Bardizag - Press

The Armenian Periodical Press at Bardizag

Author: Mihran A. Minassian, 10/07/24 (Last modified 10/07/24) - Translator: Tamar Marie Boyadjian

An Introduction to Bardizag

The town of Bardizag (modern day Bahçecik) was located in the sub-district (nahiye) of Izmit (Nicomedia), itself part of the administratively independent district (sandjak) of Izmit (Nicomedia), at the bosom of the city of Izmit, just across the lake, towards the south. The town was built at the foot of the St. Minas mountain and was the center of a group of villages (nahiye) that bore the same name: five of which were inhabited by Armenians, one by Greeks, and two by Moslems.

Although the actual date of when the city was founded is unknown, we can surmise that Bardizag existed since the beginning of the 17th century. Bardizag was always predominantly inhabited by Armenians. Information regarding the total number of its inhabitants from numerous, contemporary sources varies and is sometimes contradictory. The most comprehensive history of Armenians from Izmit/Nicomedia is passed down to us from the philologist Minas K. Kasabian. According to the census he conducted in 1909-1910, Bardizag had 1500 families total, of which 1460 were Armenian Apostolic Christians; there were 4156 men and 4100 women who lived there, totaling 8256 Armenian Apostolic Christians; in addition, there were 543 Protestants; 225 Catholics; and 30 Sabbatarians or Adventist Armenians. [1] Yet, according to the census conducted by the Prelacy in 1913, 1378 Armenian Apostolic families lived in Bardizag; there were 3559 men and 3534 women, totaling 7093 Apostolic Armenians. [2] As expected, this number does not include the Armenian Protestants and Catholics, who were quite significant in number. According to another census, in 1915, Bardizag had 1617 homes/families, and 9024 Armenian inhabitants. [3]

There were two Apostolic Churches in Bardizag: St. Hagop and St. Takavor, as well as a sanctuary named St. Minas. The Armenian Protestants and Catholics also had their own churches, respectively. The Armenian Catholics also had a nunnery. [4]

The city was, therefore, divided into six neighborhoods, which bore the following names: Yegeghetzii Tagh (The district of the Church); Tsor (The Valley); Nor very galer (The new upper barns); Protestant and the Catholic neighborhoods. Each of these areas had their own mayor, the mukhtar. [5]

During the 1909-1910 school year, the national Nerses-Shoushanian coed school had: 330 male students and 290 female students; in the primary schools: 305 total boys and girls; while the students at the Protestant primary schools totaled 119 boys and 51 girls; and the Mkhitarian school had 110 male students and 60 female students. [6]

Additionally, well-known is Bardizag’s American High School, which in the same 1909-1910 school year had 421 students; while the Favre Boys’ Home had a total number of 120 students. In both of these schools, the total number of students who were local to the area is substantial. [7]

Bardizag also had close to thirty cultural, philanthropic, educational and other types of mutually beneficial organizations. There was also multiple theatre groups, choirs, and auditoriums. After the Ottoman Constitution, their clubs were also influenced by the ARF (Armenian Revolutionary Federation) and the SDHP (Social Democrat Hnchakian Party) political parties. Locally, the following crafts were also developed: sericulture; farriery; coal mining; basket-weaving; tobacco farming, and others. [8]

In 1915, Bardizag also fell victim to the genocidal policies of the Turkish government. After being persecuted and imprisoned, the inhabitants were forced to march through the Syrian desert, where a large majority met their death.

After the Armistice, those from Bardizag who survived the Armenian Genocide, returned to their native homes. They reopened the schools and churches; they tried to rebuild their destroyed homes; they also tried to restore their ruined economy. But this did not last long. With the rise of the Turkish National Movement and with the Greco-Turkish war intensifying, many of the people who returned were massacred. Others took refuge by escaping to Constantinople, from where they left for various European cities.

And so, just like that, the centuries old, Armenian city of Badizag was now part of a past history.

There are very few cities in Armenian history—especially of those whose population is very small—which have endowed the Armenian people with such bright personalities as Bardizag, and many of whose children have also become familiar and beloved names to the Armenian people and have greatly contributed to the development of Armenian culture, the Church, education, and public life. Let us recall their names: Father Vahan Der Minasian (with the pseudonym Bardizagtsi [from Bardizag]); Father Hovhannes A. Marian; Archbishop Mgrdich Aghavnouni; Archbishop Torkom Koushagian; H. Arsen Ghazigian; H. Vartan Hanoutsi; H. Mgrdich Bodourian; Krikor H. Mkhalian; Minas K. Kasabian (Farhad-Minas Veradzin); Kevork Mesrob; the Hagopian brothers, Armenag and Abraham; Kourken Alemshah; Karnig K. Bodourian; and many, many others.

Within the cultural life of Bardizag, the periodical press held a very distinct place. Although there were a total of only one or two printing houses established there— besides only a few pamphlets, other publications are not familiar to us — on the other hand, Bardizag’s periodical press was quite rich, consisting of at least 21 newspapers.

Bardizag’s Printing Houses

Before the existence of printing houses in Bardizag, there were a number of failed attempts at the venture. The first of these occurred in the years of 1877-1878. Sadly, the efforts did not materialize into anything viable, for reasons unknown to us. [9]

The next attempt at publishing came at the suggestion of a man who lived in the nearby, Armenian village of Kndjlar. P. Aprahamian presented the idea in an open letter dated 9/21 October 1895. The letter was addressed to the members of Bardizag’s “High School Alumni Association.” After praising the Association for their diligence, Aprahamian proposes “a publication of useful articles.” According to Aprahamian, this work needed funding. However, he claims that they could, “first publish some pamphlets or booklets” from which, they could later use the income to publish larger works. When they had a sufficient funds collected, they could then move on to publishing translations and original works by individual authors. [10] As far as we know, Aprahamian’s proposal also did not produce any practical results.

Later, in 1913, another attempt at starting a printing press was made in Bardizag. There is an account which states that the youth of the city—two separate, yet unrelated groups—put forth their efforts in this direction, even claiming their case as a matter of defending their “honor.” Their claim was supported by the fact that there was a great need for a printing house in the city, since the local population would get their printing needs met from presses in Constantinople or Nicomedia. [11] Meanwhile, in the local weekly newspaper Meghou, a short news article alerted people that those interested in creating a “Printing Press Committee” were invited to a meeting by the ARF on 21 November 1921. [12] However, in the following issues of the paper, we are not given any information about the meeting or anything that resulted from it.

Bardizag had a total of one or two active printing presses, in which the local Baykar newspaper was printed. Prior to the establishment of the printing houses, newspapers were prepared as collagraphs.  

Some bibliographers have claimed that Baykar newspaper was printed in “Kraser” printing house; some have claimed that the newspaper was printed at both “Kraser” and Djarian. Therefore, it is not clear whether “Kraser” and “Jarian” are two separate printing houses or if there is a single printing house called “Kraser” and Jarian was simply its owner. Bibliographer Karekin Levonian writes: “Djarian’s ‘Kraser’ Printing House” [13]; Amalia Giragosian writes: “Printing House ‘Kraser' and Jarian’s” [14]; Manuel Paployan writes: “ ‘Kraser’ Printing House, and then Djarian’s” [15]; and Ardashes Der Khachadourian says: “Kraser Printing House and Djarian’s.” [16] We have not seen a copy of Baykar to make a determination. As far as we know, there are no other written sources that mention the printing house by name. Therefore, the printing house (or printing houses) in Bardizag was established in 1914, where the newspaper Baykar was published. The printing house was active until the year 1915.

As far as printed books went, those published in Bardizag are unknown to us. Sources note one pamphlet with the title of “Plan for Bithynia’s American College in Bardizag,” printed in 1904-1905. [17] However, it seems doubtful that the pamphlet was printed in Bardizag, simply on the grounds that the city did not have a print house during those years.

After the proclamation of the Ottoman Constitution, a number of pamphlets seem to also have been published. One of these was produced by the local branch of the Hnchag party, during the early part of the year 1912. The pamphlet was printed just before their committee elections, with an initial line that reads “Laborers.” [18] Similarly, Melkon Melkonian of Bardizag—to express his fondness for the Bardizag Educational Union—financed the printing of the Educational Union’s “Call to Action” in 1912. The purpose was to introduce the efforts of the union to those from Bardizag who had moved out of the city, [19] with the intent of asking them to monetarily support the cause.

Most likely, these aforementioned pamphlets were collagraphs and printed in Bardizag.

As mentioned, Bardizag may have been lacking in the number of printing houses, but was abundant in number when it came to periodical presses. The numbers are indicated by others as follows: according to both the catalogue prepared by Karen Levonian [20] and Arshag Alboyadjian, [21] there were 6 newspapers in Bardizag; according to Amalia Giragosian, there were 7; [22] the list prepared by Manuel Poployan names 8; [23] yet, Asadour H. Magarian claims 12. [24] It is important to note, however, that these sources have not always taken into account those newspapers which were produced by hand—although these handwritten papers have sometimes been mistakenly noted as either collagraphic or print productions.

Let us be reminded that in those places where collagraphy and printing presses are not available for print production, studious youth have frequently turned to producing their newspapers by hand. After writing their articles, they would make physical copies of them, forming them in such a way that they would resemble the look of newspapers. Likewise, these types of newspapers or pamphlets were also produced by the juniors and seniors of high schools, as well as by members of various organizations. After they were prepared, they would be placed in a particular location in the school where students could either read them during their free time or take them home, in turns.

With regards to organizations, in the same way, the newspapers would be placed in either the central office or the reading hall of their meeting place. If such a place did not exist for the organization, the members would take the newspapers home, again in turns. Frequently, copies of the newspapers were produced by either members of the organization or by teachers. These copies would then be sent to wealthy individuals who supported their cause—either in the same city or other cities—with the expectation of financial contributions from them.  

Handwritten newspapers started appearing among Armenians from the middle of the 19th century and continued up to the middle of the 20th century. A number of these include the publications of the first literary efforts of some of the most celebrated Armenian writers: Taniel Varoujan, Misag Medzarents, Yervant Odian, Hrachia Adjarian, and many others.

For example, one of the gems of lyric poetry, Misak Medzarents’s “Under the Shadow of the Acacia Tree”—which begins with the verse “Gentle leaves fall from its flowers/ the night breeze anointed with exhalation”—appeared for the first time in a handwritten newspaper. 

Below, you will find succinct information about the 21 total—handwritten, collagraph, and print—newspapers that were published in Bardizag from the years of 1847-1915. It is highly possible that, over time, this number will grow, since there were most likely other periodicals that appeared during this period, which are currently unknown to us.

As an aside, it is important to also note that when we research periodicals produced in the provinces, we are faced with the major obstacle of having no surviving physical copies of these examples. This is because many of them were produced as a single copy—or at the most a few copies. It is also a rare case that any of these have survived.  For the most part, this is also the case for newspaper produced as collagraphs, of which only a few copies were created. And this also the reason why the information that we have on the multiple newspapers produced in Bardizag comes from other printed sources, without having seen examples of the periodicals themselves. [25]

Toutag [Parrot]

A handwritten newspaper, edited and published by Hovhannes Souren Mgrian (later, Father Der Hovhannes A. Marian), around the year 1847. This is the first known newspaper produced in Bardizag. We know of it only because of a letter written by editor Father Hovhannes A. Mgrian, dated 28 November 1870, to Kevork M. Shirinian (Bardizag), the person whose efforts helped produce the student newspaper Sokhag [Nightingale] around the same time. After Father Mgrian congratulated Shirinian’s students for their newspaper, he recalls his own childhood years in Bardizag: “…Even this nightingale—oh so young and imperfect in speech—who flew from our homeland, affected me with its sweet chirping; and I was charmed by the unique scent of knowledge in that sweet orchard, where I spent those fortunate days of my childhood, and where I took flight with Toutag [Parrot] or Panper Bardizagean [News from Bardizag]. Oh memories from an unforgettable bliss…” [26]

Panper Bardizagean [News from Bardizag]

A national, informative, and handwritten newspaper produced in Baghchedjig (Bardizag); written entirely in Armenian, except for two small sections in Armeno-Turkish, the newspaper was edited and published by Hovhannes Souren Mgrian (later Father Hovhannes A. Mgrian), in 1847.

Each run of the paper had 2 pages; each page was 20x32 in size. The newspaper was most likely produced in a single copy and was disseminated for reading by being placed somewhere in the village school.

We have access to the papers 5th (16 November 1847) and 6th (23 November 1847) issues. Sources also point to a 7th issue. [28] The following is the editorial which appears in the 5th issue:

“I don’t think we were deceived when we discussed how the main necessity for people to progress is knowledge. The person who comes to be acquainted with knowledge is that who is considered perfect; they will also strive to bring education to the people of their culture.

“Therefore, we are obliged to call the most honorable amiras and the most respected aghas of our nation: patriotic and perfect. These people, through their great work, pursue the task of reforming the nation—just as those dear to me in my city, whose fervent zeal promises us fruitful results”. 

“‘Knowledge/Science is useless to those who are guilty of ignorance.’” [29]

Let us also provide an example from what survives of Bardizag’s oldest newspaper, to give you a flavor of the language and the style of one of its writers: 

“…We were especially happy when we read the news about this joyous occasion regarding our village’s Torkomian Society. We consider that your blessed family and your journal are advocates of the progress of this Society. Therefore, I humbly dare to make the following suggestions, which I express with fervor to several of my friends: (a) to collect the pots from the feet of poor boys, so they can go to school on cold and rainy days; this will keep the school clean from a number of different impurities; (b) as much as possible, to introduce our national history and studies of the Christian doctrine to the girls’ school. I offer these suggestions to the benevolent Torgomian Society. I beseech you to please publish them in your newspaper, as they come from the joyous heart of a true patriot. I remain your must humble servant and a tireless reader of your writing.

“22 Nov. 1847, Mahdesi, Abr. Amr. [Semerdjian?] of Baghchejig”. [30]

The articles here are written in a colloquial language and include topics that report about the church, the education system, and the commerce of both Bardizag and neighboring areas. Letters of encouragement and praise addressed to the newspaper are also printed here. Interestingly enough, proverbs addressed to the editor, and a translation from Greek are also included.

Tohafi [Amusement]

In Turkish, the word “tohafeh” means “astonishing.”  A satirical, weekly newspaper, Tohafi was published sometimes in Armenian and sometimes in Armeno-Turkish. The newspaper was established on or before the year 1867.

The only source we have about the newspaper is a critical essay published in the 1867 edition of Dziadzan[Rainbow] in Constantinople, signed with the name Sgayorti. In this article, Tohafi is presented through comic expression and its editor is likened to Nasrettin. [31]

We have no other information about the Tohafi newspaper.

National Flower Garden

Established on or before 1867.  The newspaper’s launch is referenced in the aforementioned article written in the local Tohafi newspaper (see more in the description of the following paper below). [32]

Sokhag [Nightingale]

A weekly newspaper—either produced in handwritten form or as a collagraph—was prepared by the students of the National School in Bardizag. The editor was the principal of the school, Kevork Shirinian. [33]

The newspaper was launched in 1870 and last for a few years. We know that the young editor left Bardizag for Constantinople, graduating from Robert College in 1877. Therefore, we would assume that Shirinian left Bardizag three to four years prior to 1877; tracing back, Sokhag was published at most up until the years 1873-1874.

We only have one source which names the paper: letters exchanged between Shirinian, native inhabitants from Bardizag, and vicar of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople, Father Hovhannes A. Mgrian. Along with his letter dated 21 October 1870, Shirinian included two issues of the paper and with the following lines, explaining to Mgrian: “The two issues of Sokhag that I have included with my letter are a small exchange for the great patriotic sweat you have poured out for the same school since the time of your youth… Sokhag’s wings are still weak.” [34]


A weekly newspaper, either handwritten or as a collagraph. It was published at the National School in Bardizag. The editor was Armenag Der Hagopian, who was assistant teacher at the school, who had the support of Minas K. Dzalian and two others on the paper. [37]

The paper began its run from about 1875 and lasted a few months. The paper was disseminated as follows: a few copies to the local community of Bardizag; a few copies to neighboring villages; and a copy to the paper Huys [Hope] published at the nearby Armash monastery, with the hopes of a continued exchange between the two papers—a copy of Huys was also sent to Bardizag.

And since it was difficult to produce copies of Bardizag by hand, the idea of producing print copies was considered. Regarding this, an American missionary of Nicomedia, Mr. Barson, promised to get a small printing press and leave it at the disposal of those working on the paper. But, when these students graduated and left the school, the newspaper stopped being produced and print versions of the newspaper were no longer considered. [38]

Kants Mangants

A handwritten weekly newspaper produced by the students at Bardizag’s American High School, editor and publisher of the newspaper Haig Der Mgrdichian. The paper was active during the time Der Mgrdichian attended the high school: between the years of 1881 to 1885.

The newspaper was the first to be published at the American High School in Bardizag, and its content was of the highest quality. [42]

Luys [Light]

A school newspaper produced as a collagraph, published by the students at the American High School in Bardizag. The editor was Mikayel Kh. Minasian. The paper was published the years that Minasian attended the high school: from the years 1885 to 1889.

According to the account given by one of the schoolmates of the editor, a D.S. Mardigian, a “battle” occurred one day between the two calligraphic newspapers produced at the school—between Luys [Light] and Shapatakhos [Weekly Words]—which ended with no one “adding insult to injury." [45]

Minasian, the editor, had also edited two other newspapers: in the United States (in Cambridge and Boston from 1901 to 1908); and in Van (from 1913-1914). His work on the Luys newspaper in Bardizag seems to have been the “debut” to the other two Luys newspapers he edited, respectively. [46]

Shapatakhos [Weekly Words]

A school newspaper, prepared as a collagraph, and published by the students of the American High School at Bardizag. The editor of the newspaper was Garabed Tabakian.

The newspaper was published during the years Tabakian was a student at the high school: from the years 1885 to 1889. [48]

Tarman [Remedy]

This newspaper was prepared as a collagraph and was published by the Bardizag chapter of the Hnchag Party from the dates 1895-1896. Considering this was a secret newspaper, published during the Hamidian massacres, the address of the newspaper’s publication house is offered in this misleading and sarcastic way: "Tarman is published in the Upper fields, on Blind alley, in a Neutral inn, number 17, Bardizag.”

The newspaper was an underground newspaper, which “lashed with its words those mill-usurers, those local parasite even from the time of the bloody regime of [Sultan Abdul] Hamid”—for which the newspaper gained its popularity and was also secretly passed around in coffeehouses. [50]

Gaydzer [Sparks]

A handwritten, monthly newspaper prepared by the students in the upper grades of the American High School in Bardizag. The newspaper was published around the year 1898. [51]

Regarding the contents of the newspaper, it is written as such: “The students of our school, through the handwritten pages of this newspaper, offer us a number of ideas and feelings, which one could not find in the national newspapers of our time, since those newspapers [national newspapers] are subject to censorship. Our student newspaper does not subject itself to any form of censorship. However, if there was a censurer, that would be Dr. Hovsep [Der Stepanian], but as a reader rather than a censurer…” [52]

We know that a Yervant H. Mesiayan was one of the students who worked on the newspaper. [53]

The newspaper was placed in the school’s reading room, on a table designated for periodicals, where “students would crowd around them with indescribable interest and show priority for this paper over the others that had arrived from Constantinople.” [54]

Kisher [Night]

A literary, patriotic newspaper prepared as a collagraph, and not tied to any political party. Kisher was published from the years 1908-1910. [55]

Gshir [Scales]

A humoristic paper prepared as a collagraph. The editor was Kevork H. Kiutnerian. The paper was published in 1908 and had only five issues. [56]


A monthly newspaper prepared as a collagraph, published by the Alumni Association of the American High School in Bardizag. According to other sources, this was not a monthly paper but one which would be published only “now and then.”

Two different dates have been offered for the initiation date of the newspaper: 1 March and 9 December 1908. The purpose of the paper was to create a link between the six branches of the alumni association: “To put the six branches in communication with one another and to impart news of the each other’s respective work.” [58]

In addition to Bardizag providing information about each branch’s activities, the newspaper also published: news about the school; descriptions of school programs; news about national and political affairs; and short translations. [59]

Contributors were members of the Alamni Association.


A biannual newspaper, published by the Graduates’ Society of the American High School in Bardizag. The newspaper was edited in Bardizag but printed in four printing houses in Constantinople: O. Arzouman; Nshan-Babigian; Manoug H. Kochounian; and Mihran R. Chalukian. The editor was Dr. Hovsep Der Stepanian; the publisher was D.S. Mardigian. The newspaper was printed from October 1909 to October 1914, with a total of 11 issues. Each issue had 48 pages, with each page at 27x18 cm.

Bardizag was publication that covered topics related to: pedagogy, social themes, science, the association, literature, news, and instruction.

Let us offer an example from the newspaper’s first issue’s editorial, titled, “A Few Words from the Editor,” written by Dr. Hovsep Der Stepanian: “Naturally, Bardizag will report most on those topics which would be of special interest to the Graduates, but that would also be of general interest to all the former and new students of the school. We will strive to provide comprehensive information about the near 200 graduates from the school and the greater number of those who did not finish. At the same time, we hope to arrange each issue so that it includes articles that every reader would find useful and beneficial to them…”.

Regarding the print run, we have varying information. For example, 500 copies were printed of the the 7th issue, of which 300 were sold—150 of those were sold by the editor alone. Other sources inform us that Bardizag had a print run of 1000 total copies. Among these pages, the reader finds: literary works; news about life within the High School; descriptions of the school’s graduation ceremonies; information about speakers and graduates; obituaries about teachers and students from the school; minutes from general meetings of the paper’s publisher, the Graduates’ Society; reflections about the school and other things; news articles, articles about medicine, articles about instruction; letters; announcements, and other topics.

Those who worked on the newspaper were mostly either graduates and teachers from the school. 

It is reported that the newspaper did not have many people working on it, and that most people seemed indifferent and did not send in any articles. Apparently, this happened so often that the editor once publicly announced that “If people continue to not send any articles, then I will open the Gospel of Matthew and fill in the empty pages—just so you know…” [60]

Gran [Hammer]

A handwritten, periodical published by the students at Bardizag High School. Issues of the newspaper were made by copying text by hand. The editors-publishers of the newspaper were Sarkis Sarouni (Dongligian), Khoren Hiusisian, and Parsegh Khanoulian. The periodical ran from the years 1911-1912, with barely a few issues being produced.

S. Sarouni establishes that “It is in this newspaper that, for the first time, future and gracious poets Matteos Zarifian and Kegham Bilijian [Koushagian] displayed their talent.” [63]

Below you will find an excerpt from short-lived poet, Kegham Koushagian’s, poem “Moonlit Night”:

  1. Ու մինչ կը նիրհեն ծաղիկներն ամբողջ,
  2. Օրերգովը մեղմ՝ դողդոջ առուակին, 
  3. Մոմի մը յուշիկ հատնումովն անգին,
  4. Լուսնակ գիշերով մահն ի՜նչ անուշ է...
  1. And while they sleep, all those flowers
  2. with their sweet lullaby, at the trembling stream,
  3. the gentle end of a candle, priceless
  4. How sweet is death on a moonlit night… [64]

At the request of teacher Krikor Mkhalian, the administration stopped supporting the newspaper “with objection, claiming that inflammatory issues of a revolutionary and federalist spirit are being ignited there." [65]

In his memoirs, editor Sarkis Sarouni prescribed Gran as such: “…aside from its content, the language of our newspaper had to be idiocratical; it had to negate the current ways of writing through its pure modern language. The declensions of the nouns in the prose pieces published in the newspaper should have no trace of “krapar.” Similarly, the “ean” and “eamp” declension endings will be changes to “iuni” and “iunov.” In addition, the content of the newspaper is mostly an analysis of social life and must keep up with the times: to state, ‘bread, light, freedom.'” [66]

Hantes-Kragan [Magazine-Literary]

A school newpaper, most likely prepared as a collagraph, and published by the Student Association. The editor was Father Tovmas Shigaher, when he was a student. 

It was published from the years 1910-1914, which was the years that the publishing Student Association was active. [70]

Meghou [Bee]

An illustrated satirical weekly newspaper that was edited by Apig D. Minasian. The magazine was published on or before May of 1910. It is not known how long the publication lasted. [72] 

Editor Apig Der Minasian, in 1907, became acquainted with Misag Medzarents in the printing house of the newspaper Massis, in Constantinople. In the early part of the year 1908, during their second meeting, he requested a poem from him to be printed in Bardizag’s Meghou newspaper. Medzarents provided him with one of his unpublished poems, entitled “Duvaydank” [“Affliction”]. But later—when Meghou started being published as a satirical newspaper and not a literary one—Medzarents’s poem remained unpublished; this was until 1948 when Der Minasian puts the poem under the disposal of Toros Azadian, who published the poem in the ethnographic yearbook Mshaguyt [Culture] of which he was editor (Constantinople, Year 1, 1948, page 132) under the title: “An Unpublished Relic from Medzarent, Duvaydank.” [73]

Paros [Lighthouse]

A monthly newspaper dedicated to national-social, literary, and religious morality themes. The newspaper was edited in Bardizag and published in the following five printing houses in Constantinople: Ottoman Cooperative Society; O. Arzoumani, D. Doghramadjian, Nshan Babigian, and Manoug H. Kochounian. The publisher was the Christian Youth Organization of Bardizag (YMCA). 

The Editor-in-Chief was Hagop A. Alodjian (Rozmeri). At the time he was in London, Krikor H. Mkhalian (Year 1, issues 9-12) took over, after which the editorship went back to Alojian. The owner was Krikor Saraydarian.

Paros was published from February 1910 to April 1912; with a total of 24 issues, each of which was 16 pages, apart from a few which were 20 pages. The newspaper was considered to be the sole platform for the Christian Youth Organization across the Ottoman Empire.

In the first issue of the newspaper, we find the following, written in the “Editor’s Note”: “…Paros will assuredly strive to illuminate the path that lies ahead for those maturing youth by publishing the reflections and recommendations of capable and experienced individuals. 

  Leaving the reporting of news and politics to other newspapers, Paros will serve to improve the national-social, the literary, and the ethical”. [74]

The contents included: literary works; poems; essays; news about Nicomedia; biographies of missionaries; news relating to the different chapters of the Youth Christian Organization; matters related to the church and the nation; essays on morality; essays on pedagogy; literary studies; wise words, and others.Both Armenian and non-Armenian missionaries have worked on the paper, mostly from Bardizag and Adapazar.

To be fair, it is important to point out that Paros does not really include in its publication anything that is particular to Bardizag or the people living there. It is not a newspaper that has a local flavor and does not really stand separate from other newspaper that were being published in Constantinople around the same time.

Meghou [Bee], the Voice of the Province

A publication, prepared as a collagraph, by the ARF Chapter in Bardizag (Bardizag Student Association).

This weekly newspaper reported on national, public, partisan, literary, philological, and ethnographic topics. The editor’s name is not printed in the newspaper; however historians have offered a number of names: according to Hagop Der Hagopian and Asadour Magarian, the editor has been Kegham Koushagian (Bilidjian); [80] according to Simon Vratsian and Sahag Der Tovmasian, the editors were Hagop Chaloukian, Dikran Dzamhour (Amseyan) and Sarkis Srents; [81]; and according to Manuel Paployan, the editors were Dikran Dzamhour and Sarkis Srents. [82] The owner was Hagop Chaloukian.

The weekly paper began its publication towards the end of 1911 and continued until 13 July 1914, (new cycle, Year 3, no. 20-124). Each issue was comprised of 4 pages, and fewer issues had 6 or 8 pages. A total of 124 issues of Meghou were published. 

Let us provide an expert from the weekly’s biannual editorial: 

“…To analyze significant aspects and incidents that come up as part of village life, from the point of view of its people; to critique establishments of a public nature; to expose aberrations; to introduce shining stars living and working among us; to disgrace the veiled shams of  shallow heroes—alas, these are approximately the issues and main themes that are covered up until now, or that will be covered, in future issues of Meghou…” [83]

The newspaper was produced as a collagraph, though there were some unsuccessful attempts at releasing it in print form.

Meghou is a newspaper that is fully about Bardizag, and almost entirely devoted to covering issues around: its public life, its schools, its churches, its organizations, its economy; its social and cultural life, local issues, local poetry, and others, but there is also correspondence and news from nearby villages; educational editorials; articles that touch upon issues related to the youth; announcements, literary works, short stories, poems, debates that happen around elections for representatives; partisan disagreements, and others.

In the 18 November 1921 issue of Meghou, the newspaper informs us that “it has undertaken the task of collecting the Bardizag’s folksongs… the village verses which are their own valuable pearls… which are only alive in grannies’ voices and under the threat of being lost, year after year. We believe that the work we need to do to save [these folksongs] could allow for this beauty to live on forever—since they are already at risk of being forgotten, from generation to generation…” They appeal to the readers to support them in this regard. [84]

And truly, in the very next issue, Meghou began to publish tender samples of the local, popular lyric poetry under the title of “The Tender Lyrics of Bardizag,” and in 15 subsequent issues, the newspaper continued to publish numerous examples of these beautiful songs and games. Let us offer two examples of what was published there:

Nuptial Song

  1. Մեր տիւնը էրկու ղաթ է,
  2. Ներքին վըրան թաւան է,
  3. Աղբարս մեծցեր եար կ’ուզէ,
  4. Մարըս ինք իր հաւան է։
  1. Our house is two floors,
  2. On the lower floor sits the roof,
  3. My brother has grown, he longs for a lass,
  4. My mother, she’s in her own world.
  1. Ծովուն վըրայ տիւման է,
  2. Իմ եարն ինծի նըման է,
  3. Բուսած պըյէխին մեռնիմ՝
  4. Օսկի թելի նըման է։
  1. There is fog covering the sea,
  2. My love is just like me;
  3. I die for his grown mustache, 
  4. It is like golden thread. [85]


  1. Օրօ՜ր օրօ՜ր, օրանդ էր օսկի
  2. Օրանդ էր օսկի կամարըդ արծաթ,
  3. Տար ու բեր հովեր տար ու բեր
  4. Տար ու բեր անուշիկ հովեր տար ու բեր
  5. Իմ եավրուիս քնակն առ ու բեր։
  6. Է՜, եավրում է՜... է՜...
  1. Rock-a-by baby, your bundle was gold,
  2. Your bundle was gold and your canopy silver
  3. Rock back and forth, wind, rock back and forth
  4. Rock back and forth sweet wind, rock back and forth
  5. Rock my babe’s sleep, back and forth 
  6. Oh, my baby oh… oh… 
  1. Քուն ունիս, օղո՛ւլ քուն ունիս,
  2. Սարայ քէօշկերով տիւն ունիս,
  3. Արծըթէ ղուլլէպ ունիս,
  4. Օսկիէ շախշախ ունիս։
  5. է՜, օղուլ է՜... է՜...
  1. You’re sleepy my son,  you’re sleepy
  2. You have a little palace home,
  3. You have a chain of silver, 
  4. You have a bracelet with charms of gold, 
  5. Oh, son, oh… oh…
  1. Քընացնիմ իմ եավրիւն վարդերուն հօտիւն,
  2. Արթընցնիմ իմ եավրիւն պիւլպիւլին ձանիւն,
  3. Լերնակ ձըգիմ կախօրնակ,
  4. Լեռան հովերն օրի՜ն քեզ։
  5. է՜, մանչըս, է՜... է՜...
  1. I put my babe to sleep with the roses’ perfume, 
  2. I wake my babe with the nightingale’s song,
  3. I hang a swing at the top of the hill,
  4. So the winds up there can rock you to sleep
  5. Oh, my boy oh… oh… [86]

Although the newspaper does not tell us who collected these songs, another source informs us that it is the native of Bardizag, poet and on of the editors of the newspaper, Kegham Koushagian (Bilidjian)—a man who also lost his life too early. [87]

In May 1912, Father Gomidas visited Bardizag; and on 6/19 May he gave a lecture there: “And he gave us this beautiful experience, the ability to feel and to live the Armenian spirit through examples of indigenous songs that so flavored his lucid lecture.” [88] It looks as if Gomidas’s visit was beneficial to the intellectual community there and gave the people even more of an incentive to work towards writing down and collecting their folksongs.

Those who ran Meghou newspaper were for the most part from Bardizag and published their articles under pen-names: Arousisag; Santig; Keghasar; Farhad (Minas Kasabian and later Minas Veradzin); Shahen; Tsayt (Melkon Hovsepian); Sarkis Srents (Sarkis Kuludjian); Tsonig (Tsonig Ghazarian); and others. Fortuitous contributions who have visited Bardizag have also come by chance from familiar figures such as: Yervant Srmakeshkhanlian (Yeroukhan); Israel Dkhrouni; Adom (Haroutiun A. Shahrigian); and others.

Contributor and writer of Meghou, Melkon Hovsepian—under the pen-name Tsayt—has offered 24 suggestions, in one of his articles, regarding the betterment of Bardizag. Two of these suggestions are related to the production of Meghou:

“To give permission to the editors of Meghou to start publishing a book series. 

“To purchase and start using a printing press as quickly as possible, especially for the publication of the newspaper Meghou”. [89]

And surely, it did not take long for the newspaper to have its own printing press. The first work to be published was Melkon Hovsepian’s leaflet “The National Holiday and the People of Bardizag”—printed at Adabazar, in 1913, in a single unmarked page.

There were a number of attempts to make print copies of Meghou; it was only in July of 1913 that the newspaper was printed at the Azadamard printing house in Constantinople. However, “for reasons beyond our control” the attempt failed; after Meghou failed to release an issue that week, they reverted back to producing the weekly newspaper as a collagraph. [90]

When in January of 1913, the ARF newspaper Azadamard was shut down by the Ottoman government, it was printed, for one day, under the auspices of Meghou—after which, Djemal Pasha called for Azadamard editor Hagop Sirouni and reminded him that Bardizag is also experiencing a state of war and therefore it is not permitted to print newspapers there either. [91]

On a number of occasions, Meghou referred to itself as “gift to its town”—a reference which is quite suitable and accurate based on its contents.

Meghou is a prime example of a village newspaper.

Baykar [Contention]

A partisan-ideological newspaper published by the local branch of the Socialist Democrat Hnchagian Party (SDHP) in Bardizag. Another source claims the newspaper was the publication of Bardizag’s Hnchag student organization. [97] Sometimes, the newspaper is referred to as a weekly and sometimes a semi-monthly newspaper. The owner was Mgrdich Zakarian, and the director was Onnig Bodosian.

The publication started in January of 1912 and continued until 1914, with periods of interruption. Each issue was 4 pages, and each page measured at 28x40 cm.

The newspaper was produced originally as a collagraph, but in 1914 went into print form. Its contents “were almost entirely and visibly dedicated to the propaganda of the S. D. Hnchag party.” [98]

The plan to publish the newspaper Paros Piutanagan, Piutania or Bardizag

Established in 1908, the Armenian Youth Organization of Bardizag had the intention of publishing a weekly newspaper called Paros Piutanagan which covered topics around literature, philology, and ethnography. Youth from Bardizag, as well as from Constantinople, were meant to work on the newspaper; and the editor was going to be Father H. Megurdich Badourian from the Mekhitarist Brotherhood in Venice. However, for reasons unknown to us, the organization was not able to publish the aforementioned newspaper and the plan was never realized. [99]

Alongside the testimony above, we have another testimony from Rev. Father Megurdich Bodourian, who was going to take charge of the publication. It appears that Rev. Father Bodourian had made an appeal to Teotig to contribute a piece for the newspaper, and the later responded back to him in a letter dated 27 October 1908. Father Bodourian—who printed Teotig’s letter—added that “I received this letter from Teotig when I was in my birthplace, in Bardizag, where I was going to launch the periodical Piutania or Bardizag with the A[remenian] C[hristian] Organization there.” [100]

When the editorship of the newspaper was assigned to another known philologist akin in skill to Father Megurdich Bodorian, he also appealed to a writer on the same caliber as Teotig for their contribution. This leads us to assume that the newspaper was meant to be a substantial publication—and we are unsure as to why the newspaper never materialized.

  • [1] Minas K. Kasabian (Farhad), Armenians in the village of Nicomedia (Bardizag, Constantinople: Azadamard, 1913), 243-244.
  • [2] Karnig K. Bodourian, Memoires of a Deportee: 1915-1917, Memoires of Survivors of the Armenian Genocide 8, edited, notes, and forward by Mihran Minasian (Yerevan: AGMI Publishing, 2022), 26.
  • [3] Raymond H. Kévorkian, Paul B. Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans L'Empire Ottoman à la veille du Génocide (Paris, 1992), 128.
  • [4] Karnig K. Bodourian, Memoires of a Deportee: 1915-1917, 26.
  • [5] Hagop Der-Hagopian, Speckles of Bardizag: Manoushag and her Fairytales (Paris: Der Hagopian, 1960), 32.
  • [6] Kasparian, Armenians in the Village of Nicomedia, 259-260, 262-263.
  • [7] Kasparian, Armenians in the Village of Nicomedia, 263.
  • [8] For more on the artists, trade, and economic life of Bardizag, see: Anahid Asdoyan, “The Armenians of Izmit (Nicomdia) and their socio-political circumstances at the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century,” in The Methodology and Tools for Overcoming the Cultural and Material Consequences of the Armenian Genocide (Yerevan, 2021), 85-289.
  • [9] Yeghishe, “The Press in Bardizag” Meghou [Bee], the voice of the province (Bardizag), second wave: Year 2, no. 14-66 (April 1913): 2.
  • [10] P. Abrahamian, “Letter addressed to the graduates of Bardizag High School,” Piurag Year 13, no. 239 (1/13 November 1895): 343-344. Published in Constantinople.
  • [11] Yeghise, “The Press in Bardizag,” 2.
  • [12] Meghou [Bee], the voice of the province (Bardizag), Year 2, no. 42 (21 October 1912): 4.
  • [13] Karekin Levonian, The Armenian Periodical Press: A Complete List of Armenian Periodicals from the Beginning to Our Time (1794-1934), (Yerevan: Melkonian Fund, 1934), 81.
  • [14] Amalia Giragosian, A Bibliography of the Armenian Periodical List (1794-1967): A Complete List (Yerevan, 1970), 418-419.
  • [15] M[anuel] A. Paployan, The Armenian Periodical Press: A Complete Bibliographical List (1794-1980), (Yerevan: SSH KA Publishing, 1986), 94.
  • [16] Ardashes Der Khachadourian, Biblopgraphy of the Armenian Periodical Press, ed. and prepared by K. Hovhannesian (Beirut, 2014), 539.
  • [17] Kévorkian and Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans L'Empire Ottoman, 128.
  • [18] Meghou [Bee], the voice of the province, Year 2, no. 8, (26 February 1912): 3, and the next issue.
  • [19] Meghou [Bee], the voice of the province, Year, no. 25 (24 June 1912): 4.
  • [20] Karekin Levonian, Armenian Periodical Press, 185. 
  • [21] Arshag Alboyadjian, “Armenians and Printing,” Hayrenik Year 10, no. 10. 118 (August 1932), 138.
  • [22] Giragosian, Bibliography, 552.  
  • [23] Paployan, Armenian Periodical Press, 346.
  • [24] Asadour H. Magarian, “A Brief Panorama of the Great Tragedy of the Armenians of Biwtan,” ed. Kersam Aharonian, (Beirut, 3rd publication of the series devoted to the memory of the Armenian Genocide 1915-1965), 303.
  • [25] Thank you to Arusiag Koç Monet, who photographed many issues of Bardizag’s Meghou weekly and put them at our disposal.
  • [26] Masis newspaper, Constantinople, Year 19, no. 1022 (11 November 1870), 3.
  • [27] Drawn from his letter of an autobiographical nature, addressed to the priest of Bardizag in presumably 1896, see: Charents Museum of Literature and Arts, Toros Azadian Fund, 174/IV, 90-91.
  • [28] Catalogue of the handwritten newspapers at the Mkhitarist monastery in Vienna, f.101b.
  • [29] Panper Bardizagian [News from Bardizag], no. 15 (16 November 1847), 1; see also: Cultural Ethnographic Yearbook, Constantinople, Year 1 (1948), 135.
  • [30] Panper Bardizagian [News from Bardizag], no. 6 (23 November 1847), 2.
  • [31] Newspaper of Tohani in Bardizag, Tziatzan, Bardizag, Constantinople, Year 1, no. 20 (18 February 1867), 3.
  • [32] Tohani, Year 1, no. 20 (18 February 1867), 3.
  • [33] Masis newspaper, Constantinople, Year 19, no. 1022 (11 November 1870), 3.
  • [34] Masis newspaper, Constantinople, Year 19, no. 1022 (11 November 1870), 3; see also: Jirair Tanielian, Philosophical Quests (Beirut, 1966), 61-62.
  • [35] Mkhalian, Bardizag and its People, 338-341.
  • [36] Eds. Ardashes Biberian and Vartan Yeghisheyan, History of Adapazar, the “Holy” City (Paris: Der Hagopian Printing, 1960), 218-220, 295, 664-668.
  • [37] Tanielian, Philosophical Quests, 59.
  • [38] Arm. Der Hagopian, “Memories,” Bardizag periodical, Bardizag-Constantinople, Year 1, no. 2 (April 1910), 9.
  • [39] Der-Hagopian, Speckles of Bardizag, 115.
  • [40] Der-Hagopian, Speckles of Bardizag, 115; Karin Stepanian, Biographical Dictionary, Volume II, 10-20 (Yerevan: Soviet Writer Press, 1981), 77.
  • [41] Ardashes H. Kardashian, Topics around the History of the Armenians in Egypt, Vol. II (Venice: St. Ghazar, 1986), 656-657; Stepanian, Biographical Dictionary, Vol. II, 77;  Garo Keorkian, “The American High School in Bardizag (Memories from the old and good days)” Everyone’s Yearbook, Year 3 (Beirut, 1956), 207-210.
  • [42] Bardizag Periodical, Bardizag-Constantinople, 3rd year, no. 9 (October 1913); E. A. Jejizian, “The Lamb at School” (A Student Memoir)Bardizag periodical, Bardizag-Constantinople, Year 2, no. 4 (April 1911), 10.
  • [43] Bardizag periodical, Bardizag-Constantinople, Year 3, no. 9 (October 1913), 37.
  • [44] “Program of Bardizag High School,” 33th year/ Year 33, 1912-1913 (Constantinople: H. Madteosian Press, 1913), 42-43.
  • [45] Bardizag periodical, Bardizag-Constantinople, Year 6, no. 11 (October 1914), 31-32.
  • [46] D.S. Mardigian, “The 25th Anniversary of the 1889 Graduating Class,” Bardizag periodical, Bardizag-Constantinople, Year 6, no. 11 (October 1914), 32.
  • [47] Vahe Hayg, “Kharpert and its Golden Field, Houshamadyan Historical, Cultural, and Ethnographic (New York, 1957; on the cover, 1959), 872, 1127.
  • [48] Mardigian, “25th Anniversary,” 31-32.
  • [49] Mardigian, “25th Anniversary,” 31-32; “Program of Bardizag High School,” 33th year, 1912-1913, 42.
  • [50] Kasbarian, Armenians in Nicomedia, 286; Tanielian, Philosophical Quests, 45.
  • [51] A[ntranik] A. Bedigian (Aba), Sketches of the Village of Bardizag (Paris: Hagop Der Hagopian Press, 1950), 567-568.
  • [52] Bedigian, Sketches of Bardizag, 567-568.
  • [53] Bedigian, Sketches of Bardizag, 149, 567.
  • [54] Bedigian, Sketches of Bardizag, 567-568, 576.
  • [55] Levonian, Armenian Periodical Press, 54; see also: Nerses Kasabian, “Bibliography of the Armenian Periodical Press (1794-1967)” Badma-panasiragan hantes 4, no. 67 (1974): 222. 
  • [56] Kasabian, Armenians in Nicomedia, 286; see also: Mkhalian, Bardizag and its People, 802. 
  • [57] Der-Hagopian, Speckles of Bardizag, 81; Armenian Medical Monthly (Constantinople) Year 1, no.3-4 (March-April 1920): 66.
  • [58] H. B. F [Father Bedros Ferhadian], “A Few More Words on the Armenian Newspapers Published in 1907 and 1908,” Hantes amsoreay (Vienna) Year 23, no. 4 (April 1909): 127; Bardizag Hantes (Bardizag-Constantinople), Year 1, no. 1 (October 1909): 36-37.
  • [59] Bardizag Hantes (Bardizag-Constantinople), Year 1, no. 1 (October 1909): 36-37.
  • [60] Kevorkian, “The American High School at Bardizag,” 215.
  • [61] Sarkis K. Pachadjian, Accounts of the Armenians in Rodosto, 1606-1922: 2nd and final publication (Beirut, 1971), 113.
  • [62] “Program of Bardizag High School, 1884-85,” (Constantinople, 1885), 3, 5; Der-Hagopian, Speckles of Bardizag, 223; Kevorkian, “The American High School at Bardizag,” 215.
  • [63] S. Sarouni, “Memories from Bardizag: Fifty Years Prior,” Hayrenik Daily (Boston) Year 65, no.  15647 (16 October 1963): 2.
  • [64] S. Sarouni, “Memories from Bardizag,” 2.
  • [65] S. Sarouni, “Memories from Bardizag,” 2.
  • [66] S. Sarouni, “Memories from Bardizag,” 2.
  • [67] Asadour H. Magarian, “Album of the Armenian Communities of Thracia and Macedonia (Thessaloniki, 1929), 503; “The Autobiography of Sarkis Sarouni,” Hayrenik Weekly, Year 78,  no. 19299 (15 June 1976): 3, and the next issue.
  • [68] Sarouni, “Memories from Bardizag,” 2.
  • [69] Sarouni, “Memories from Bardizag,” 2; see also: “Program of Bardizag High School,” 63.
  • [70] Father Eprem Boghosian, “The Organizations of Bardizag,” 214; see also: Mihran Minasian, “The Armenian Periodical Press, 33 new names,” Haygazian Hayakidagan Hantes 21 (Beirut, 2001): 355.
  • [71] Marmara Daily (Constantinople) Year 15, no. 3779 (17 September 1954): 1; Garo Kevorkian, Everyone’s Yearbook (Beirut) Year 2 (1955): 529; Sourp Prgich Monthly (Constantinople) Year 6, no. 62 (October 1954): 25.
  • [72] “News from Bardizag,” Paros monthly (Bardizag-Constantinople) Year 1, no. 4 (May 1910): 64; see also: Der-Hagopian, Speckles of Bardizag, 225.
  • [73] “An Unpublished Relic from Medzarents, Duvaydank,” Cultural Ethnographic Yearbook I (Constantinople) 1st year (1948): 132.
  • [74] Paros monthly (Bardizag-Constantinople) Year 1, no. 1 (February 1910): 1.
  • [75] Der-Hagopian, Speckles of Bardizag, 52.
  • [76] Karnig Stepanian, Biographical Dictionary, Vol. 1, A-T (1973), 55.
  • [77] “On the Occasion of the 25th Anniversary Jubilee of Armash Seminary 1889-1914, (Constantinople 1914), 378; “Program of Bardizag High School 1912-1913” 5; Kevorkian, “The American High School in Bardizag,” 210-212.
  • [78] Kardashian, Armenians in Egypt, 662-663.
  • [79] Der-Hagopian, Speckles of Bardizag, 112.
  • [80] Der-Hagopian, Speckles of Bardizag, 226; Magarian, “Armenians of Biwtan,” 303.
  • [81] Simon Vratsian, List [of ARF periodicals]: Remembering the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, 1890-1950 (Boston, 1950), 576։ The list of periodicals was prepared by Simon Vratsian and Sahag Der Tovmasian.
  • [82] Paployan, Armenian Periodical Press, 576.
  • [83] Meghou [Bee], the voice of the province, Year 2, no. 27 (8 July 1912): 1.
  • [84] Meghou [Bee], the voice of the province, Year 2, no. 46 (18 November 1912): 4.
  • [85] Meghou [Bee], the voice of the province (new wave), Year 2, no. 4-56 (27 January 1913): 4.
  • [86] Meghou [Bee], the voice of the province (new wave), Year 2, no. 10-62 (10 March 1913): 4.
  • [87] Kasparian, Armenians in Nicomedia, 288. A few of these songs have been reprinted in this same volume.
  • [88] Meghou [Bee], the voice of the province, Year 2, no. 19 (13 May 1912): 1.
  • [89] Meghou [Bee], the voice of the province (new wave), Year 2, no. 13-65 (31 March 1913): 3.
  • [90] Meghou [Bee], the voice of the province (new wave), Year 2, no. 28-80 (21 July 1913): 3.
  • [91] H.J. Sirouni, “The Generation of AzadamardHayrenik weekly (Boston) 2Year 2, no. 12 (October 1924): 118; see also: Garo Kevorkian, Everyone’s Yearbook (Beirut) Year 5 (1960): 124-125.
  • [92] Kegham Koushagian: A Testimony of His Life, 7-18; Der-Hagopian, Speckles of Bardizag, 225-226.
  • [93] Hagop Manjikian, Remembering the Armenian Revolutionary Federation: Album-Atlas, Vol. II (Los Angeles, 2001), 138.
  • [94] Hovhannes Devedjian, “Sarkis Srents,” Azad Khosk [Free Speech] (Sophia) Year 12, no. 110, 3331 (22 May 1943), 2, and the next two issues.
  • [95] Devedjian, “Sarkis Srents,” 2, and the next two issues; Pachadjian, Remembering Armenians of Rotosto, 90-92.
  • [96] Pachadjian, Remembering Armenians of Rotosto, 92.
  • [97] Tzayn weekly of Meghu village, Year 2, no. 10 (11 March 1912): 2.
  • [98] Kasparian, Armenains of Nicomedia, 286.
  • [99] Father Eprem Boghosian, “The Organizations of Bardizag,”; see also: Garo Kevorkian, Everyone’s Yearbook (Beirut) Year 3 (1957), 212-213.
  • [100] Kaghoutahay Darekirk [Yearbook of a Community], Year 2 (Bucharest), publication of Hay Mamoul [Armenian Periodical], 194.