Harput’s Upper Quarter. St Hagop and the Euphrates College complex can be seen (Source: Harvard University, Houghton Library)

Harput (kaza) – Schools (Part I)

Author: Vahé Tachjian, 10/11/12 (Last modified 10/11/12)- Translator: Ara Melkonian

The general picture of Armenian education in the Harput plain is very impressive.

The whole region, at the beginning of the 20th century, has a superb and vast network of boys’ and girls’ schools. Almost all the Armenian villages have their own schools that are no longer old-fashioned centres of elementary education, but are generally two-storey modern buildings constructed in the newest style. In the towns, each Armenian quarter has more than one school. The town of Harput itself, whose Armenian population is approximately 15,000, has one college, three high schools and at least ten middle and first schools. The town of Mezire (Mamuretül-aziz), with a population of about 12,000 Armenians, has a college, three high schools and more than ten first and intermediate schools. A little town like Hussenig, made up of 700 families, has seven educational establishments.

Euphrates College complex, Harput. The building with a small dome on the extreme top left of the picture is the boys’ dormitory. Next to it, on the right is the Boys’ High School, the roof of which has a clock tower. The building a little further to the right is the Boys’ College. The fourth building from the left is the college president’s house. The long, two-storey building on the extreme right is the missionaries’ living quarters. On the left and in the centre, the building with the long windows is Wheeler Hall, where college events take place. Armenian houses appear in the very front of the picture (Source: Ara Jingirian and Hourig Zakarian collection)

A question has to be asked: how and why has this rapid educational life developed?

In answer, our first glance must be at missionary activity, within whose circle education is a pivotal part. Without doubt the missionaries’ educational work has inserted a new dynamism in the region, creating an atmosphere of competition, which in any event must be considered as positive and meritorious. It is the American missionaries that have founded the first educational establishments considered to be modern in the Harput region. It is sufficient to look at old photographs of the town of Harput and see how, in the general views of the town, Euphrates College stands out as the most handsome, dominant and attractive complex. American missionary schools are succeeded by Capuchin and German educational establishments, which operate especially in the town of Mezire (Mamuretül-aziz).

Buildings belonging to the Euphrates College, Harput. The building at the top left is the Girls’ College and High School. The long white building immediately below it is the kindergarten and girls’ primary school (Source: Ara Jingirian and Hourig Zakarian collection)

It is also impossible to deny that education and Protestant or Catholic preaching have gone forward together in these establishments. The first kinds of American missionaries have been very expressive in this sense. For example, one of these was George Dunmore who set first foot in Harput in the middle of the 19th century, when Protestantism was still unknown in the region. Dunmore had even been subjected to persecution and stoning by local Armenians. [1] That American missionary, however, was extreme in his belief, being blindly convinced of the correctness of the path he was taking. He gained his first Armenian followers in Harput within a short time, who accepted Protestantism. Despite the fact that Protestantism has become part of the local picture, at the same time the Protestant missionary and the Protestant Armenian are generally presented in negative hues by the Armenian Apostolic public in Harput. They always remain ‘dirty prods’ (pis prods), ‘fast eaters’ (bak udogh – people who eat forbidden food during fasting periods such as Lent) or ‘Protestant meeting hall brothers’ (biredi joghovarandji). It is interesting to note, however, that Protestant educational establishments are, to a certain extent, free from these kinds of descriptions, although they are persuasive and attractive means at the disposal of the missionaries in the local environment.

A general view of the town of Harput. The Euphrates College complex can be seen in the upper left portion of the photograph  (Source: Manug K. Djizmedjian, Kharpert and its sons, Fresno, 1955, [in Armenian])

The construction of missionary schools and, alongside these, the adoption of new teaching methods within these establishments and the swift development of girls’ education has, before anything else, provided a powerful jolt to the intellect and customs of this provincial environment. It is obvious that the Apostolic Armenians of Harput that make up the majority of the community would like to have their own (educational) establishments. In terms of funding, the competition is on an unequal footing, but in any event it is obvious that for community leaders it has been impossible to take a passive position with regard to this question.

Harput 1902. The Euphrates College complex can be seen in the upper portion. The small building with dome on the extreme left is the boys’ dormitory; on the right, the Boys’ High School; the third building from the left is the Boys’ College; this building is linked by a passageway to the college’s president’s house; at the very top, to the right, the building also with a dome is the Girls’ College, which also houses the girls’ dormitory; the long white building at the bottom is the kindergarten and the girls’ primary school; the two-storey building to the left of the latter is the missionaries’ living quarters (Source: Hans-Lukas Kieser, Der verpasste Friede. Mission, Ethnie und Staat in den Ostprovinzen der Türkei 1839-1938, Chronos, Zurich, 2000)

The same thing is to be seen in government standards. After the defeat of the 1856 Crimean War, the Ottoman Empire, under pressure from the European powers, has been forced to implement new reforms. Among these are the liberalisation of the educational system and the comparative relaxation of the rules governing the opening of schools. [2] In these circumstances the proliferation of missionary schools has been a warning to the Ottoman government. It is during this same period that the role of the school as an agent of influence on the Ottoman environment has become notable. The Ottoman government has not been able to remain indifferent to this swift increase of the number of missionary schools within its borders. It has not been possible to stop their activity through legal means; the only thing it has been able to do is to found a network of government schools. The thing that has most concerned the Ottoman leadership is the fact that Muslim boys and girls have begun to attend these foreign schools. All of this has been the basic reason for the government paying special attention to the foundation and modernisation of government schools in the provinces. [3]

A scene from the town of Harput (Source: Rev. Edwin M. Bliss, Turkey and the Armenian Atrocities, London, 1896)

Now, the progress of a vigorous and powerful network of missionary schools has been an invitation for work and mobilisation aimed, not just at the government, but also to community (millet) bodies. History shows us that from the beginning of the second half of the 19th century, government and community organisations have set to work and the number of schools – both governmental and community – have greatly increased. But the Harput example clearly shows how community organisations, compared to those of the government, are more engaged and skilled in the educational work they have started. In the Harput plain, the speedy rise of the number of educational establishments founded by the Armenian Apostolic community in a few short decades is, in the first instance, the result of spirit of organisation, the community’s internal collaboration and its united strength.

Two pictures of Euphrates College graduates, who, in accordance with accepted custom, receive flowers from the students.
1. Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959
2. Harput, 1908 (Source: Levon Lulejian archives. Courtesy of Sevag Yaralian, Los Angeles)

Clearly, the founding of a school in each quarter of a town or village becomes an end in itself. A factor in the realisation of such a plan is local patriotism. When an Armenian village succeeds in constructing its own school and a new church, the neighbouring village will lose face if it doesn’t have its own. The most important role in this healthy competition is played by the Harput emigrants, especially those in the United States of America. The Armenians from Harput who work in factories in the USA have formed, at the end of the 19th century, various ‘Armenian Apostolic educational organisations’, each of which represents a particular town or village in the Harput region. The financial assistance that these unions have sent play a decisive role in the success of building a new church or school. In the case of schools, it is these same unions that have financed the work of high quality teachers in the villages. Istanbul Armenian bodies, among which is the ‘United Association’ (Miatsyal engeroutiun) that deals mainly with educational matters, also have important roles in the success of the educational life of the Harput region.

Harput (town)

The old-style school

Until the middle of the 19th century – and even up until the end of it in some villages of the Harput plain – parish schools have been dominant, where students’ education has been notable for its primitive and non-pedagogical nature. These schools are buildings constructed next to the church in the given town quarter or village.

The child or young person attending it has a small, square ‘plate’ or board (bnag or pnag) with him, on which a piece of paper, with the letters of the Armenian alphabet written on it, is stuck. The days the schools are open are Monday to Saturday. The pupil arrives very early in the morning, attending the morning church service without fail, and returns home after the completion of the evening church service. In other words the pupils are in these primitive schools for almost 12 hours a day. [4] According to Manug Dzeron, before the establishment of a regular school, the basic form of school in Parchandj/Perchendj (currently Akçakiraz) village is only open during the winter for two to three months. [5] The school in Telgadin/Khuylu (currently Kuyulu) village opens after pamakagh (cotton harvest time), at the beginning of December, and lasts for three to four months. It is obvious that the teachers and pupils in village areas are involved in day-to-day farming activities, when the school curriculum is suspended. [6]

An example of a Turkish school in Harput. The picture (ca 1913) is taken from a German missionary journal. It is probable that Armenian schools of the same type would show the same picture. (Source: Sonnen-Aufgang, Heft 12., 15. Jahrgang, September 1913)

Mathematics (addition and subtraction) is taught alongside reading and writing in these schools. It often happens that this is all the mathematics that is known by the village or town schoolteachers – who are generally kahanas (married parish priests) – so pupils never learn multiplication or division. Manug Dzeron gives this the ‘village mathematics’ appellation, in other words the pupil must, in the future, be able to grasp the niceties of calculations concerning wheat, cotton and taxes. In this sense it is interesting to note that mathematical calculations are learnt using Eastern Arabic numerals (also called "Hindi numerals"), which clearly mirror those used by the Ottoman government. Readings are also made from Nareg, Psalms, Bible and the missal in classical Armenian. The pupil must learn whole sections of these by heart. [7]

After following the whole of this primitive education, the young person becomes worthy of the title of ‘reading deacon’ (gartatsogh diratsu), and wearing a divid (a copper pen holder with an inkwell attached) at the waist. He can also enter any trade or become a proper deacon (in the ecclesiastical sense) or a married priest. [8]

Within the Euphrates College complex. The students (probably including orphans) can be seen in front of the bakery belonging to the mission (Source: Hans-Lukas Kieser, Der verpasste Friede. Mission, Ethnie und Staat in den Ostprovinzen der Türkei 1839-1938, Chronos, Zurich, 2000)

The teachers’ remuneration in these schools often consists of day-to-day foodstuffs that are commonly used, such as cracked wheat, broad beans, de-husked wheat (dzedzadz), lentils, beans, bread, khavurma, grapes, salty pepper pickles (hisot), marrow wine or wood. [9] Another method of payment is for the pupils to perform services for the teacher and his family. An example of this is for the pupil to bring water from the fountain or by helping the teacher in his weaving. [10]

The aim of these parish schools is more to prepare deacons, choristers and church acolytes. The fact that the teacher has a good voice and can sing well is often considered to be his most important characteristic when he is selected for the post. All this can, perhaps, make it understandable as to why many Armenian notables look askance at the progressive efforts made, from the middle of the 19th century, to replace these primitive schools by the foundation of those that teach using modern educational methods. According to conservative convictions, these new schools will reduce the number of priests, deacons and choristers, leading to the decline of spiritual life.

Pupils in this kind of school are always subject to beating. [11] Garabed Lulejian gives us various details about this. Bastinado is considered to be the most prevalent form of beating by teachers. In Harput dialect this is called palakha. The pupil is laid on the floor and his shoes are removed. His legs are tied, then the soles of his feet are beaten by the teacher with a thin rod (known in local dialect as mrmur chibukh) – which could be a mulberry tree branch. There are other physical tortures: the teacher grabs the pupil’s ears and lifts him off the ground with them; he hits him; he throws the pupil to the ground and kicks him; he has him hung up by his arms and instructs every other pupil who passes him to spit in his face. On other occasions the teacher tells him to remove his shoes and orders him to stand on a cold stone or on the snow. Or, as a punishment, the pupil has to kneel on the church door threshold for hours, holding a heavy stone or a Book of Days. Another example is being made to stand on one foot and, in that position, to learn a complete Psalm by heart. It is with the picture of these primitive Harput schools and the punishments that are meted out in them before him that Telgadintsi (Hovhannes Harutiunian) has published, in the Istanbul newspaper Hairenik in 1893, the novella ‘Concerning our sins’. [12]

A panoramic view of the town of Harput. The Harput college complex can be seen in the upper portion. (1) The Dr Wheeler house; (2) The J K Browne house; (3) The Orson Allen house; (40 The Girls’ College; (5) The Herman Barnum house; (6) The Boys’ College; (7) The Boys’ High School; (8) Chapel; (9) The St Hagop church; (10) The J L Barton house (Source: Harvard University, Houghton Library)

American missionary educational activity in Harput

The first American missionary to visit Harput is George Dunmore. He is a member of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM). He arrived in Harput in 1852 and has found that it is suitable for increased missionary activity. It is he has bought the konak belonging to Keshish Oghli located on the heights of the town of Harput, where the Euphrates College has later been built. He is joined by Dr. Crosby H. Wheeler and Orson Allen. The first educational establishment belonging to the mission is the Harpoot Theological Seminary which is founded in 1859, in the town of Harput. During these same years the mission also opens first schools.

Dr Wheeler has remained in Harput from 1857 to 1875. Since then he has returned to the United States of America to try to raise funds for the planned college and has succeeded in collecting $180,000. As a result, construction work begins and, in 1878, the missionary boys’ college opens in Harput. It is called Armenia College, but is later re-named and becomes Euphrates College. 34 students attend it in its first year. [13]

The American educational establishments are shining centres in this area of western Anatolia. The results of the American missionaries’ work that are the college and the other buildings have fomented a complete revolution in the development of education within the region. Alongside other missionary educational centres within the Ottoman Empire, Euphrates College too has every reason to be the subject of pride for the missionaries. It is not wrong to think that among the subjects being taught here, an important place is held by the preaching of Protestantism and the securing of American influence. In this sense it is certainly true that reality is mirrored by a despatch sent by the United States consul in Harput in 1903, when he writes that the entry of American teachers, American textbooks and American teaching methods are the best means of securing the supremacy of the American economy. [14] But all these may be considered to be secondary factors when, at the same time, we note the role of the missionary schools in Harput in the development of local educational life.

The interesting thing is that Armenian primary sources, which have reflected on the work and history of Euphrates College, not only write with praise about it, but in their prose also give the impression that this establishment has played a basic role in local Armenian life. The same authors also take up the point that the college has, in many ways, an Armenian character. In reality, this kind of thinking is not too distant from the truth. Clearly, the main teaching language for all the classes in this establishment is Armenian, the majority of teachers are Armenians, the college follows the Armenian Apostolic religious calendar, according to which Paregentan, Easter and Vartanank are festival days. Several principals of the college, such as Ernest Riggs, have tried to secure the ascendancy of English over Armenian, but have faced great resistance by the Armenians in the college and, in the end, have withdrawn from such a step. It is true that conservative religious principles rule in the college, and both teacher and student have to follow them, but at the same time it is impossible to deny that this American college was fertile soil for the formation of secret Armenian revolutionary groups. Despite the efforts of the principal and his staff, the punishments imposed and the expulsion of students, Euphrates College has been, during the Sultan Abdülhamid II years, the place where young Armenians lived their first revolutionary agitation, being introduced for the first time to the work of the Armenian Hnchagian or Dashnak underground organisations, even becoming part of small secret student groups.

The Euphrates College orchestra (Source: Hapet Pilibbosian (Editor), Yeprad College Memorial, 1878-1915, Boston, 1942 [in Armenian])

The Armenians are also convinced that this establishment will, after a short time, be run by them. They might be considered to be innocents about this, but we can find, in the 8th clause of the college’s constitution, an official note about this – or more correctly something like it - stating that the directorate of the college will be transferred, after 1925, when it is ‘safe and desirable’, into local hands, while the American missionaries in the United States will retain their trusteeship. [15]

The name ‘college’ in the lexicon of the American mission begins to take on a general meaning and in itself begins to embrace not only colleges themselves, but all the other mission educational establishments, among which are kindergartens, first, middle and high schools. We too have adopted this above-mentiond general meaning in this article.

The succeeding college (the entire complex must be understood by this term) presidents are:

  1. Rev Crosby Howard Wheeler (principal 1878-1893)
  2. James Levi Barton (1893)
  3. Rev Herman N. Barnum (1893-1894, then 1902-1903)
  4. Rev Caleb F. Gates (1894-1901)
  5. Rev Henry H. Riggs (1903-1910)
  6. Ernest Riggs (1910-1915). [16]

Harput, 1902. The buildings belonging to the American missionaries may be seen in the upper part of this picture. These two pictures are old productions. The first was printed in postcard format and coloured by the photographer at the time. The second is the black and white original print (Source: Michel Paboudjian collection [picture above]; Maria Jacobsen collection [picture below])

It is during the reign of Abdülhamid II that the college is renamed. It is also in these years that new Ottoman laws have raised legal difficulties for the work of missionary schools. In 1888 the local vali (governor) raised objections to the name ‘Armenia College’ and demanded an explanation about it. In view of this, the American missionaries deemed it necessary to review this name and, in the same year, it was renamed Yeprad (Euphrates) or Frat College. [17] It is during these years that the severe measures imposed by the Abdülhamid authorities begin to find expression in teaching. Thus, according to Vahé Haig, it is forbidden to use the words ‘Armenian’, ‘weapon’, ‘knife’, ‘sword’, ‘war’ and other words during lessons, Armenian history textbooks are seized, including the 5th century works by Yeghishe and Yesnig of Goghp. It is in these same years that the words ‘Armenia’ and ‘Armenians’ are blotted out with black lines in English-language books. [18]

The Euphrates College teaching staff, 1905 (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

Euphrates College, Harput. College students, 1906 (Source: Levon Lulejian archives. Courtesy of Sevag Yaralian, Los Angeles)

In 1895, during the years of this same sultan’s rule, the mass anti-Armenian attacks have taken place, which the the town of Harput has not escaped. Eight of the American mission’s buildings have been looted and burnt to the ground. [19]

The work hasn’t stopped however. The buildings have been reconstructed and others added. The American missionaries have succeeded in establishing such an organisation that a person’s education can be secured from the age the child attends kindergarten to his youthful years in the college. This means that many individuals have been attending these establishments continuously for approximately 15 years - and some even longer - bearing in mind that they have also taught in the college itself. All this, of course, creates powerful mutual influences between the local people and the missionary establishments. The college kindergarten takes children of up to six years of age. At that age they transfer to the first school, where they remain for three years. Then they move to the intermediate school, which also lasts for three years. Then it is the high school’s turn, in which the student must follow the syllabus for three years. This system has been subject to certain changes. Thus the final or high school’s term has been extended to four years. The graduates of this high school – and only them – are allowed to enter college, whose courses also last for four years. [20]

Harput 1902. The American mission’s vocational training school (the ‘self-help shop’) can be seen in the centre of the picture (Source: Hans-Lukas Kieser, Der verpasste Friede. Mission, Ethnie und Staat in den Ostprovinzen der Türkei 1839-1938, Chronos, Zurich, 2000)

Before the First World War began, the establishment was a large complex of many buildings. Here are the five educational buildings, two more for boarders, the president’s building, two others assigned to the missionaries as their living quarters, one for the teachers, an auditorium - Wheeler Hall - that can take up to 1,500 people, a large playground, a meeting hall-chapel and a trades’ training building named ‘the self-help shop’. All are built in the Armenian Upper Quarter in the western part of the town, on the side and summit of a hill. All these missionary buildings appear to be a self-built quarter in itself. There is also a water reservoir here, thanks to which all the various buildings have hot and cold running water. The provision of water is assisted by a windmill, built with his own hands by the Euphrates College president Rev Henry Riggs. This American missionary was a skilled mechanic. He has also added a clocktower with four faces to one of the buildings. The buildings have begun to be too small for college needs so a plan has been made, just before the beginning of the war, to move it to a larger, more suitable site in the plain. [21]

Within the Harput American mission. On the left, the American missionary George Knapp, and to the right Hachadour Benneyan (Source: Hans-Lukas Kieser, Der verpasste Friede. Mission, Ethnie und Staat in den Ostprovinzen der Türkei 1839-1938, Chronos, Zurich, 2000)

The college complex also contains the American mission’s library. It consists of 8,000 books, most of which are in Armenian. It also contains others in English, Turkish and French. The library also receives newspapers from Istanbul. The chief librarian is Garabed Soghigian and his assistant is Antreas Der Ghazarian. [22]

The college has been endowed with its own printing press in 1889, able to produce publications in both Armenian and Latin script. It is run by one of the students, Manug Dindjian, assisted by Hachadour Benneyan, Hovhannes Pashgian and Mgrdich Chamalian. The first publications printed have been Armenian textbooks, notebooks and English readers. In 1896 however, the printing press has been closed down by government order. It has had to wait until the proclamation of the Constitution in 1908 to be re-started. Thus from 1909 the college has its own official Armenian-language newspaper, called Yeprad. Before this, from 1891, Karekin Beshgeturian (Harput 1868 – 1891) has published the manuscript and collotype Asbarez journal that is distributed within the college but which has only had a very short life. Yeprad is considered to be its natural successor, and its first edition has appeared on 1 November 1909. The editor of this half-yearly journal is Garabed M Soghigian. He is assisted by Garabed Lulejian, Hovhannes Bujicanian, Samouel Hachadourian, Mugurdich Vorperian and Nikoghos Tenekejian. Alongside the newspaper, the press has published circulars, reports, a religious textbook (History of religions by Edward Carey), a small paper called Amenun hamar (For everybody) and a modern Armenian (ashkharhapar) grammar written by Hovhannes Garabedian. The press also prints books in Kurdish using Armenian script: an Armenian alphabet book, extracts from the Bible, a hymn book, religious-moral textbooks, Mardiros Shmavonian’s poem Love the Armenian and Crosby Wheeler’s Oh for a homeland. A bindery works alongside the press. [23]

In the year 1898-1899 the college (the entire educational complex must be understood) has had 1051 students, of which 548 are boys and 503 girls. In the year 1902-1903 the overall number of students was 1045, of which 540 are boys and 505 girls. During the 35 years of its existence – until 1915 – there have been about 600 graduates of both sexes. [24]

Euphrates College, Harput. Copies of the half-monthly ‘Yeprad’ journal published in the college (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

Euphrates College has taken part, with great solemnity, in the celebration of the 1500th anniversary of the invention of the Armenian alphabet in 1913. On Saturday 13th October (old style, 25th October new style) a great procession of teachers, college dignitaries and students formed up, while the bells of Harput town’s churches and those of all the school have begun to ring out. The first part of the procession is made up of students of the college, preceeded by three flags, each carried by a student – the first representing the letters of the Armenian alphabet, the second being the rose-red college standard and the third the Ottoman banner. Picturs of St Sahag and St Mesrob are also held high by the students. The procession first passes the Protestant first school, where it is joined by that establishment’s pupils. Then it goes to entrance of the Central School (St Hagop), to be joined by its students too. All of them begin to sing patriotic songs. They arrive at the Turkish Sultaniye School, where they shout, in unison, ‘Long live the Emperor, Long live St Sahag and St Mesrob’. The procession now moves on to Hussenig. Here it is met by the local Armenian schools’ students, who are also carrying similar banners and who sing with them. They all halt for a time both inside and outside the church, then return to Harput town, first passing the Sinamud district then the Assyrian quarters, the outside of the St Garabed church, arriving at the girls’ Smpadian School. After a short rest here, during which they listen to a speech, the procession resumes its journey to the Protestant Girls’ Central School, then to the St Stepannos Boys’ parish school. The procession is joined, at every point, by colourful flags carried by students of the establishments they pass. The procession then reaches the town hall and government building, after which, passing through the market, it reaches the place it started from, in other words Euphrates College. The procession is made up of over 1,500 individuals.

The jubilee celebration continues on the following day, Sunday, this time within the Euphrates College precincts. This time the Harput Armenian Apostolic prelate Archpriest Bsag is present. Tableaus are presented in the Smpadian School hall with the themes of St Sahag and St Mesrob. Then the people assemble in Fortress Square, from where a procession starts, led by the Capuchin school trumpeters. A celebration takes place, during which Translation sharagans (canticles), Mgerdich Beshigtashlian’s I piur tsainits and Azadn Asvadz are sung. Speeches are made by Rev Vartan Arslanian, Hovhannes Bujicanian, Garabed Lulejian, Tlgadintsi and S. Manugian. [25]

Within the Euphrates College complex. The orphans and other children returning from school can be seen in the picture. The building called the Williams Building is on the left, on the first level. The Protestant church that is being constructed can be seen on the left, right at the back (Source: Hans-Lukas Kieser, Der verpasste Friede. Mission, Ethnie und Staat in den Ostprovinzen der Türkei 1839-1938, Chronos, Zurich, 2000)

Harput, October 1913. The 1500th anniversary of the creation of the Armenian alphabet being celebrated within the Euphrates College (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

Harput, October 1913. The official celebration program of the 1500th anniversary of the invention of the Armenian alphabet (Source: Levon Lulejian archives. Courtesy of Sevag Yaralian, Los Angeles)

The Theological Gymnasium

The Theological Gymnasium was founded in 1859. This first American establishment in Harput is the basis of Euphrates College.

The gymnasium’s syllabus lasts for three years. The subjects taught are :

Armenian language
Armenian national and church history
Biology and hygene Church singing
Classical Armenian (krapar)
General nations’ history
History of the old and new Testaments
Public speaking

The American missionaries who have been teachers and in responsible positions in this gymnasium are: Rev Crosby H. Wheeler, Orson Allen, Rev Herman Barnum, J K Browne, J L Barton, George Knapp, Edward F. Carey, Herbert Atkinson, Rev Henry Riggs and Ernest W. Riggs. [26]

The Armenian teachers are:

  1. Vartan Amirkhanian
  2. Hovhannes Bujicanian, philosophy
  3. Tavit Khachgonts, physics
  4. Khachadour Nahigian, mathematics
  5. Rev Vartan Salanian, Armenian Apostolic church history
  6. Garabed Soghigian, Armenian and chemistry
  7. Nikoghos Tenekejian, Turkish and History
  8. A. Z. Yeghoyian (Khuylu 1870 -1937).

The Theological Gymnasium has produced 116 graduates up to 1915. During the anti-Armenian violence of 1895, it was demolished and many of the students and teachers were killed. The establishment has been forced to close its doors until 1903, from when a new period of activity has begun.

Some of the graduates are:

Murad Muradkhanian (Harput), Giragos Khachadurian (Malatya), Garabed Der-Kasparian (Harput), Mardiros Yeshilian (Harput), Asadur Antreasian (Hussenig), Dertad Khohararian (Diyarbekir), Kevork Enfiedjian (Harput), Bedros Beshgetourian (Harput), Karekin Chetedjian (Ichme), Hagop Andonian (Diyarbekir), Garabed Lulejian (Harput), Sarkis Sakalian (Harput), Kavme Ablahadian (Diyarbekir), Sarkis Yeretsian (Bulanek), Asadur Topuzian (Khuylu), Hovhannes Chatalbashian (Harput), Bedros Garabedian (Parchandj), Kevork Demirdjian (Harput), Tovmas Mgerdichian (Diyarbekir region), Mardiros Baghdasarian (Van), Arpiar Vartanian (Mush), Asadur Yegoyian (Khuylu), Zakaria Bedrosian (Ayntab), Hovsep Bardizbanian (Urfa), Yeznig Elmasian (Hussenig), Hagop M Depoyian (Garmir), Sograd Mkhitarian (Bitlis 1890 -1970). [27]

Graduates of the Harput Central School, 1895. Seated, left to right: Garabed Tashjian, Khosrov Elmasian, Haroutiun Darakdjian, Dikran Vartigian, Khosrov Tervizian. Standing, left to right: Yeghia Kzirian, Mardiros Lousararian, Hagop Nalbandian, Sarkis Demirdjian, Armeniag Shaghalian, Setrag Kouyoumdjian (Source: Manug K. Djizmedjian, Kharpert and its sons, Fresno, 1955, [in Armenian])

Euphrates College and its high school (boy’s departments)

The college (the institutions of higher education must be understood) was founded in 1878. The large new college building was constructed in 1886. The separate boys’ high school building has been built next to it. Many adolescent boys and young men come to study from the villages of the Harput plain and various Armenian-populated areas of the Ottoman Empire. The college has a boarding department to cater for these in-comers, where students from places further afield (such as Diyarbekir, Malatya, Arabkir, Agn, Palu, Kghi and Chenkush) are housed. [28]

The first college graduates are:

Bedros Kazandjian (Hussenig), Hagop Kalenderian (Diyarbekir), Nikoghos Tenekejian (Harput), Garabed Beshgetourian (Harput), Krikor Krikorian (Hussenig), Mesrob Yeshilian (Palu), Hovhannes Garabedian (Hoghe), Arshag Shmavonian (Harput), Armenag Boghosian (Habusi, currently Ikizdemir), Khachadour Nahigian (Hussenig).

Over four years the students in the boys’ department study the following syllabus:

  1. Ancient and Greek history
  2. Argumentation (optional)
  3. Armenian language
  4. Armenian literature
  5. Astronomy (optional)
  6. Bookkeeping (optional)
  7. Botany (optional)
  8. Chemistry
  9. Church history (optional)
  10. Christian fundamentals 
  11. Christian Evidences and general survey of the Bible
  12. Contemporary history
  13. Drawing (optional)
  14. English language
  15. English literature
  16. Elocution
  17. Ethics
  18. French Geology (optional)
  19. History of philosophy
  20. History of religions (optional)
  21. Life and epistles of Paul
  22. Life of Christ
  23. Logic and political economy Mediaeval and modern history
  24. Ottoman law (taught after the re-establishment, in 1908, of the Ottoman constitution)
  25. Parliamentary law (optional)
  26. Pedagogy
  27. Physiology
  28. Physics
  29. Plane geometry
  30. Psychology
  31. Public speaking (Armenian, Turkish and English written items must be learnt by heart, with the best students ascending the stage at the end of the school year to once more recite what they have learnt and to receive their prizes).
  32. Roman history
  33. Singing (optional)
  34. Solid geometry Trigonometry (optional)
  35. Turkish
  36. Zoology [29]

The Euphrates College teaching staff, 1908 (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

The boys’ high school also has a four-year syllabus, in which the following subjects are taught:

  1. Algebra
  2. Arithmetic
  3. Armenian grammar
  4. Armenian language
  5. Biology
  6. Bookkeeping
  7. Drawing
  8. Elementary physiology and hygiene English
  9. Ethics
  10. General history
  11. Geography and map drawing
  12. Kingdoms of Judah and Israel
  13. Old testament heroes
  14. Ottoman and Armenian history
  15. Parables of Jesus
  16. Public speaking
  17. Physical geography
  18. Physics
  19. Singing
  20. Turkish
  21. The Jewish captivity and psalms [30]

Group photograph of students of the American School, Harput 1871. (1) Unknown; (2) Garabed Beshgeturian; (3) Hovhannes Cherchian; (4) Mesrob Avedisian; (5) Hagop Boghigian; (6) Mesrob Topuzian; (7) Minas Giragosian; (8) Mushegh Esigian; (9) Hovhannes; (10) Sahag Medzigian; (11) Hovhannes Chatalbashian; (12) Harutun Enfiejian; (13) Avedis; (14) Krikor Baghdasarian; (15) Ghazaros Ghazarosian; (16) Baghdasar Yenovkian; (17) Garabed Hintlian; (18) Kasbar Hagopian; (19) Khachadur Minasian; (20) Asadur Topuzian; (21) Manug Depo Garoyian; (22) Topuzian (Source: Manug K. Djizmedjian, Kharpert and its sons, Fresno, 1955, [in Armenian]; Rev. Edwin M. Bliss, Turkey and the Armenian Atrocities, London, 1896)

The majority of the college teachers are Armenians. There are also several who are Armenian-speaking Assyrians from the town of Harput: [31]

  1. Vartan B Amirkhanian (Diyarbekir 1870 – 1946) teaches religion and ethics.
  2. Haroutiun Kasbar Avakian (Harput 1844 – 1934) a graduate of Marash Theological Seminary, teaches mathematics and linguistics.
  3. Hachadour Benneyan (Harput 1864 – 1944), the college senior director, teaches Armenian and English.
  4. Garabed H Beshgetourian (Harput 1861 – 1941) teaches Armenian language and literature.
  5. Hovhannes Bujicanian (Chenkoush 1873 – killed 1915), a graduate of Euphrates College, studied philosophy and socialogy in Edinburgh University and teaches those same subjects.
  6. Hagop Dindjian teaches Armenian, English, composition.
  7. Hovhannes Dingilian teaches English.
  8. Haroutun Enfiedjian (1853 – 1918), a graduate of Yale University, USA.
  9. Hovhannes M Garabedian (Hoghe 1860 – 1940), sent by the college to the United States to complete his education. He teaches Armenian, Latin and English literature. His book ‘Modern Armenian Grammar’ has been published by the college’s ‘Euphrates’ press.
  10. Antreas DerGhazarian, born in Rendevan, teaches history.
  11. Samouel Hachadourian (Palu 1875 – 1950), a graduate of Euphrates College, studied music in Germany and returned to become the teacher of music.
  12. Armenag Hovagimian, (Harput – killed in 1915) teaches mathematics.
  13. Hovhannes Kaboulian (Harput 1862 – 1892) teaches English literature, mathematics, physics, astronomy, chemistry.
  14. Sarkis Kevorkian teaches Turkish.
  15. Fay Emmett Livengood teaches English and literature.
  16. Garabed Lulejian (Harput 1834 – 1914), teaches pedagogy, classical Armenian, national and church history.
  17. Donabed Lulejian (1875 – 1917), a graduate of Euphrates College, received his university education in Yale and Cornell through college funds, where he specialised in botany and physics. He teaches natural sciences and biology.
  18. Mangasar Mangasarian (Harput 1859 – 1943), a graduate of Robert College, Istanbul.
  19. Felix Margot (a Swiss) teaches French.
  20. Mardiros Shmavonian (Haini 1833 – 1892) teaches philosophy, bibliography, logic, oratory, geology.
  21. M A Melkon (Harput 1839 – 1910), received his education in Switzerland, where he studied philosophy, divinity, social sciences and linguistics.
  22. Khachadour Nahigian (Hussenig 1856 – killed in 1915), studied natural sciences in Michigan and Ann Arbor universities, and teaches mathematics, physics and astronomy.
  23. Haroutiun Sargavakian (1864 - ?) teaches music.
  24. Arshag Shmavonian, (1860 – Harput 1919) a graduate of Euphrates College who has also studied in Switzerland. He has returned to Istanbul and become the first translator of the Embassy of the United States.
  25. Garabed M Soghigian (Gamsar) (Harput 1868 – killed 1916), a graduate of Euphrates College, sent by the college directors to the Mkhitarian orders in Vienna and Venice to complete his Armenological studies. He teaches Armenian and chemistry. He is also a trained photographer.
  26. Sarkis Soghigian (Harput 1854 – 1935) received his university education in Switzerland, Berlin and London. He was one of the founders of the Sanasarian School in Erzerum.
  27. Pierre Tachot teaches French.
  28. Kapriel Tanielian (? – killed in 1915), teacher and chief librarian.
  29. Nikoghos Tenekejian (Harput 1860 – killed in 1915) teaches history and Turkish.
  30. Mugurdich Vorperian (Malatya 1868 – killed in 1915) a graduate of Euphrates College, studied geology in Princeton University.
  31. Mesrob Yeshilian (Harput 1862 – 1942) a graduate of Euphrates College, studied chemistry in the United States for one year, teaches physics, chemistry, physiology, geology, English.
  32. Ashur Yusssef (Harput 1858 - killed in 1915), Assyrian, a student at Aintab’s American college, teaches calligraphy and classical Armenian. [32]

Euphrates College, Harput. The end-of-year ceremony in Wheeler Hall (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

The boys’ college is also endowed with a vocational training school (‘self-help shop’) where students may learn and specialise in various trades. The various tools here are gifts, made in 1904, by the philanthropic Rockfeller Foundation. Among the trades taught are furniture making under the supervision of the master-craftsman Vartabedian. The college’s furniture production (chairs, tables and other items) is much sought after in the Harput region, and is also used as necessary in the college complex. Various orders for furniture are fulfilled for Armenian houses and government establishments. A sheet-metal or tinning department also exists in the school which, however, was closed down during the Sultan Abdülhamid era. In those days the authorities were worried that the craftsmen there could produce weapons. Ironworking is also taught in the school. One of the college’s presidents, Rev Henry Riggs, was a noted mechanic, and passed on his knowledge to the school’s students. [33]

Euphrates College also has its own orchestra made up of 20-25 people. The conductors are Antreas DerGhazarian and Khachadour Bujicanian. The instruments played are violin, mandolin, piano, eastern zither (kanon), drums (dembag) etc. [34]

Euphrates College, Harput. The girls’ department teachers. Seated, first row, left to right: Marta Khayandjian, Vartuhi Chaghatzbanian, Anna Benneyan, Anna Bonapartian, Miss Barnum, Aghavni Vartabedian.  Seated, second row, left to right: Sultan Tahmazian, Varsenig Soghigian, Markarid Baloyian, Yester Astigian, Haiganush Antreasian. Standing, left to right: Anna Avakian, Miriam V Platt (later Carey), Mary L Daniels, Anna DerGhazarian, Miss Wilson, Anna Gelgelain, Pariz Krikorian, Arusiag Nahigian, Mary W Riggs, Diruhi Yulduzian (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

The girls’ department of the high school and college

Before this establishment was constructed, first schools for girls have operated under the supervision of the missionaries in Harput town, where Armenian, English, Holy Bible, mathematics, history, religion and ethics have been taught. Important roles have been played in the operation of these schools by Mariam and Juhar Enfiedjian, M. Shmavonian and Sara Garabedian (nee Medzadurian). This situation has continued until 1880 when, at the beginning of this year, the newly-opened Euphrates College is also endowed with a girls’ department. The girls’ school building is located not far from that of the boys’. The building allocated to the college president is between the two thus, as the president of this establishment Wheeler points out, preventing boys and girls seeing each other during school hours. [35]

The first seven girls graduated from this establishment in 1883 are:

Sara Medzadurian (from Hussenig), Nazli Nenejenian (Kghi), Anna Chedigian (Harput), Repeka Agheksandrian, Mariam Enfiedjian, Anna Medzadurian and Arshaluys Yusuf.

Of these, six were already engaged to Protestant pastors or preachers. The first principal of the girls’ college was Emily Wheeler, followed by Mary L Daniels. The latter held the position continually for 29 years. [36]

People who have taught in the girls’ college are:

Mary L. Daniels (principal), Mary W. Riggs, Isabelle Harley, Ellen C. Catlin, Theresa Huntignton (later Ziegler), Harriet Seymour, Caroline E. Bush, Markarid Butyka, Veronica Terzian, Mariam Barsamian, Dirouhi Yulduzian, Varsenig Soghigian, Vartouhi Chaghatzbanian, Mariam Asadourian,  Mariam Yeremian, Yester Antreasian, Anna Bozoyian, Aghavni Tashjian, Poulpoul Baghdasarian, Dalita Djandjanian, Markarid Balian, Vartuhi Chaghatzbanian, Repega Alexsandrian, Anna Chutigian, Mariam Damghajian, Mariam Avakian, Yeghsa Terzian, Anna Avakian, Anna Benneyan, Varter Sarkisian, Sara Bedrosian, Mariam Enfiejian, Jouhar Boghosian, Satenik Teokmejian, Zabel Matigian, Prapion Vartabedian (later Balian), Mariam Tashjian, Sara Medzadurian, Soultan Maldjanian, Oghda Jinivizian, Zaruhi Benneyan, Badaskhan Kazanjian, Maritsa Chopurian (later Depoyian) (Hussenig1890 - 1985), Khumar Tashjian, Yeghsa Sarafian, Arshalius Oghgasian, Arousiag Nahigian, Nerme Kalusdian, Prapion Vartabedian, Markrid Tenekejian, Oghda Jinivizian, Yester Boghigian, Yester Satigian, Nikoghos Tenekejian, Khachadour Nahigian, Mesrob Yeshilian. [37]

In 1907, on Dr Herbert Atkinson’s initiative, a separate midwifery department has been opened in the girls’ college. The subjects taught are nursing (by Dr Herbert Atkinson), infant care (by Tacy Atkinson), the study of microbes (Dr Sarkis Moumdjian), anatomy (by Dr Hovhannes Kambourian), pharmacology (by Dr Philip Movses), genealogy (by Dr Khachadour Manuelian). Ruth A. Parmelee also joins the teaching body later. [38]

In the case of the college, there is not much difference between the subjects the boys and girls are taught. The most noticeable difference is that Turkish is not a compulsory subject for girls. However they do learn needlework, dressmaking and cooking, which the boys don’t. [39]

Harput, the Euphrates College complex, 1900s. Girl students and their two teachers (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

Subjects taught in the girls’ college:

  1. Ancient history
  2. Armenian literature
  3. Astronomy (optional)
  4. Bible
  5. Botany
  6. Chemistry
  7. Christian Revelation and general survey of the Bible Church history (optional)
  8. Domestic science
  9. Drawing (optional)
  10. Dressmaking
  11. English (reading, translation and composition)
  12. Advanced English (optional)
  13. Fundamental doctrines (optional)
  14. Geology (optional)
  15. History of the 19th century
  16. History of religion (optional)
  17. Logic and Ethics
  18. Mediaeval and modern history
  19. Needlework
  20. Pedagogy
  21. Physics
  22. Physiology 
  23. Plane geometry (optional) 
  24. Psychology
  25. Public speaking
  26. Roman and early mediaeval history
  27. Singing (optional)
  28. Solid geometry (optional)
  29. Turkish (optional)
  30. Zoology [40]

Subjects taught in the girls’ high school :

  1. Algebra
  2. Arithmetic
  3. Armenian
  4. Armenian grammar
  5. Bible
  6. Classical Armenian
  7. Drawing
  8. Elocution
  9. English
  10. English grammar
  11. General history
  12. Geography
  13. Hygiene
  14. Ottoman and Armenian history Physics
  15. Physical geography
  16. Natural sciences
  17. Sewing and fitting Singing
  18. Singing - choir [41]

School of pedagogy

This establishment forms part of the American mission complex in Harput town’s Upper Quarter. The school is for girls and designed to prepare them as future Armenian pedagogists for Armenian schools. The graduates generally teach in the towns of Harput and Mezire, as well as in the Armenian schools in the region’s villages. The first principal has been Miriam V. Platt (later Carey), followed by Elizabeth Harley. The first two girls graduated in 1906. They are Marta Boyadjian and Varsenig Soghigian (later Begian). [42]

Euphrates College, Harput. Pedagogical School graduates and teachers. Seated, 5th from the left: Emma Riggs (nee Barnum). Seated, first from the right, Aghavni Harutiunian (Telgadintsi’s daughter) (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

1) Euphrates College, Harput. Pedagogical School graduates. First row, left to right: Vosketel Hampartsumian, Aghavni Boghosian, Satenig Aghadjanian, Dikranuhi Ayrasian, Elmas Kiurkdjian, Yester Boghosian, unknown, Aghavni Vartabedian, Mariam Tervizian, Takuhi Tervizian, Armenuhi Bonapartian, unknown. Back row, standing in the centre: Elizabeth Harley, the school’s principal (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)
2) Euphrates College, 1890s, Harput. Armenian women and children who are studying the Bible in the college complex (Source: Vahé Haig,
Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

Central School (St Hagop, Upper Quarter)

It is often also known by the name ‘Red College’, as the outside walls are painted that colour. It has sometimes been called by the name of its principal, Telgadintsi. It is located next to St Hagop church in the Upper Quarter.

Before this school was built, St Hagop had community school of the old kind. It is considered to be the town’s oldest school, whose foundation stretches back to about the 1820s. In these years two married priests, Rev Hagop and Rev Sahag Beshgeotiurian, opened a school next to the church, and have become its teachers. The atmosphere of a primitive school is supreme there; the teachers sit cross-legged on the classroom couch, while the pupils sit opposite them on the floor. The sons of rich people bring a mat to sit on, while the poor sit on the bare floorboards. The classroom has one or two small windows, which are close with oiled paper. There is a large board in the classroom, on which ‘A, B, C’ has been inscribed, with, at the bottom, ‘Cross, help me’. The whip hangs on the wall, and is often used.

Harput. The students of the Central School during a visit to the old Armenian cemetery of Khulakiugh (Hulvenk, Şahinkaya) (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

The new school has been built in 1887. It is constructed with the latest kind of classrooms, desks and chairs. Hovhannes Harutiunian (Telgadintsi) (Khuylu 1860 – killed in 1915), a graduate of the Smpadian School in Harput, has been appointed director of his newly-opened school, and has remained in this post until his catastrophic death and the school’s final destruction. He also teaches Armenian and composition. A secondary department has been added to this parish school since 1890 and it is henceforth given the title ‘Central School’. About 300 pupils begin to attend this school every year.

The two highest classes in the school arte taught the following subjects:

  1. Armenian history
  2. Armenian grammar
  3. Church history
  4. Church singing
  5. Classical and modern Armenian
  6. Comparative theology
  7. English
  8. English literature
  9. French
  10. French literature
  11. Mathematics
  12. Music
  13. Physics
  14. Turkish and Turkish composition

Harput town’s St Hagop church (Upper Quarter) and, next to it, the Central School building and students (Source: Nubarian Library collection)

At the beginning, the school’s income consisted of the pupils’ fees, gifts made by the Armenians of Harput and occasional donations from outside. The school’s financial situation has later become better, when financial aid has begun to reach it from educational unions set up by people from Harput in the United States, as well as from the Garabed and Krikor Melkonian brothers established in Egypt who are tobacco producers.

Among the graduates of that first year (1891) we find the following names: Garabed Kalusdian, Nshan Tiufenkdjian, Sarkis Malemezian, Melkon Tashjian and Bedros Geoldjiukian.
The graduates of 1892 are:
Rupen Zartarian, Hagop Parichanian, Krikor Khanigian, Hampartsum Zakarian, Levon Papazian, Mgerdich Shaghalian and Sarkis Telatsian.
The graduates of 1893 are:
Khosrov Papazian, Avedis Khanigian, Kevork Atamian and Donabed Museghian.
The 1894-1895 graduates are:
Yeghia Kezirian, Garabed Tashjian, Khosrov Elmasian, Haroutiun Darakdjian, Dikran Vartigian, Sarkis Demirdjian, Mardiros Lusararian, Setrag Kuyumdjian, Armenag Shaghalian, Hagop Nalbandian and Khosrov Tervizian.
The 1907 graduates are:
Hovhannes Kazandjian, Harutiun Boyadjian, Bismark Hovsepain, Sarkis Velegian, Kevork Geoldjiukian and Misak Der-Hagopian.
The 1908 graduates are:
Sarkis Nalbandian, Karekin Tashjian, Karekin Nalbandian, Misak Sarafian, Mardiros Demirdjian, Mihran Srabian and Misak Der-Baghdasarian.

1) Harput, 1909. The teachers and graduates of the St Hagop Central School. Seated, left to right: Armenag Hovagimian, Hovhannes Kambourian, Telgadintsi (Hovhannes Harutiunian), Mesrob Jamgochian (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)
2) Harput, 1910. Graduates of the St Hagop Central School. Seated, centre, the principal, Telgadintsi (Source: Vahé Haig,
Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)
3) Harput 1910. Graduates of the St Hagop Central School (2nd picture). Seated, centre: the school director Telgadintsi (Source: Nubarian Library collection)

Among the graduates is the well-known American Armenian author Peniamin Nurigian (Hussenig 1894 – Los Angeles 1988).

During the time of the mass anti-Armenian violence in 1895, the attacking mob has burnt down and utterly demolished this school. But immediately after peace was restored the director Telgadintsi, with the other trustees, have made every effort and succeeded in opening at least a few classes in the building next to St Garabed church in the Lower Quarter of Harput. At the same time the rebuilding of the Central School has been started, greatly assisted by financial aid provided by the Harput educational unions in the United States. Telgadintsi has moved the Central School back to the St Hagop quarter in 1900. Although the rebuilt school doesn’t have walls painted red, it continues to be called ‘The Red College’. It is from this time that the Melkonian brothers have begun to provide an annual gift of 30 Ottoman liras to be used to help defray the school’s costs.

Telgadintsi is forced to relinquish his position of director in 1903. During this same year the Ottoman authorities arrested two revolutionaries, Kalusd Antreasian (cover name Hagop) and Hagop Tevekelian (cover name Hapet) in the town of Harput, both of whom were part of the Hnchag political party. These two Armenians from Shabin-Karahisar (Şebinkarahisar) were heavily involved in the transport of weapons and the organisation of local Hnchag groups. They have been hanged in Mezire in 1904. Government bodies, in the glare of his incident, have arrested more than 40 Armenian notables from the towns of Mezire and Harput as suspicious people, among them teachers. Telgadintsi is also among them and has been imprisoned for nine months, after which he has returned to his educational position.

The members of the Central School trusteeship have been:

Kevork Ekizian, Garabed Der-Baghdasarian, Toros Demirdjian, Khosrov Kiurkdjian, Garabed Berberian, Haigaz Giulbengian, Garabed Adanalian, Hagop Demirdjian, Simon Demirdjian, Khachadour Tervizian, Hagop Fermanian, Hagop Tiufenkdjian, Avedis Chedigian, Hovhannes Tanielian, Hagop Vartigian, Hagop Dikidjian, Sarkis Tervizian, Manug Der-Baghdasarian, Krikor Ekizian, Kevork Giurdjian, Garabed Demirdjian, Ohan Tashjian, Garabed Soghigian and Krikor Deokmedjian.

All these people come from the four Armenian quarters – St Hagop (Upper Quarter), St Garabed (Lower Quarter), Sinamud (the eastern quarters of the town) and St Stepannos. This diversity is proof that the Central School has left its parochial state behind, becoming the property of the town’s entire Armenian community.

From 1 February 1909 the school’s students have begun publishing a fortnightly hand-written literary journal, called Dzovag. It appears in only one copy and, passing from hand to hand, is read by a great many people.

Let us recall some of the teachers who have taught at this school:

  1. Haigazun Aramian (Zeytun 1885 – 1970)
  2. Rev Vartan Arslanian
  3. Misak Der-Baghdasarian
  4. Dr Benne (Bedros Manugian, Huseinig 1881 – 1915)
  5. Hagop Dindjian
  6. Arakel Effendi (from Istanbul): Turkish
  7. Ghazar: singing
  8. Hampartsum Giuleserian
  9. Armenag Hovagimian
  10. Mesrob Jamgochian (Harput 1880 – 1940)
  11. Hovhannes Kabulian (from Agn)
  12. Hagop Simonian (from Palu’s Havav village): French, geography and book keeping
  13. Hovhannes Kambourian
  14. Hovhannes Kazandjian
  15. Khachadur Khachigian
  16. Hagop Khavuzian
  17. Ghazar Manguni (from Palu’s Havav village, studied in Istanbul): church singing and religion
  18. Hagop Oghasapian
  19. Dikran Prigian
  20. Garabed Soghigian: physics and chemistry
  21. Mihran Srabian
  22. Sarkis Velegian
  23. Mesrob Yeshilian: English, physics and chemistry [43]

Harput town. The Upper Quarter. St Hagop church (with the dome) can be seen in the centre and, higher, Euphrates College (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

Smpadian Gymnasium (Lower Quarter)

The Smpadian Union has been formed in about 1865 in Harput, with the object of backing up cultural and educational development, encouraging Armenian parents to send their children to school and to educate the new generation using modern pedagogical methods. The founders are Ghazar Agha Marnetsian, Sahag Agha Tervizian, Sarkis Agha Santurdjian, Harutiun Agha Yaghubian, Minas Agha Aroyian, Arakel Agha Geoldjigian, Partig Agha and Khachadur Effendi Tervizian. The Union operates in the town’s Lower Quarter, where the churches of St Stepannos and St Garabed are located. Upon the initiative of the Smpadian Union, the first first school has opened in about 1872. Apraham Aivazian, Dikran Manavian and Partogh Tatarian have been invited to come from Istanbul and teach. Textbooks are also brought from the capital. [44]

In later years, the Smpadian Union has continued its work at the same rate. New members replace the founders – usually their sons. Some of them are Karekin Tiufenkdjian, Sarkis Vartigian, Kapriel Santurdjian and Hovagim Parichanian. The union’s members select the best students from the parish schools and invite them to study in the Smpadian School. Some of those chosen are: Sarkis Soghigian, Hovhannes Harutiunian (Telgadintsi), Sarkis Tervizian, Garabed Yaghubian, Garabed Jamgochian, Mardiros Keligian, Mardiros Aroyian, Hovhannes Gosdanian, Aliksan Djokhalian, Aghabab Aroyian, Garabed Kharnadjian, Kevork Tumanadjian, Yeghia Geoldjiukian and Krikor Tutundjian.

Government taxes greatly increased during the time of the Russo-Turkish war (1877), so much so that they became impossible even for the rich in Harput. Under these circumstances the town’s Armenian aghas’ financial assistance to the Smpadian School has ceaseed, naturally being the reason for the school’s closure, although primary Armenian sources ascribe another reason for it. The teacher Partogh Tatarian and several of his collegues being deemed ‘suspicious’ by the Ottoman authorities are ordered to return to Istanbul. The absence of the main teachers makes regular teaching impossible and for this reason the Smpadian School is forced to close its doors. The establishment reopens in 1884, this time with one of its graduates, Telgadintsi, as director. He remains in this position until 1888, when he is appointed as the Upper Quarter’s Central School. Mihran Hakesezian (from Sivas) and Vahan Beshigtourian also held positions within the reopened Smpadian School.

Harput, 1876. Members of the ‘Smpadian Union’. Seated, left to right: Sahag Tervizian, Kevork Santurdjian, Sarkis Vartigian, Garabed Gosdanian. Standing, left to right: Hagop Tekmedjian, Mgrdich Hampartsumian, Mardiros Kambourian (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

The school has been moved and re-established in the St Stepannos church complex in 1886, where it has larger halls and a walled yard. There, alongside Telgadintsi, Manug Dzeron (Parchandj 1862 – 1938) and Blind Sarkis (Sarkis Zadurian) have taught too. In these years plays have been performed on stage, among which have been Bedros Turian (1851-1872) ‘Blach Soil’, as well as ‘Arshag II’ and ‘The Van Famine’.

One of the well-known teachers in the Smpadian School is Bedros Atamian, who is considered to be one of the pillars of this establishment. He was born in Chemeshgadzak (Çemişgezek) and was invited to teach in the school when he was already living in Istanbul. We know that he had been arrested by the Ottoman authorities while teaching in Harput and held in prison for many long years. The primary Armenian sources that have written about him only note that his imprisonment was for ‘suspicions of nationalist aims’, when he was visiting his birthplace of Chemeshgadzak. He has been held in Erzurum prison and released in 1908.

Hovhannes Harutiunian, as we have seen, was a graduate of the Smpadian School, and would become the well-known writer Telgadintsi. Another well-known graduate is Arakel G. Bedigian, an Assyrian (Harput 1860 – 1902) known by his nom-de-plume of ‘Kisag’. He has also held positions in Istanbul and Bardizag. Another is Sarkis Soghigian, one of the founders of the Sanasarian School in Erzurum.

It is thanks to the Smpadian Union that the first plays have been staged in Harput. Bedros Atamian, one of the teachers in the school, has had a vital role in this work. Thus, a few years after its foundation, the same establishment has staged ‘Brave Vartan’, ‘Haig Nahabed’ and other Armenian-themed plays. It is noted that the local Ottoman officials, the governor and churchmen are present at these performances. Roles in these plays are taken by Hovhannes Harutiunian (Telgadintsi), Nikoghos Tenekejian, Garabed Soghigian, Khachadour Tervizian, Hovhannes Pilibbosian and Mgerdich Dindjian.

The boys’ department of the Smpadian School comprises a first and intermediate school. From 1886 the school has had a girls’ department too. Djizmedjian points out that foundation of this girls’ school in the Lower Quarter must be explained by the fact that this quarter is distant from the parts of the Upper Quarter in which the Turks live. In other words, safety is an imperative, which leads the Armenians to open a girls’ department of the Smpadian School, in which girls from the Upper Quarter will become students. It is told how, every morning those girls who go to the school from the Upper Quarter collect together into a group, veiled, and, under the supervision of their teacher Repeka Santurdjian, walk through the market and other Turkish streets to their school. In the evening the same thing is repeated and the girls return to their homes in the Upper Quarter.

Harput, 1913. The New Smpadian Union executive committee. Seated, left to right: Armenag Tervizian, Donabed Lulejian, Rev Vartan Arslanian, K Vartigian, Hovsep Malemezian. Standing, left to right: K Goshgarian, Kegham Samuelian, Hagop Fermanian, Hovhannes Israyelian (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

The first graduates of the Smpadian Girls’ School are: Hripsime Yeramian (later Takesian), Lousia Tervizian (later Dindjian), Nazli Sarnetsian (later Eoksuzian) and Maritsa Der-Stepanian.

The first principal is Mrs Partoghian. Among the teachers that are remembered are: Mariam Enfiedjian (later Avakian), Miss Khumar, ‘The lame teacher’ (Topal Varjuhi), Miss Elbis (from Istanbul), Repeka Santurdjian, Repeka Kiurkdjian (later Torosian), Maritsa Srabian, Rev Mesrob, Sultan-Araksi Nalbandian, Aghavni Tashjian, Aghavni Harutiunian, Satenig Harutiunian, Terviz Khorushian, Baidzar Nahigian, Makruhi Gudanian, Yester Maliemezian, Aghavni Yeshilian, Hripsime Yeramian, Yeghisapet Hagopian and Haiganush Khayadjian.

The Smpadian School remains closed after the 1895 anti-Armenian massacres. After re-opening, it is only the Girls’ department that continues to operate under the name ‘Girls’ Gymnasium’. During these years the principal is Rev Vartan Arslanian (Agn 1863 – killed in 1915), who at the same time teaches history and religion.

After the re-introduction of the Ottoman constitution in 1908, the Smpadian Union begins vigorous work once more, under the name ‘New Smpadian Union’. During this time the girls’ gymnasium develops still further, its library is enriched with new books, visiting guests give lectures there, and there are frequent plays performed – which are often in Turkish – in the presence of Turkish officials. Among those in Armenian, ‘The valley of tears’ (by Avedis Aharonian), ‘The dedicated’ and Telgadintsi’s works are remembered. In this new era the directing council is made up of: Rev Vartan Arslanian, Donabed Lulejian, Hagop Fermanian, Armenag Tervizian, Hovsep Malemezian, Kegham Samuelian, K. Goshgarian, Hovhannes Israyelian and K. Vartigian. The graduate class of girls formed their own association called Arshalius Haiuhik (Armenian Dawn Girls), whose object is to back up the efforts of the Smpadian Union. [45]

St Garabed church first school (Lower Quarter)

It is located next to the St Garabed church in the Lower Quarter and very close to the Assyrian quarter. The church was rebuilt in the 1870s. The school building is located on the second floor. The first floor is used as a courtyard and it is here that lessons are held in summer. This part of the building is also the church’s narthex. There is also a fountain with a basin in front of it located here where the local people come to get water.

The first school is only for boys. Just before the start of the First World War there were 60-70 boys attending it. Those completing the courses generally either go into a trade or continue their education in another establishment. In 1880 a new principal is appointed, Hagop Simonian, during whose time in office the school is reorganised and enjoys a period of swift development.

The trusteeship of the school is taken up by the Dikidjian, Geoldjikian, Fermanian, Zulumian, Tervizian, Tiufenkdjian, Yeghiayian, Vartigian and Tumadjanian families.

The following people have taught in the school:

The teacher Hovsep, Garabed Djakhalian, the teacher Krikor and Rev Aristages Rupenian, and later Hagop Parichanian, Hampartsum Kazandjian, Hmayag Khazoyian, Vahan Shalian (later the married priest Rev Krikor) and Levon Liuledjian (Harput 1880 – 1965). [46]

Lower Quarter, Harput. The children of the Armenian kindergarten and staff. The teachers, seated, left to right: Haiganush Avakian, Isguhi Hekimian, Victoria Kalusdian. The man standing between the last two is Rev Vartan Arslanian (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

The Lower Quarter girls’ school

It belongs to the Armenian Protestant community. It is located in the Lower Quarter, above the ‘Bitter Fountain’. It is a two storey building, opposite the town’s historic castle and is very close to the Catholic educational establishments. At the beginning it was a simple first school, but from 1900 it has a secondary school department. About 150-200 girls attend this school every year, and go to Euphrates College to obtain their higher education.

The principal is Papel Isgouhi Aroyian. The women teachers are Markarid Tenekejian and Aghavni Tashjian, and the male teachers are Armenag Hovagimian, Karekin Gostanian, Hagop Bedrosian, Giragos Khachadurian and Ashur Yussef. The trustees are Nikoghos Tenekejian, Ashur Yussef and the teacher Garabed. [47]

The Sinamud School

There is a parish school in this quarter, attended by about 45 students. The teachers are Rev Mardiros, Muradian and Rev Anania. [48]

St Stepannos School

It is located in the quarter of Harput town known as Keshish Meidan, next to St Stepannos church. The church has been rebuilt in the 1880s. The school is a two storey building and accepts 50-60 students every year. It is for boys only. Those who finish this school’s curriculum and want to continue their education go to St Hagop Central School (the ‘Red School’) or Euphrates College.

The teachers who are well known during this – initial – period are the teacher Manoug, Vahan Shalian, Deacon Sarkis Dindjian, Rev Kevork and Rev Taniel and, later, the teacher Blind Sarkis (Sarkis Zadurian). Teaching has been carried out, for a long time, using primitive methods, the main one being beating. But since the 1900s the situation has changed. In these times, apart from the four mathematical operations, reading from Narek and church singing that have been taught in the upper classes of the first school, geography, French, Turkish and English are taught. [49]

Lower Quarter, Harput, 1913. The students and teachers of the St Stepannos school. Second row from the bottom, third from the left with mustache: Levon Lulejian (Source: Levon Lulejian archives. Courtesy of Sevag Yaralian, Los Angeles)

Lower Quarter, Harput. The Capuchins’ church and school can be seen in the immediate foreground. Above, to the left, is St Stepannos church (with the dome) and, to the right just and behind, is the minaret of the Turkish mosque (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

The Capuchin boys’ and girls’ schools

These schools have been founded in 1893 in the town’s Upper Quarter, under the castle walls. The founder is the Capuchin monk Father Ludovic.

The boys’ school has first and intermediate departments, in which the teaching language is Armenian. About 200-250 boys attend every year. It should be noted that the teaching is free here. Most of the students are Armenians and Assyrians from the Lower Quarter, as well Armenians as from the Upper Quarter and from Hussenig whose parents cannot afford to pay school fees for their children. Those students who wish to obtain higher education generally attend the Capuchin College in Mezire. Rupen Zartarian has taught in the first school department of this Harput Capuchin school between 1895 and 1897, but has later moved to the Mezire Central School as a teacher. Noted teachers in this school are:

Kegham Samuelian, Aram Srabian (killed in 1915), Sarkis Berberian, Bedros Tenekejian, Abuna Adrianos, Père (Father) Louis Minasian (Harput 1879 – 1956), Hovagim Demirdjian, Garabed Ghazarosian, Mehmed Effendi, Kasbar Rupenian, Karekin Devedjian and Surian Dasho.

The students have to be present at the Catholic Mass celebrated in Latin every morning in the school and the recitation of the rosary in the evenings.

The girls’ high school is called St Claire. This too is located in the Lower Quarter. The school buildings were once the property of the Assyrian Naman family; the Capuchin fathers, buying the property from them, have converted it into the school. Between 200 and 250 girls attend this high school. In the first years Father Ludovic held the office of principal. The principal has later been Azniv Minasian (later Kayekdjian), having two Assyrian assistants, Misses Sara and Shamiram. This principal has been succeeded by her sister, Yughaper Minasian, who is a graduate of Euphrates College and had taught in that same establishment for a time.

Some of the teachers who are remembered are:

Tjkhuhi Shushanian, Azniv Minasian, Mariam Berberian, Mariam Boyadjian, Mariam Tashjian, S Tenekejian and Y Garabedian.

The most notable teacher is considered to be Father Tateos Tovmadjian (Harput 1864 – 1935), who was a member of the Mekhitarist order. He held this position from 1894 to 1904, teaching Armenian language, Armenian literature and Armenian history.

From 1904 the principal of the girls’ high school has been Mlle Gamot (a Frenchwoman). The school students are taught three languages: French, Armenian and Turkish. Dressmaking and embroidery courses are also given. [50]

The Capuchin orphanage-school

This orphanage-school has been founded in 1895 after the massacres of the Sultan Abdülhamid era. It is located next to the ruins of the town’s castle, with the Armenian cemetery on the small hill to the left. The principal is Père Raphael, and his assistant is Frère Ferdinand. After utilising an old building for a number of years, a new, larger building has been constructed on the site. About 300 children are taught in this mixed establishment. [51]

1) Père (Father) Raphael (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)
2) Harput town. The Upper Quarter. The Capuchin order’s church and school. The towns ruined castle can be seen to the right, and on the left is the Armenian cemetery on the hillside (Source: Vahé Haig,
Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

The Assyrian School (in the Lower Quarter)

The town of Harput. The Assyrian quarter and the Assyrian church of The Holy Mother of God can be seen on the right (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

It is located in the part of the Lower Quarter where the Assyrians live next to one another and where the Assyrian Holy Mother of God church has also been constructed. The Assyrian school is a simple first school. It should be said that the Harput Assyrians are Armenian-speaking and schoolchildren attend such educational establishments (Euphrates College, Smpadian School, Central School and the French college), where the basic teaching language is Armenian. [52]

Photo gallery

The Bible that carries the Euphrates College stamp, and which was printed in 1733 by the Mekhitarist Order in Venice. The Bible was owned by one of the College’s well-known lecturers, Hovhannes Boujicanian (1873-1915), and now is in his grandson Adom Boudjikanian’s personal library

1) Harput, 1865. Gravure. The Theological Gymnasium belonging to the American mission (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)
2) Harput. Gravure. The Theological Gymnasium belonging to the American mission (Source: Vahé Haig,
Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)
3) Harput 1867. The Theological Gymnasium belonging to the American mission is in the centre of this gravure picture. The college buildings had not yet been constructed. The Turkish cemetery can be seen in the upper part, with Armenian houses in the foreground (Source: Hans-Lukas Kieser,
Der verpasste Friede. Mission, Ethnie und Staat in den Ostprovinzen der Türkei 1839-1938, Chronos, Zurich, 2000)

1) The Euphrates College teaching staff, 1889. Seated, left to right: Nikoghos Tenekejian, Khachadour Nahigian, M A Melcon, Hovhannes Garabedian, Mesrob Yeshilian. Standing, left to right: Karekin Beshgetourian, Garabed Lulejian, Hachadour Benneyan, Haroutun Avakian, Hapet Pilibbosian (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)
2) Euphrates College, Harput. The college kindergarten (Source: Vahé Haig,
Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)
3) The Harput Theological Gymnasium students and lecturers of the 1906 academic year (Source: Hans-Lukas Kieser,
Der verpasste Friede. Mission, Ethnie und Staat in den Ostprovinzen der Türkei 1839-1938, Chronos, Zurich, 2000)

1) Euphrates College graduates of 1897, Harput. Seated, second from the left, Mary L. Daniels and third, Mary W. Riggs (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)
2) United States, 1900. The members of the committee of the Harput Educational Union. First row, left to right: Maghak Berberian, Vartan Giragosian, Kevork Soghigian, Markar Hovhannesian. Second row, left to right: Armenag Ekmekdjian, Hagop Tumanadjian, Khachadur Zakarian
(Source: Manug K. Djizmedjian, Kharpert and its sons, Fresno, 1955, [in Armenian])
3) Euphrates College, Harput, in the 1860s. Graduates of the Theological Gymnasium (Source: Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain [in Armenian], New York, 1959)

A football match being played on Harput’s field by students of the Euphrates College (Source: Catalogue of Euphrates college, 1911-1912, Harpoot, Turkey)

1) Euphrates College girl students at exercise (Source: Catalogue of Euphrates college, 1911-1912, Harpoot, Turkey)
2) Euphrates College. College students who have won sports competitions (Source: Catalogue of Euphrates college, 1911-1912, Harpoot, Turkey)

Euphrates College, Harput. ‘Student just arrived at College, bringing his own bed and belongings’ (Source: Catalogue of Euphrates college, 1911-1912, Harpoot, Turkey)

Euphrates College. The vocational training school (‘Self-Help Shop’), its students and its products (Source: Catalogue of Euphrates college, 1911-1912, Harpoot, Turkey)

Euphrates College. Inside the primary school (Source: Catalogue of Euphrates college, 1911-1912, Harpoot, Turkey)

  1. [1] Hapet Pilibbosian (Editor), Yeprad College Memorial, 1878-1915 [Memoranda of Euphrates College], Boston, 1942, pp. 39-42. [in Armenian]
  2. [2] Selçuk Akşin Somel, The modernization of public education in the Ottoman Empire, 1839-1908, Brill, Leiden/Boston/Köln, 2001 pp. 42-43.
  3. [3] Somel, pp. 202-204; Benjamin C. Fortna, Imperial classroom. Islam, the State, and Education in the Late Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York, 2002, pp. 50-60.
  4. [4] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain, New York, 1959, pp. 315, 405 [in Armenian]; Pilibbosian (Editor), Yeprad College Memorial..., pp. 24-25.
  5. [5] Manug B. Dzeron, Parchandj village: a complete history (1600-1937), Boston, 1938, p. 177. [in Armenian]
  6. [6] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, p. 803.
  7. [7] Dzeron, Parchandj..., p. 177; G. H. Aharonian (editor), Hussenig, Hairenik Publishing House, Boston, 1965, p. 41. [in Armenian]
  8. [8] Dzeron, Parchandj..., p. 177.
  9. [9] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, p. 311-315; Aharonian, Hussenig, p. 42.
  10. [10] Ibid., p. 41.
  11. [11] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 317-318.
  12. [12] Garabed Lulejian, ‘The former state of education among the Harput Armenians', in Pilibbosian (Editor), Yeprad College Memorial..., pp. 25-26; K. Mkhitarian, Our village of Tadem, Hairenik press, Boston, 1958, p. 54 [in Armenian]; Concerning our sins, in Tlgadintsi, Works, Catholicossate of Cilicia press, Antilias, 1992, pp. 32-33. [in Armenian]
  13. [13] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 327-328; Stina Katchadourian (edited by), Great need over the water. The letters of Theresa Huntington Ziegler, missionary to Turkey, 1898-1905, Gomidas Institute, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1999, p. 63; Pilibbosian (Editor), Yeprad College Memorial..., pp. 37-38.
  14. [14] Frank Andrews Stone, ‘The heritage of the Euphrates (Armenia) College’, in Richard Hovannisian, Armenian Tsopk/Kharpert, Mazda publishers, Costa Meza, California, 2002, p. 211.
  15. [15] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 328-329, 364; Stone, The heritage of..., p. 177-178; Catalogue of Euphrates college, 1911-1912, Harpoot, Turkey, p. 6.
  16. [16] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, p. 330.
  17. [17] Hans-Lukas Kieser, Der verpasste Friede. Mission, Ethnie und Staat in den Ostprovinzen der Türkei 1839-1938, Chronos, Zurich, 2000, p. 196; Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 330-331.
  18. [18] Ibid, pp. 138-139.
  19. [19] Stone, The heritage of..., p. 216.
  20. [20] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, p. 340.
  21. [21] Frank Andrews Stone, Academies for Anatolia. A study of the rationale, program, and impact of the educational institutions sponsored by the American Board in Turkey, 1830-2005, Caddo Gap Press, San Francisco, 2006, pp. 173-174; Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 332, 363; Catalogue of Euphrates college…, p. 13.
  22. [22] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp 334, 336.
  23. [23] Ibid., pp. 346-347, 358-360, 365; Pilibbosian (Editor), Yeprad College Memorial..., pp 16.
  24. [24] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, p. 338; Stone, Academies for Anatolia…, p. 170.
  25. [25] Manug K. Djizmedjian, Kharpert and its sons (in Armenian), Fresno, 1955, pp. 413-415. [in Armenian]
  26. [26] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 322-324.
  27. [27] Ibid., p. 326; Pilibbosian (Editor), Yeprad College Memorial..., pp. 44-45.
  28. [28] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 327-330; Djizmedjian, Kharpert and its sons…, pp. 128-133.
  29. [29] Catalogue of Euphrates college…, p. 37; Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, p. 333.
  30. [30] Catalogue of Euphrates college…, p. 38.
  31. [31] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 328, 333; Dzadur Berberian, The origins of Harput educational establishments and their development (1825-1925), Paris, 1993, pp. 32-114. [in Armenian]
  32. [32] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 335, 371-378.
  33. [33] Ibid., pp. 358-359.
  34. [34] Ibid., pp. 333-334.
  35. [35] Stone, Academies for Anatolia…, p. 171.
  36. [36] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 341-343; Djizmedjian, Kharpert and its sons…, p. 134.
  37. [37] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, p. 336; Djizmedjian, Kharpert and its sons…, pp. 134-135.
  38. [38] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 349-350.
  39. [39] Ibid., p. 333.
  40. [40] Catalogue of Euphrates college…, p. 39.
  41. [41] Ibid., p. 40.
  42. [42] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 348-350.
  43. [43] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 389-401, 603-609, 622-623; Djizmedjian, Kharpert and its sons…, pp. 149-152, 355-357.
  44. [44] Ibid., p. 140.
  45. [45] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 402-408, 491; Djizmedjian, Kharpert and its sons…, pp. 142-148, 157-158.
  46. [46] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 489-493; Djizmedjian, Kharpert and its sons…, p. 102.
  47. [47] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, p. 504.
  48. [48] Djizmedjian, Kharpert and its sons…, pp. 102, 152.
  49. [49] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 495-498; Djizmedjian, Kharpert and its sons…, pp. 102, 152.
  50. [50] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 501-503; Djizmedjian, Kharpert and its sons…, pp. 159-161; Kieser, Der verpasste Friede…, pp. 93, 208-210.
  51. [51] Vahé Haig, Harput and its golden plain…, pp. 434-435.
  52. [52] Ibid., pp. 510-5.