The normal school of the Hripsimyants School, 1910-1911. This photograph, originally in black and white, was digitally colorized using and reworked by Houshamadyan.

Garin/Erzurum – Schools (Part I)

Author: Robert A. Tatoyan, 06/05/24 (Last modified 06/05/24) - Translator: Simon Beugekian

The Armenian Population of the City of Garin and the Subdistrict of Erzurum in the Second Half of the 19th Century and the Early 20th Century

The city of Garin (Erzurum) was the administrative center of the eponymous Ottoman province and subdistrict (kaza). The territory of the subdistrict corresponded approximately to the territory of the county of Garin, in the province of Upper Hayk, of historical Greater Hayk (Greater Armenia). Geographically, the subdistrict encompassed the Garin or Erzurum Valley (length: 40 kilometers; width: 20-30 kilometers; altitude: 1,800-2,000 meters), located upstream of the Euphrates River in the Armenian Highlands. [1]

According to the 1913 survey conducted by the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople, the Armenian population of the city of Garin was 11,735, of whom 10,733 were Apostolic, 754 Catholic, and 248 Protestant. There were a total of 46 Armenian-populated settlements across the subdistrict, with an Armenian population of 25,749, of whom 25,135 were Apostolic and 610 Catholic. [2] Armenians constituted approximately 25 percent of the city’s population [3], and about a third of the population of the entire subdistrict. [4]

The Origins of the Armenian Educational System in Garin and the Subdistrict of Erzurum (First Half of the 19th Century – 1878)

Like the rest of Western Armenia, Garin lacked secular educational institutions until the early 19th century. Education was restricted to monasteries and was provided with the sole aim of training future clergymen.

The first school in Garin, the Central or “Mother” School, was founded in 1811, thanks to the efforts of Archbishop Garabed Pakradouni, Prelate of the Diocese of Garin. Classes were initially held in assigned rooms in one of the buildings in the courtyard of the Holy Mother of God Cathedral (one room served as a boys’ classroom, one as a girls’ classroom, and one as a kindergarten/nursery). [5]

Alongside the Central School, throughout the 1820s, many individual schools/schoolhouses, also known as doundegh, were opened in Garin. Instruction in these institutions was provided by individual clergymen or lay female teachers, [6] who taught coeducational classes of 15-20 pupils in their own homes. Instruction included basic reading skills, the foundations of grammar, prayer books, and the Nareg. [7]

According to the 1834 survey conducted by the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople, the number of Armenian schools across the Ottoman Empire and outside the capital was 114. Among them, the survey lists two Armenian schools in Erzurum (unfortunately, the survey does not name them or provide details regarding enrollment and faculty). [8]

A new era for the Armenian educational system in Garin began in 1844. In that year, the construction of the city’s new cathedral was completed, and wealthy Armenians switched their focus to building and supporting Armenian schools.

In 1848, Senior Priest Mgrdich Sarafian, Prelate of the Diocese of Garin, ordered the rebuilding of the facilities of the Central School. The new facilities included two large rooms, one meant to serve as an elementary school, and one as a kindergarten. [9] In the 1840s-1850s, Armenian schools were also being opened in large Armenian-populated villages across the subdistrict (Tsitogh, Chiftlig, Gan, etc.). [10]

In the 1850s, Archbishop Krikoris Zorapapelian, Prelate of the Diocese of Garin (who served in this capacity in 1847-1848 and 1851-1859), greatly contributed to the advancement of Armenian schooling in the city. “He was an educated man from Constantinople. He closely monitored the schools, and personally taught catechism and liturgical singing at the church,” wrote a contemporary. [11]

In 1858, Zorapapelian spearheaded the work that led to the opening of the Jarankavorats School [12], which was attached to the main cathedral of Garin (principal: Senior Priest Mampre Mamigonian [13]). In its inaugural academic year, the school admitted 18 boys (six from the city, eight from the Garin Valley, and four from the subdistrict of Pasen). [14]

In 1851, Zorapapelian was the driving force behind the founding of the first educational-cultural organization in Garin, called the Ardznian [15] Society (the organization’s full name was “Ardznian Society of the Seminary of Garin”). The organization’s stated aim was to provide “financial and moral” support to local educational projects. [16] In the late 1850s, this organization opened the Untertsasirats [Bibliophile] Museum (a library); and in 1869, it launched “Sunday Classes” (Sunday school classes for adults), each of which was attended by 30-40 students. [17]

In the 1860s-1870s, many other educational-cultural organizations were created and operated in Garin, including the Arsharouni Society (1861), Antsnver [Altruistic] Society (1869), Ousoumnasirats [Scholastic] Society (1869), Arhesdavorats [Craftsmen’s] Society (1870), Vartanants Society, Tbrats [Scribes’] Society, etc. [18] These and similar groups usually had short lifespans, being active for one to two years before disappearing and reappearing under different names. Similarly, the projects initiated by these organizations were often left finished, some being abandoned, and some never proceeding past the planning phases.

In the early 1860s, the provisions of the Armenian National Constitution were implemented in Garin, including the creation of a modern educational system. This system functioned until the Armenian Genocide. Elected “national” bodies (political councils, educational councils, and neighborhood councils) were formed in the city and the Armenian-populated villages of the subdistrict. These entities played a key role in the regularization and advancement of the educational and ecclesiastical systems across Western Armenia. [19]

An earthquake struck Garin in 1859, damaging the Central School building. In response, Archbishop Nerses Vehabedian, Prelate of the Diocese of Garin (1859-1879), commissioned the construction of a new school building in the summer of 1864. The prelate personally participated in fundraising efforts for this project, “walking from market to market, and going into each shop and store.” [20] A local wealthy Armenian, kurkchipashi (head of the leatherworkers’ guild) Hagop Agha Magarian, donated much of the funds necessary for the project. [21]

The new school building was ready in the spring of 1866. Upon the return of the students in the following year, the decision was made to rename the school the Ardznian School, in memory of the city of Ardzn, which had been razed in the 11th century by Seljuk Turks. [22] The previously mentioned Jarankavorats School merged with the Ardznian School. [23]

After successfully completing the construction of the building of the Ardznian School, Vehabedian and the local Armenian authorities focused their efforts on building a separate school for girls. The Srpots Tarkmanchats [Holy Translators] Girls’ School was opened in a newly built, two-story building in 1870. A few years later, in 1875, the school administration was restructured, and it was renamed the Hripsimyants School. [24]

In 1870, in the suburb of Chayghara of the city of Garin, and thanks to the legacy of Soghomon Der Azarian, a wealthy Armenian, the Der Azarian School was founded. [25] This meant that the suburb’s children would not have to walk in the frigid winters to the city center to attend the main school. [26] Efforts continued apace to open Armenian schools in the Armenian-populated villages across the subdistrict.

According to the figures of the 1878 survey commissioned by Archbishop Nerses Varjabedian, Patriarch of Constantinople, a total of 36 Armenian schools operated in the city and subdistrict of Erzurum, of which four were located in the city (the Ardznian School, Haigian Kindergarten, Torkomian School, and Hripsimyants School/Kindergarten), and 32 in the countryside. Combined enrollment in these schools stood at 2,865 pupils, of whom 1,100 attended schools in the city, and 1,765 attended schools in the countryside (the number of teachers, unfortunately, is not mentioned). [27]

Educational Life in Garin in the 1880s/1890s: the Founding of the Sanasarian School

After the Russo-Turkish War of 1878, the Armenian Question entered the international diplomatic agenda, and Western Armenian communities began putting greater emphasis on national consciousness and the collective struggle for national rights. Ottoman Armenians began seeing schooling as a vital catalyst in their national and intellectual awakening. Greater value was placed on education inspired by the national spirit. The expansion of the network of Armenian schools, the training of qualified teachers, the improvement of curricula and school plans, and the general development of the Armenian educational system all became priorities.

The term of Senior Priest Maghakia Ormanian, Prelate of the Diocese of Garin (1881-1887), marked the start of a new era in Armenian education in the subdistrict. Prelate Ormanian had received extensive education in the sciences and pedagogy, and enthusiastically engaged in efforts to improve the Armenian schools in the city and the countryside. Highly qualified teachers were invited from Constantinople; and educational programs and internal bylaws were created for local schools. Ormanian personally taught lessons to the upper classes at the Ardznian School. He also organized special courses to further train teachers, and personally delivered lectures and taught practical skills during these courses. [29]

In 1881, the founding of the Sanasarian School, which was financially sponsored by Mgrdich Sanasarian (1818-1889), a wealthy Russian-Armenian, marked the beginning of an important chapter in the history of Armenian education both in Garin and in Western Armenia. The institution’s mission was to “train teachers to serve in the countryside; and educate those who will contribute to the development of local crafts.” [30]

In its first academic year (1881-1882), the Sanasarian School admitted 19 pupils. The school produced its first graduating class in the 1886-1887 school year. By then, it had an enrollment of 158 pupils, of whom 35 received scholarships. [31]

Mgrdich Sanasarian traveled to Garin in 1885 and visited the school that he had sponsored. He was welcomed warmly by the local Armenian population. The governor (vali) of Garin, the commander of the local military garrison, foreign consuls serving in the city, and many of the city’s luminaries attended the banquet organized in honor of the visiting benefactor. [32]

Mgrdich Sanasarian served as an example for many wealthy Armenians from Garin, who began more readily supporting the development of the local educational system. In the second half of the 1880s, the network of Armenian parochial schools and kindergartens gradually took shape and operated in virtually the same form until the Armenian Genocide. [33] In 1885, thanks to the patronage of Mgrdich Effendi Aghabalian, a wealthy local Armenian, the Aghabalian School was opened in the “Gana-Djampa” neighborhood; and in 1889, thanks to the patronage of Hadji Agha Msrian, the Msrian School was opened in the Nor Tagh neighborhood. [35] These were elementary, coeducational schools, providing two to three years of instruction. Boys and girls who graduated from them could continue their education in the Ardznian and Hripsimyants schools, respectively. [36]

Educational organizations in the city also became more active. At the suggestion of the Prelate of the Diocese, Maghakia Ormanian, in the late 1880s, the Vartanants, Ousoumnasirats, Tbrats, and Untertsasirats societies merged to create the Parts Hayots [Elevated/Enlightened Armenians] Society. In the following year, this organization opened a public reading room (library) and Sunday school in Garin. [37] Notably, the billboard of the “Reading Room of the Partsr Hayots Society” displeased the governor, and the authorities ordered the words “Partsr Hayots” (“of Upper Armenia”) erased. [38]

In 1887, the Sanasarian School produced its first graduating class, many of whom decided to become teachers and serve in Garin and nearby villages. Around the same time, the renowned educator Kevork Chilingirian was appointed as the supervisor of national/parochial schools in the subdistrict. He superannuated many of the elderly teachers left from the previous generation, replacing them with graduates of the Sanasarian School. [39]

“In the decade following 1887, the Armenians of Garin were able to create a satisfactory network of schools staffed by capable teachers. The city had well-organized and modern kindergartens, and neighborhood elementary schools with dual classrooms. There were the boys’ and girls’ central schools, a normal school training female teachers, and alongside these, the Sanasarian Secondary School and its special pedagogical branch,” wrote Ghazar Charuk in his work Garinabadoum. [40]

According to French researcher Vital Cuinet, who visited Erzurum in the late 1880s, there were a total of 16 Apostolic schools in the subdistrict of Erzurum, with six in the city and ten in the countryside. Total enrollment stood at 1,805 pupils (1,575 in the city, 230 in the countryside), of whom 1,350 were boys and 455 girls. The number of teachers was 38 (28 men and ten women). [41] To put these numbers in context, the same researcher stated that the city’s and subdistrict’s Muslim schools had a total enrollment of 1,403 pupils, taught by 24 teachers. [42]

According to the 1901 survey of Armenian schools in Ottoman provinces, there were 26 neighborhood/parochial (“national”) schools in the subdistrict, with six in the city of Garin and 16 in Armenian-populated villages (including the “national” orphanage at the Garmir Monastery of Garin, which was overseen by the Patriarchate). Total enrollment at these institutions stood at 3,134 pupils, of whom 1,956 were boys and 1,178 were girls. A total of 1,840 pupils attended schools in the city, and 1,294 attended schools in the 20 Armenian-populated villages of the subdistrict and the orphanage of Garmir Monastery. The total number of teachers was 85, of whom 44 were men and 41 were women. [43]

Senior Priest Zaven Der Yeghiayan, Prelate of the Diocese of Garin from 1898 to 1907, continued Ormanian’s work and greatly contributed to the development of the educational system in Garin. In particular, it was during his term that the Kavafian School was opened in 1905. This would be the last parochial elementary school to open in Garin.

According to researcher Hovhannes Der-Mardirosian (A-To), who relied on information obtained from the Garin Prelacy, in 1908-1909, a total of 50 Armenian neighborhood/parochial schools operated in the subdistrict of Erzurum, of which ten were located in the city and 40 (22 boys’ schools and 18 coeducational schools) were located in the countryside. Total enrollment stood at 4,000 pupils (2,788 boys, 1,212 girls), of whom 2,168 (1,193 boys and 975 girls) attended schools in the city and 1,832 (1,595 boys and 237 girls) attended schools in the countryside. The total number of teachers and other staff employed by all schools of the subdistrict was 182 (131 men and 51 women), of whom 112 (64 men and 48 women) worked in schools in the city and 70 (67 men and 3 women) worked in schools in the countryside. [44]

Educational Life in Garin after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution

The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 and the ensuing liberalization of political and social life in the Ottoman Empire injected new energy into the Armenian educational system of Garin. More than a dozen new educational/cultural organizations were founded and actively engaged in public work. Among the members of these organizations were students of the upper classes of the Sanasarian and Ardznian schools, previous graduates of these schools, and young teachers. These organizations included the Society of Armenian Youth (1908), the Sanasarian Student Society (1908), the Ousoumnasirats Society of Garin (1908) [45], the Hripsimyants Young Women’s Society (1909) [46], the Ten Para Society (1910) [47], the Tbrotsasirats Society (1911), the Grtasirats Society (1911), the Athletic Society (1912), and others. [48]

Among these organizations, the Society of Armenian Youth was particularly active. It organized evening classes and lectures, which featured many graduates of the Sanasarian School as lecturers. [49]

It was during this period that the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF), which had recently started operating overtly, began playing an important role in Garin. In 1911, renowned party leader Sdepan Zorian (Rosdom; 1867-1919) was elected as general supervisor of parochial schools in Garin. He made significant contributions to the development of the educational system in both the city and the countryside. [50]

The United Society (“United Society of Armenians”) also established a presence in Garin, assuming control of, and reorganizing, the Armenian schools in the villages of Otsni and Tsitogh. [51] In the summer of 1910, the United Society launched a series of summer courses for teachers (“summer normal school”), focusing on agriculture and pedagogy. A total of 17 teachers regularly participated in these courses, attending lectures and practical classes on agriculture, teaching methods, the history of pedagogy, and basic psychology. [52]

In 1910, the Azkanver Hayouhyats [Patriotic Armenian Women’s] Society opened a normal school for female teachers at the Hripsimyants School, which trained female teachers to serve in the city and the countryside. [53]

In November 1909, the Sanasarian School also launched a series of classes for teachers, focusing on pedagogy (for details, see the section of the article on the Sanasarian School).

The survey of Armenian schools commissioned by the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople in 1913 is the last extant source we have that provides detailed information on the Armenian schools of Garin prior to the Armenian Genocide. According to this survey, a total of 52 Armenian educational institutions operated in the city and the subdistrict (including Apostolic, Catholic, and Protestant schools), with a total attendance of 6,355 pupils. The city was home to seven Apostolic, three Armenian Catholic, and two Armenian Protestant schools, with a total enrollment of 2,595 pupils; [54] and the countryside was home to 37 schools, with a total enrollment of 3,726 pupils. The total number of teachers employed by all schools across the subdistrict was 129. [55]

The Armenian Catholic Schools of Garin/Erzurum

In the late 19th/early 20th centuries, Garin had a population of 110-120 Armenian Catholic families. Catholic Armenians also lived in the villages of Ardzat, Tvanch, and Hintsk of the Garin Valley. [56]

The first regular boys’ school serving the Armenian Catholic community of Garin was founded by Prelate of Catholic Armenians, Archbishop Sdepan Melkisetegian. Thanks to his efforts, the construction of the school building was finished in 1867 (it was a two-story building, with four “large, well-lighted, and airy” rooms). [57] The first principal of the newly built school was Father Hamazasb Chamanian, a member of the Mekhitarist Order.

In 1869, Archbishop Sdepan Melkisetegian also founded a Catholic nuns’ cloister in Garin, called the Sisters of Immaculate Conception (Sœurs de l’Immaculée Conception). He invited nuns from Constantinople, who in their turn, in the 1870s, opened a girls’ school in the city, the school of the Sisters of Immaculate Conception. [58]

In 1884, members of a French religious-educational order, the Brothers of Christian Schools (Frères des Écoles Chrétiennes), assumed management of the Garin Catholic boys’ school. They remained at the helm of the institution until 1902. [59]

In 1886, Melkisetegian expanded the facilities of the school of the Sisters of Immaculate Conception by buying one of the houses adjacent to the campus. In 1903, this house was demolished and replaced with a new, large, two-story school building. [60]

In 1902, the French monks relinquished management of the Catholic boys’ school and left Garin. From that point on, until 1913, the school operated irregularly, often closing and reopening. [61] The girls’ school operated more regularly, thanks to the fact that the nuns at its helm were mostly local Armenians.

In autumn 1913, members of the Mekhitarist Order (Fathers Guregh Khosharian, Vahan Madigian, Tovmas Gedigian, and Arsen Chndoyan) assumed control of the city’s Catholic boys’ school. They restructured and revamped the institution. [62]

In the second half of the 19th century and early 20th century, in addition to the boys’ and girls’ Armenian Catholic schools, Garin was also home to a number of non-Armenian Catholic educational institutions. These included the girls’ school of the Sisters of Saint Joseph (les Sœurs de Saint-Joseph) (1870-1880s) and the French school of the Capuchin Friars (1905-1914). Most of the students attending these schools were the children of foreign Catholics living in Garin. [63]

The enrollment statistics that we have at our disposal for the Armenian Catholic schools of Garin pertain to the years 1890 and 1913. According to French researcher Vital Cuinet, around 1890, a total of 160 boys were enrolled in the city’s Catholic boys’ schools, and 90 girls in the school of the Sisters of Immaculate Conception. The girls’ school of the Sisters of Saint Joseph had an enrollment of 80 pupils. Based on these figures, total enrollment in the Armenian Catholic schools of Garin was 330 pupils, of whom 160 were boys and 170 were girls (including non-Armenian pupils). [64]

According to the 1913 survey, three Catholic educational institutions operated in the city: the Armenian Catholic School, with an enrollment of 45 boys; the French Capuchin Friars’ School (École Française des P. P. Capucins) [65], with an enrollment of 86 boys; and the nuns’ girls’ school, with an enrollment of 150 girls. [66]

The Armenian Protestant Schools of Garin/Erzurum

According to the official Ottoman census, the subdistrict of Erzurum was home to 483 Protestants (the census does not provide a breakdown of their nationalities, but across Western Armenia and the Ottoman Empire, almost all Protestants were Armenian). [67]

According to Vital Cuinet, around 1890, Garin was home to one Armenian Protestant school, which had an enrollment of 50 boys (the number of teachers is not mentioned). [68]

According to the figures of the 1901 survey, Garin was home to an American Protestant school, with an enrollment of 20 pupils (seven boys and 13 girls); and an American Protestant orphanage, providing shelter to 109 wards (46 boys and 63 girls). [69]

According to the 1913 survey, two Protestant educational institutions operated in the city of Garin: the Armenian Protestant Boys’ School, with an enrollment of 85 pupils; and the American orphanage-school, home to 155 wards. [70]

  • [1] According to Tatevos Kh. Hagopian, Sdepan S. Melik-Pakhshian, and Hovhannes Kh. Parseghian, Hayasdani yev Haragits Shrchanneri Deghanounneri Pararan [Dictionary of Place Names in Armenia and the Environs], volume 2, D-G, Yerevan, Yerevan State University Press, 1988, p. 366 (“Erzurum Subdistrict” and “Erzurum Valley” articles); and ibid., volume 3, G-N, Yerevan, Yerevan State University Press, 1991, p. 43 (“Garin, City of” article).
  • [2] Senior Priest Hagop Kosian, Partsr Hayk [Upper Hayk], volume 1, “The City of Garin,” Vienna, Mekhitarist Printing House, 1925, p. 90.
  • [3] A-To, Vani, Bitlisi, yev Erzurumi Vilayetneru. Ousoumnasiroutyan mi Ports ayt Yergri Ashkharhakragan, Vidjagakragan, Iravagan, yev Dndesagan Troutyan [The Provinces of Van, Bitlis, and Erzurum: An Attempt at Studying the Area’s Geographic, Demographic, Legal, and Economic Conditions], Yerevan, Cultura Press, 1912, p. 163.
  • [4] These proportions were calculated using the figures of the Ottoman census of 1914 (see Tableaux indiquant le nombre des divers éléments de la population dans l’Empire Ottoman au 1er mars 1330 (14 mars 1914), Constantinople, Imp. Osmanié, 1919, p. 8). 
  • [5] Kosian, Partsr Hayk, volume 1, p. 199.
  • [6] Krikor A. Nazigian, Arevmdahay Mangavarjagan Midkn ou Tbrotsu (19-rt Tari Sgzpits minchev 19rt Tari 50-60-agan Tvaganneru [The Western Armenian Mind and Schooling (from the Early 19th Century to the 1850s-1860s], Yerevan, Louys Printing House, 1969, p. 25.
  • [7] Kosian, Partsr Hayk, volume 1, pp. 197-198; Charuk Ghazar, Housha madyan Partsr Hayki: Garinabadoum [Memory Book of Upper Hayk: History of Garin], Beirut, Mshag Printing House, 1957, p. 11.
  • [8] Arshag Alboyadjian, Badmoutyun Hay Gesario. Deghakragan, Badmagan yev Azkakragan Ousoumnasiroutyun [History of Armenian Gesaria. A Geographic, Historical, and Ethnographic Study], volume 1, Cairo, Hagop Papazian Printing House, 1937, p. 1095.
  • [9] Kosian, Partsr Hayk, volume 1, p. 199.
  • [10] Sources from 1840 mention the teacher Ghazaros Vahanian in the village of Chiftlig, who moved to Garin in 1843 and began teaching in the city’s main school (Charuk Ghazar, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki: Garinabadoum, p. 173).
  • [11] Charuk Ghazar, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki: Garinabadoum, p. 163. Also see Kosian, Partsr Hayk, volume 1, p. 133.
  • [12] “Jarankavorats” was the name given to educational institutions that trained clergymen.
  • [13] Charuk Ghazar, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki: Garinabadoum, p. 162.
  • [14] The wealthy Armenians of the city provided housing for the children who came from outside the area (Kosian, Partsr Hayk, volume 1, p. 220).
  • [15] The name originated with the historical city of Ardzn, located in the territory of the subdistrict of Erzurum. According to one theory, the Turkish name of the city of Garin, Erzurum, also originated with the name of this ancient city (“Ardzn” + “roum,” “the Ardzn of the Byzantines”).
  • [16] Father Yeprem Boghosian, Badmoutyun Hay Mshagoutayin Ungeroutyunnerou [History of Armenian Cultural Societies], volume 2, Vienna, Mekhitarist Order Press, 1963, p. 73.
  • [17] Ibid., pp. 74-75.
  • [18] Ibid., pp. 76-82.
  • [19] Charuk Ghazar, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki: Garinabadoum, p. 182.
  • [20] Kosian, Partsr Hayk, volume 1, pp. 139-140.
  • [21] Ibid., pp. 200-201.
  • [22] Charuk Ghazar, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki: Garinabadoum, p. 164.
  • [23] Kosian, Partsr Hayk, volume 1, p. 199.
  • [24] Charuk Ghazar, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki: Garinabadoum, pp. 167 and 241.
  • [25] Ararad Religious, Historical, Oratorical, and Moral Monthly, Vagharshabad, May 1870, p. 39 (Kosian and other authors that came after him erroneously stated that this school was founded in 1860). 
  • [26] Abro, Namagner Turkats Hayasdanits [Letters from Turkish Armenia], Mshag, Tbilisi, 7 October 1889, number 114.
  • [27] Emma A. Gosdantian, “From the Surveys of the Armenian-Populated Settlements of Western Armenia, Prepared by K. Srvantsdyants,” Newsletter of the National Archives of Armenia, Yerevan, 1976, number 2, pp. 88-89.
  • [28] Sh. P. Vosganian, Tbrotsn ou Grtoutyan Zarkatsoumu Osmanian Turkyo Hayashad Kaghtodjakhneroum (1850-1920), [Education and the Development of Schooling in the Armenian-Populated Communities of the Ottoman Empire (1850-1920)], Yerevan, 2014, p. 28.
  • [29] Charuk Ghazar, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki: Garinabadoum, p. 236.
  • [30] Ksanamya Deghegakir Sanasarian Varjarani, 1881-1901 [Twenty-Year Report on the Sanasarian School, 1881-1901], Constantinople, Der Nersesian Printing House, 1903, p. 5.
  • [31] Kosian, Partsr Hayk, volume 1, p. 231.
  • [32] Charuk Ghazar, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki: Garinabadoum, p. 169.
  • [33] Ibid., p. 168.
  • [34] The village of Gan was located southwest of Garin.
  • [35] Kosian, Partsr Hayk, volume 1, p. 241.
  • [36] Charuk Ghazar, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki: Garinabadoum, p. 247.
  • [37] Father Yeprem Boghosian, Badmoutyun Hay Mshagoutayin Ungeroutyunnerou, pp. 87-88.
  • [38] Ibid.
  • [39] Charuk Ghazar, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki: Garinabadoum, p. 237.
  • [40] Ibid.
  • [41] Vital Cuinet, La Turquie d’Asie: Géographie administrative, statistique, descriptive et raisonée de chaque province de l’Asie-Mineure, volume 1, Paris, Ernest Leroux, 1892, pp. 142 and 182.
  • [42] Ibid.
  • [43] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkyo. Badrasdyal Ousoumnagan Khorhrto Azkayin Getronagan Varchoutyan. Dedr A. Vidjag 1901 Darvo [Report on the Provincial National Schools of Turkey, Prepared by the Educational Council of the Armenian National Committee. First Book. Situation in the Year 1901], Constantinople, H. Madteosian Printing House, 1901, p. 14. The same figures also appear in the “Garin, Land of or District of” article in Badgerazart Pnashkharhig Pararan [Illustrated Dictionary of the Natural World], volume 2, Venice, Saint Lazarus Printing House, 1907, pp. 299-325.
  • [44] Figures according to A-To, Vani, Bitlisi yev Erzurumi Vilayetneru…, pp. 166-167.
  • [45] This organization, founded in the United States, was especially known for supporting the Hripsimyants School. See Father Yeprem Boghosian, Badmoutyun Hay Mshagoutayin Ungeroutyunnerou, pp. 92-93.
  • [46] This organization opened a sewing workshop/school, which was attended by 40 girls (ibid., p. 95).
  • [47] The organization’s aim was to provide support to deprived children attending national/parochial schools. The organization’s name was a reference to the amount paid by its members as dues (ibid., p. 97).
  • [48] Ibid., pp. 90-99.
  • [49] For additional information on this organization, see ibid., pp. 90-92.
  • [50] Charuk Ghazar, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki: Garinabadoum, p. 452.
  • [51] Miyatsial Ungeroutyunk Hayots (1880-1908), Yeramya Deghegakir, 21 Okosdos 1908-1911 Okosdos 31 [United Society of Armenians (1880-1908), Three-Year Report, 21 August 1908-31 August 1911, Constantinople, Nshan Babigian Printing House, 1911, p. 96.
  • [52] Ibid., pp. 130-131.
  • [53] Charuk Ghazar, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki: Garinabadoum, p. 242.
  • [54] This total rises to 2,629 if we include Armenian children attending the city’s Turkish public school.
  • [55] For the number of schools in the countryside and enrollment in each, see Raymond H. Kévorkian and Paul B. Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Émpire Ottoman à la Veille du Génocide, Paris, ARHIS, 1992, p. 59. For the figures pertaining to the schools in the city of Garin, see Kosian, Partsr Hayk, volume 1, pp. 244-245. For the numbers of teachers, see the document titled “Survey on the Armenian Sector of the Subdistrict of Erzurum,” part of the Informational Committee of Constantinople archive kept at the Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem (APJ) (APJ Informational Committee Archive, sheet E 215). Also see the figures provided by Dikran Chitchian (Chitoun), according to whom, in the early 20th century, across the subdistrict, there were a total of 50 schools, including monastic/church schools, neighborhood/parochial schools, and private schools. According to this source, enrollment in these schools totaled 2,788 boys and 1,212 girls(Chitouni, Houshigk Hayasdani [Memories of Armenia], Constantinople, O. Arzouman Printing House, 1919, p. 67. These figures were based on information from surveys and yearbooks from 1887 through 1904 and from 1911).
  • [56] Charuk Ghazar, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki: Garinabadoum, p. 333.
  • [57] Kosian, Partsr Hayk, volume 1, p. 445.
  • [58] Ibid., p. 446.
  • [59] Ibid., p. 451.
  • [60] Ibid., p. 473.
  • [61] Ibid., p. 470.
  • [62] Ibid., p. 471.
  • [63] For more details on these educational institutions, see Kosian, Partsr Hayk, volume 1, pp. 490-495.
  • [64] Cuinet, La Turquie d’Asie…, volume 1, pp. 142 and 182.
  • [65] Mdrag, “Denationalization in the French Friars’ College of Garin,” Alik, the Gazette of the Society of Armenian Youth of Garin, Garin, 24 June 1914, number 6, p. 3.
  • [66] Kosian, Partsr Hayk, volume 1, p. 244.
  • [67] Kemal H. Karpat, Ottoman Population 1830-1914. Demographic and Social Characteristics, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin Press, 1985, p. 170.
  • [68] Cuinet, La Turquie d’Asie…, volume 1, pp. 142 and 182.
  • [69] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkyo…, p. 14.
  • [70] Kosian, Partsr Hayk, volume 1, p. 244; Charuk Ghazar, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki: Garinabadoum, pp. 337-338.