meals. Thus, there were many butchers. However, most residents preferred goat meat over beef and lamb. This meat, due to the high quality pastures in the area, was competitive with lamb meat in terms of fattiness. Prominent Dörtyol butchers included Hovhannes Tavoukian, Hovhannes Mandoyan, Vartavar Boranian, Hagop Boranian, Soghomon Tavoukian and Kevork Shakulian [29].


From ancient times, the clothes worn by Dörtyol residents were sewn by master tailors working out of their homes. They used cotton, wool and silk fabrics.
Just as in the case of footwear, the European market changed the way local people dressed. Merchants slowly began to import various new samples of European clothing. Tailors that were able to sew garments in the new style included Iskender Balian, Melidos Karasarkisian, Souren Balian and Hagopdjan Avedisian [30].

With a desire to master their craft and progress, Melidos Karasarkisian and Hagopdjan Avedisian made a trip to Aleppo. After returning, they started to sew garments regarded as new styles for Dörtyol residents including the redingotes, stylish vests for formal and holiday wear, coats and pants (dapad).

Iskender Boranian was an especially skilled tailor with such a large clientele that he refused to accept new orders one month in advance of an important holiday. Boranian would affix such an announcement prominently in his shop [31].

A German Singer sewing machine advertisement in the Istanbul Ottoman-Turkish language journal ‘Shebal’

The development of tailoring, in general, was linked to the development of weaving and the creation of new fabrics. Hayganoush Boyadjian, under the supervision and with the support of the newly formed Women’s Assistance Organization [32], taught women how to weave and dye delicate threads, and how to design and sew tasteful garments. Boyadjian breathed new life into the craft. Giragos Agha and Manoug Efendi Balian, and their family members, followed by the school pupils and board members, were the first to wear garments locally fabricated by these women [33].

Tailors also had apprentices working by their side. They would also sell cut outs of their designs that had been drawn on large sheets of paper.

Tailoring in Dörtyol also developed parallel with the introduction of sewing machines. The importation of the first German “Singer” sewing machine and the first sock sewing machine also brought great changes to the trade. Minas Cherkezian and Hagop Kyupelian were the first to use these new machines [34].

Carpenters and Joiners

Carpenters were in high demand since local homes were mostly built from wood. Stone houses were a rarity. Peat mines hadn’t been discovered either.
Carpenters worked in towns and villages. Work for carpenters in the villages was more favorable since they were paid in wheat, oil, cheese and animals for meat.

In addition to house construction, carpenters built clothes closets, tables, trunks, chairs and storage huts. These huts, with their numerous units, were used to store a variety of jams and preserves. Carpenters would fashion dowry trunks and granaries for foodstuffs, with their special drawers. When the time came to remove wheat or another item, the drawer or lid would be pulled and the item removed. These granaries would be from one to two meters in height and length.

The busiest season for local craftsmen would begin in September with the advent of the orange harvest. They would produce the trunks and baskets so vital to the orange trade. They would fashion numerous parts for carts and wagons. Since the Baghdad railroad hadn’t yet reached Dörtyol, people travelled via horse carts called landons.

Carpenters used lumber brought by Armenians from Frnouz (north of Marash) and by mule drivers from Karaköy. The lumber was milled in the factory, which had a large shaving saw, owned by Hagop Boyadjian. Wood ordered for Adana, Djihan, Antioch and Alexandretta was also leveled here. Samvel and Kevork Boranian were the local master wood planers and millers. They received one medjidiye/mecidiye (equivalent to 20 silver ghouroush/kuruş) a day. Carpenters would buy the necessary raw material from the merchants Hagop Geoksarkisian and Avedik Geokdjian [35].


From ancient times, flour was never a commodity for sale. The populace could purchase wheat, and this is why it was vital for rural communities to build watermills alongside streams or rivers. While Dörtyol had no water springs, it was rich in streams flowing from the rivers Özerli-Chai and Teli-Chai. At a spot some twenty minutes from the town, a huge earthen barricade divided the tributaries and directed the flows towards the town.

These waters formed the basis for the town’s five mills. As in other communities, these mills were also named either for their location or their owner. The watermills of Dörtyol were Bash-deyirmen/Başdeğirmen (değirmen/deyirmen in Turkish means watermill), Orta-deyirmen, Fabrika-deyirmen, Ashaghu/Aşağı-deyirmen and Artin-deyirmen, named after its founder Haroutiun Keoseyan [36].

The mills not only produced flour but also bulgur and ground wheat (gorgod). In later years, two modern mechanical watermills were built in the town. One belonged to Movses Mazmanian and the other to Hagop Karasarkisian [37]. The latter also housed the town’s first European machine to sift cotton [38].

Main watermill of Dörtyol (Source: Minas Kojayan, History of Chork-Marzban (Dörtyol, a town in Cilicia) [in Armenian], Los Angeles, 2006)


Some 30% of the revenues earned by Dörtyol residents were derived from various trades [39]. Jirayr Boyadjian played an important role in both developing and modernizing local trades. In the 1880s, he and his Dörtyol relatives founded the “National Association”, which in turn established a trade union for Dörtyol weavers. The union was headed by the brothers Sarkis and Kevork Keombedjian [40]. These prominent brothers were in the business of producing linen and delicate cotton fabrics that rivaled that produced in Europe.

In addition to the Keombedjians, there were other weavers who made white linens and other cotton fabrics from the threads spun by women. They also produced silk weaves that were especially prized as dowry items. Delicate wedding veils/shrouds and outer garments, the kefiye (scarf/headdress) [41] and silk belts known as tarablus belts, were produced by the Hadji Habibli village weavers Krikor, Sarkis, Garabed and Mesrob Papazian on their three looms [42].

Orange Farming

Dörtyol was known for its succulent oranges, tourindj (Seville Orange/Bigarade Orange, a much bitter orange hybrid), and yousouf (local name of another type of orange).

As noted above, local residents had originally been engaged in silkworm farming which was just as profitable. In 1830, a person called Kyuchyuk-Sarkisian brought back orange seedlings from Jaffa when he made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and established an orange orchard [43]. It is said that this man started orange farming in Dörtyol [44].

Early on, Dörtyol oranges were only sold in Adana, Marash and Aleppo markets. Soon, word of the succulent oranges spread far and wide; even reaching European markets. Thus, orange production garnered 70% of the revenues for the town and its environs.

Seeing the growing demand for oranges, local residents began to expand their orchards that were divided up by simple stone walls [45].

The rich local soil, coupled with the unique climatic conditions along the slopes of the Amanus Mountains (Nur Mountains, also known as Gavur Mountains) and the plentiful rivers, aided the quick expansion of the orchards [46].

The Yepremian factory, established with investments from Greek-orthodox merchants from Izmir, played a major role in the orange trade. Run by Yepremian, the factory was situated in the center of town in a large stone building [47]. Before the start of the harvest, orange exporters would tour the orchards to inspect the crop. The exporters would haggle with growers to set the purchase price of the unripe fruit [48].

The first non-resident merchants were Mikhayel Mishek from Jaffa and Djordji Tereljan from Jounieh (Lebanon) [49]. Seeking to resettle in Dörtyol, they temporarily leased the building housing the Girls’ School and built a huge trading center on the adjacent grounds. They built an apartment on the upper floor of the center and moved in. The two merchants brought everything with them – ladders, baskets, cutters and wrappers, and even workers; mostly men from surrounding villages [50].

In a few short years, local residents became the most skilled practitioners of their work and suggested that they replace non-resident workers. The merchants acceded to their request, and the agreement was beneficial to both sides. The first reason was because outside workers were being paid more, they had trouble finding homes to lease, and were often absent when visiting their families.

The luxuriant orange trees would often grow to heights of 18-20 meters. Workers had to fashion special supports for the trees, given that they were so bent under the weight of the ripening fruit. Ladders made up of 18 steps were used to pick the fruit. Sometimes two ladders would have to be joined to reach the top branches.

The harvest would usually begin in September when the oranges had fully ripened.

Those wishing to sell the fruit would have their workers collect the oranges and have it transported by mules to a prior arranged drop-off site where each orange would be wrapped in a thin paper. The wrapped oranges would then be loaded in trunks and tons would be transported to the port of Djin Kuleh (Cin Küle or Payas Kalesi), located near the historic hamlet of Payas some 15 kilometers from Dörtyol. From here, the oranges would make their way to Izmir, Istanbul, Varna, Odessa, Alexandretta, Liverpool and other cities [51]. There were still no railways in Dörtyol so the entire orange crop was transported via mule and donkey.

The business of these two merchants continued for the next two years. During this period, enterprising Dörtyol residents realized the great prospects in orange farming and expanded their orchards. This growth, in turn, led to an increase in the number of merchants involved in the trade taking up residence in the town. As a result, local residents acquired vital experience in the harvesting and storing of the crop.

The town of Dörtyol in 1921. Street life during the French occupation period (Source: Grégoire Tafankejian, Valence)

To give readers some idea of just how many were engaged in the orange trade, we‘d like to cite the names of the following merchants:

  • Mikhayel Mishek (from Jaffa), and his Dörtyol partner Kyuchyuk-Sarkisian Hadji Hagop.
  • Krotteh Emanuel and his Dörtyol partner Hagop Semerdjian
  • Havadja Vangeli and partner Hadji Garabed Eyirosian
  • Havadja Nikola Khouri and partner Kuledjian
  • Havadja Mushari (Nuchari) and partner Iskender Nadjarian
  • Kleanti (Bleanti) and partner Sarkis Hapudjian
  • Bayrakdar and partner Hagop Boyadjian [52]

Alongside large wholesale European merchants there were the following Dörtyol businessmen – Mihran Madjarian, Toros Geokdjian and Havadja Djurdjis [53].

Every merchant had his own harvest work crew made up of ten people; each supplied with a pair of scissors to harvest the oranges. Another five workers would collect the oranges that fell to the ground. Each crew had one crew leader, an accountant, two carriers, six female crew leaders, and one trunk maker. Thus, each work crew was comprised of 27 people. Merchants would operate five crews per day; or 135 people. Based on the number of merchants we’ve noted above, 1,350 people were employed overall [54].

In addition to these crews, 40 girls worked at the collection facilities wrapping the oranges in paper. There were another four female crew leaders and five people responsible for filling the trunks with the fruit according to size. Trunks would either hold 60, 80, 100 or 150 oranges, arranged according to price [55]. Ten carpenters would be employed to make the transportation wagons. One person was on hand to count the fruit before the sale which was based on quantity, not weight. One person wrote up the transaction documents. There were ten mule drivers to get the oranges to the port.

Finally, there was one security guard. As we have seen, the work was shared between men and women. The mules and donkeys to transport the cargo were supplied by Armenian and Turkish residents of the town and adjacent villages.

If we follow the math, each merchant needed a labor force of 208 to get the crop ready for export on time.

The average daily salary of a worker was 5 ghouroush/kuruş [56]. Thus the daily labor costs for a merchant was 1,040 kuruş (208 x 5).

Thus, the daily labor cost of the ten large wholesale merchants mentioned above was 10,400 kuruş. These work crews operated 212 days a year. No work was done on Sundays. As a result, the average annual labor costs for these ten merchants amounted to 2,204,800 kuruş.

Some 180 million oranges were harvested per year. Merchants sold one thousand oranges at a price of one Ottoman gold piece [57].

Thus, we see that the annual income derived from the orange trade in Dörtyol amounted to 180,000 gold pieces. This was just a portion of Dörtyol’s annual revenue, given that residents, as mentioned above, also were in the silkworm business, general gardening, and operated small craft shops. To this must be added the revenue derived by small retail orange sellers.


While the table fare of Dörtyol residents was rich in fish culled from the local fresh and salt waters, residents themselves didn’t engage in fishing for the sake of earning a profit despite the healthy stocks. Fishing for them was a pleasurable pastime rather than a business. It was also an occasion for the entire family to have an enjoyable dinner. It was also exercise for the fishermen to show off their swimming and diving skills.

They would fish in groups; the young men showing off their prowess in turns. They would dive underwater and stay there for up to 10-15 minutes – catching fish bare-handed. The winner would be the one to stay under the longest and arrive on the surface with the biggest fish.

The following individuals were known both for their fishing and swimming skills – Iskender Hadji Panosian, Kevork Chalukian, the brothers Karnig and Manoug Keokoghlanian, Serovpe Keshishian and Samvel Boranian [58].

Local residents preferred the following types of fish – Turnabalukh (balık is Turkish for fish), Kuludjbalukh, Tashkobalukh, Mechan, Sardin, Kayabalukh and Khurmador [59].

Other fishermen would use nets, made locally, or hooks. Skilled craftsmen could make a net in one day sewn out of cotton or nylon thread and string. The preference was nylon since cotton got water-logged and heavy and ripped easily.

Fish were most plentiful from May 20 to June 4, when the rivers flowed freely after the snow melt. These were days when those fishing with nets could catch 10-15 fish daily.

Various types of sponges (Source: Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), Kunstformen der Natur, 1900-1904, Leipzig/Wien)

Diving for Sponges and Shells [60]

Dörtyol, located close to the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, was famous for its courageous divers who wore an interesting set of gear consisting of a copper helmet and a rubber garment covering their body from the neck to the feet. The headpiece would have two pipes; one for inhaling and the other, exhaling. Before going under, the divers would affix the end of a piece of rope to the boat and the other to a heavy rock. The weight or the rock would quickly get them to the bottom of the water.

In addition to just having fun, swimmers would also avail themselves of the sea’s bounty. After gearing up, the most experienced divers would also take a knife and axe with them. They would remove sponges and oysters with pearls inside spotted along the sea bottom and place these in stringed baskets hung from their necks [61].

  • [1] Dörtyol , Djouk Marzban, Chok-Merzmen, Djouk Merzmen, Djouk Marzban, Choreh-Marzbah, Chork-Marzban, Chork-Marzbank, Chork-Marzvan, Chork-Marzvank, Oumrayine.
  • [2] Minas Kojayan, History of Chork-Marzban (Dört-Yol, a town in Cilicia) [in Armenian], Los Angeles, 2006, p. 32.
  • [3] Crude saddle for pack animals.
  • [4] An administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire; region, territory.
  • [5] Kojayan, p. 32.
  • [6] Samvel Boranian, Memoirs of Djouk Marzeban (the original is in Armenian lettered Turkish). The author of this article has an edited typewritten translation of the manuscript by Harutyun Balian. Leninakan, 1965, unpublished, pp. 27-28.
  • [7] Ibid.
  • [8] An important place for the sale of implements to sew clothes.
  • [9] Fanela or flanel – English flannel: a soft woven fabric originally made from carded wool or worsted yarn.
  • [10] Decorated cotton fabric.
  • [11] Material spun from linen.
  • [12] Cotton stripped fabric for shirts, handkerchiefs and tablecloths
  • [13] Boranian, pp.27-28.
  • [14] Ibid.
  • [15] Minas Khabrig, If Chork-Marzban spoke to me [in Armenian], Published by Chork-Marzban Compatriotic Union, Beirut, 1983, p.17
  • [16] Ibid, p. 21.
  • [17] Ibid.
  • [18] Boranian, p. 46.
  • [19] A piece of women’s ornamental jewellery having a pin allowing it to be fixed to garments worn on the upper body.
  • [20] Boranian, p. 47.
  • [21] Ibid.
  • [22] Ibid.
  • [23] Ibid, pp. 48-50.
  • [24] Ibid.
  • [25] Ibid.
  • [26] Currier, tanner: The hides were tanned using salt.
  • [27] Boranian, pp. 29-30.
  • [28] Ibid.
  • [29] Ibid.
  • [30] Ibid.
  • [31] Ibid.
  • [32] The Women’s Assistance Organization, which sought to spur the trades and facilitate the involvement of women, was a part of the National Association formed in the 1880s. 
  • [33] Kojayan, p. 160.
  • [34] Boranian, p. 30.
  • [35] Ibid.
  • [36] Ibid.
  • [37] Ibid, pp. 33-35.
  • [38] Ibid.
  • [39] Kojayan, p. 160.
  • [40] Ibid.
  • [41] A black scarf worn as a headdress by Arabs.
  • [42] Boranian, pp. 35-37.
  • [43] Kojayan, p. 159.
  • [44] Ibid.
  • [45] Minas Khabrig, p. 12.
  • [46] Ibid, p. 23.
  • [47] Ibid.
  • [48] Kojayan, p. 159.
  • [49] Boranian, pp. 49-54.
  • [50] Ibid.
  • [51] Kojayan, p. 159.
  • [52] Boranian, p. 50.
  • [54] Ibid.
  • [55] Kojayan, p. 160.
  • [56] Boranian, p. 51.
  • [57] Ibid.
  • [58] Boranian, pp. 167-170.
  • [59] Ibid.
  • [60] A sea animal used by Dörtyol residents for household cleaning.
  • [61] Boranian, p. 170.