Keghi, 1912. The pupils and faculty of an Armenian school (Source: Dick Maloian Collection, Livonia, Michigan).

Keghi/Kiğı – Schools

Author: Robert Tatoyan, 05/06/2018 (Last modified: 05/06/2018) - Translator: Simon Beugekian

An Overview of the Keghi/Kiğı Sub-district

According to the administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century, the Keghi Sub-district or kaza was part of the Erzurum District (sandjak) of the Erzurum Province (Vilayet). Keghi was located in the District’s south-western section. It bordered Khnous Sub-district to the east; Terchan Sub-district to the north; Erzincan Sub-district to the west; Dersim (Harput Province) to the south-west; and Palu (Diyarbekir Province) and Djabaghchour (Bitlis Province) to the south [1].

The territory of the Keghi Sub-district corresponded roughly to the borders of Khortsyan Province of the historical Fourth Hayk as provided by the Ashkharhatsuyts [2]. In Armenian manuscripts, Keghi has historically been mentioned by the names of Kourzan, Khorza, Khortsayni, Khortsen, Khortsenk, Khortsyank, Khortsun Province, and the land of the Khortsounyats [3].

The total area of the Keghi Sub-district was 4,500 square kilometers, with an average altitude of 1,050 meters above sea level. Keghi’s Armenian population on the eve of the Genocide was 25,000 [4]. Of those, about 2,500 lived in the sub-district’s hub, the town of Keghi-Kasaba. The rest lived in the sub-district’s 50 Armenian-populated villages [5].

The principal occupation of Armenians in Keghi was agriculture. Commerce and the crafts became more prominent particularly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution. Keghi was also home to many wealthy Armenian merchants, including the Amerigians, Hovagimians, Alemyans, Oynoyans, Khoshmatlians, etc. Migrants from Keghi often worked as cooks in Istanbul [6]. Natives of Keghi made up a large portion of Ottoman Armenians who migrated to the United States [7].

A view of Keghi. The Saint Sarkis Church is visible in the center, slightly to the left (Source: Dick Maloian Collection, Livonia, Michigan).

The state of education among Keghi Armenians prior to 1878

The Armenians of Keghi were noted for their love of and aptitude for education [8]. During some historical periods, Keghi was a center of education and scholarship, as evidenced by the multitude of monastery ruins scatted across the sub-district. Many of Keghi’s monasteries had their own schools. According to tradition, boys and girls studied alongside each other in these monasteries. Girls were also allowed to participate in church ceremonies and to join church choirs [9].

Armenian educational establishments began appearing in the second half of the 18th century in Istanbul, and in the first half of the 19th century in other Armenian-populated provinces of the Ottoman Empire. These schools functioned under the aegis of the religious and parochial establishment, but the posts of teachers in these schools were reserved for laic educators, who taught according to previously formulated educational curricula.

Schools began appearing in Keghi in the late 18th century/early 19th century [10]. There is documented evidence of the existence of grade schools in a few large Armenian-populated villages of Keghi during that period. Sources indicate that between 1800 and 1810, in the village of Khoups, Armenians enlarged the local school, and also opened a special school for girls [11]. The schools in Khoups and elsewhere were adjacent to the churches. As a rule, the teacher was the village priest, who instructed the children in basic knowledge, namely reading, writing, and counting. The textbooks consisted of the Nareg, Haysmavourk, prayer books, and the Psalms [12].

The pupils of the boys’ elementary school of Keghi engaged in agricultural work as part of their vocational classes (Source: United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Three-Year Report: August 21, 1908-August 31, 1911, Istanbul, published by Nshan Babigian, 1911).

It is important to note that during this period, Armenian schools operating in Keghi, as well as elsewhere in the Ottoman Empire, functioned intermittently, often closing and reopening, depending on various internal and external circumstances (lack of teachers, lack of school buildings, exorbitant expenses for maintaining schools, Kurdish raids, etc.) [13].

The Ottoman authorities encouraged the growth of Armenian secular schools in the period between 1830 and the early 1860s, as part of the Tanzimat reforms (the process of modernizing and westernizing the empire). Another catalyst for the growth of the Armenian educational infrastructure was the ratification of the 1860 Constitution, and alongside it the establishment of the functions of the Educational Council that operated alongside the Patriarchate [14].

In 1859, the Armenian Patriarchate dispatched Father Mampre Mamigonian to Keghi as an official envoy, and he launched the initiative to open or reopen the schools of Keghi-Kasaba. He advised the locals to create the town’s first educational-“cultural” association to finance the school. The Masis newspaper, in its October 15, 1859 edition, described how this association was founded – “Father Mampre… Began by… Admonishing the people for their backwardness… With powerful evidence to back his arguments, he swayed the minds of his parishioners, and soon began making preparations for the construction of the school at an appropriate site. The people of Kasaba immediately founded an association, which was able to raise 20,000 kurus from Kasaba, a village of 140 poor households, to fund the construction of the school building and the wages of a teacher. They then started building the school.” [15]

According to the same source, on the occasion of Father’s Mampre’s visit to the area, the Armenians of the Djermag and Areg villages also expressed a desire to have schools in their villages and made preparation to begin construction of the school buildings [16].

A view of Keghi (Source: Dick Maloian Collection, Livonia, Michigan).

At around the same time, a young man who had been educated in Istanbul, Melkon Djantemirian, opened a school in Tarman, one of the larger Armenian-populated villages of Keghi. He settled in Tarman in the 1850s, gathered a group of youth around himself, and began teaching them spoken Armenian, using Father Arsen Aydenian’s “Keraganoutyun Ashkharhapar gam Arti Hayeren Lezvi” as a textbook [17]. Boys came to Tarman from other villages of the sub-district (Djermag, Chanakhchi) and even from the regional hub to study with Melkon Djantemirian. He soon gained great influence among the local Armenians. The fact that he became known simply as Melkon Varjabed (Teacher Melkon) attests to the stature he enjoyed among the people [18].

In the late 1860s, “Teacher” Melkon Djantemirian entered into correspondence with Mgrdich Khrimian (Khrimian Hayrig), who had been elected Armenian Patriarch in Istanbul. Djantemirian’s letters to the Patriarch outlined the foremost issues faced by Armenians in Keghi, particularly the pillaging and depredations of the Kurds. The teacher’s letters to Karekin Srvantsdyants, who held the position of overall director of the schools of Garin/Erzurum in 1867-69, have also been preserved. In one of them, Djantemirian writes: “There is only one way to reawaken Armenia – with education, knowledge, and schooling. If you continue to dedicate yourself to your selfless efforts, if the number of your supporters grows, if envious souls don’t hinder you, if the darkness of superstition and ignorance doesn’t snuff out the fire that you’ve kindled, I’m hopeful that within a short time Garin will flower and thrive, and its hills will shine with the light of knowledge. I am firmly convinced that without education, there is no salvation, neither physical nor spiritual. Education is what elevates Earth to the heavens. Education is what allows man to reach the pinnacle of his divine purpose – ‘Let Us make man in Our image.’” [19].”

Keghi, the Der Matossian family. Photographer: Samuel H. Srabian. This photograph must have been taken before 1912, given that the people who are in this photograph had already immigrated to the United States in 1912. Seated: Garabed Der Matossian, wearing a fes. The lady sitting to his left, wearing a veil, is his wife Aghavni Der Matossian (born Mousheghian). Standing behind Garabed is his daughter, Khanum Der Matossian. The identities of the rest of the people in the photograph are unknown (Source: Gloria Korkoian collection, Dearborn, Michigan).

The state of education among Keghi Armenians in 1878-1908, and the work of the United Association in Keghi in the 1880s-1890s

After the end of the 1877-1878 Russo-Turkish War and the emergence of the Armenian Issue on the international diplomatic agenda, a period of cultural and educational awakening swept Armenians of the Ottoman Empire. The expansion of the Armenian school network, the improvement of the educational curriculum, and the appropriate establishment of staging, systematization, and continuity in the system gained even greater importance than before [20]. Educational associations began appearing one after the other in Istanbul, with the goal of supporting education among the Armenians of the Empire, particularly in Ottoman Armenia and Cilicia. Among these organizations were the Araradian, Tbrotsasirats, Eastern, and Cilician societies, which merged, on June 1, 1880, to form the United Association of Armenians (abbreviated to United Association) [21].

From the day of its establishment, Keghi was a focus of the United Association’s activities. Overall, the Association’s schools were divided into four geographic regions: 1) Dourouperen; 2) Vasburagan; 3) Davros, and 4) Cilicia. The region of Davros corresponded roughly to the western portion of Erzurum Vilayet and the western portion of Dersim. The town of Keghi-Kasaba was chosen as the hub of the region [22]. The teacher-pedagogue Mgrdich Sarian was appointed overall director of all schools in Ottoman Armenia under the management of the United Association. Margos Natanian was appointed deputy director in charge of schools in the Davros region [23].

In the 1882-1883 school year, the United Associated managed five grade schools in the Davros region – the boys’ and girls’ schools in Keghi-Kasaba; the school in the village of Khoups; and two schools in the Perri (Charsanchak) and Chemeshgatsak villages of Dersim. The boy’s and girls’ schools in Keghi-Kasaba and the school in Perri were considered “higher” grade schools, and provided instruction over a six-year course of study. The course of study in the Khoups and Chemeshgatsak schools was four years. The schools taught a curriculum that included the following subjects: Armenian language, catechism, history, mathematics, geography, physical sciences, drawing, ethics, athletics, singing; and in the higher grades, natural history, Turkish, French, geometry, and book-keeping [24].

1
2

1) Program and Bylaws of the Scholastic Association of the Asdghapert Village of Keghi, Boston, Hairenik Printing Press, 1912, title page.
 
2) United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Three-Year Report: August 21, 1908-August 31, 1911, Istanbul, published by Nshan Babigian, 1911, title page.

Aside from the United Association, the Society of Patriotic Armenian Women, founded in Istanbul, was also active in Keghi. The aim of this organization was to educate and prepare teachers, and to send them to the Armenian-populated villages in the countryside, where they would organize the work of educating Armenian children, especially Armenian girls. One of the educational institutions sponsored by the Society in the 1880s was the girls’ school in Keghi, which was managed by the United Association. The Association’s typical curriculum prescribed a four-year course of study, during which students would learn Armenian language, catechism, national history, mathematics, geography, domestic economics, ethics, embroidery, drawing, athletics, and singing [25].

The United Association’s 1883 report mentions that the number of students in Association-managed schools in the Davros region was disproportionately large compared to enrollment in other regions (five schools had a total enrollment of 565 pupils. The region with the next largest enrollment was Darouperan, with 476 pupils in 10 schools). According to the report, this success was owed to the tireless efforts and dedication of Margos Natanian. The United Association’s deputy director was able to ensure a high enrollment largely thanks to his practice of signing contracts with the pupils’ parents, which obligated them to send their children to school for the entirety of the school year, or otherwise face a fine [26].

The boys’ and girls’ schools in Keghi-Kasaba served as examples for the rest of the sub-district’s Armenian-populated villages. Many of the pupils of the United Association’s schools later became teachers in their own right, and served not only in the schools of Keghi, but also Erzincan, Palu, and Charsandjak. In the early 1890s, the people of Keghi even took steps to establish a “central” secondary school. However, the further development of education in Keghi and the rest of the Ottoman Empire was precluded by political developments [27].

In the mid-1880s, and regime of Sultan Abdul-Hamid gradually introduced measures restricting the political and social life of Armenians. Orders were issued to more strictly scrutinize the activities of Armenian institutions in the Armenian-populated areas of the Empire, including educational and cultural organizations. The United Association became one of the regime’s targets, and was accused of conducting revolutionary activities under the guise of educational work. On December 15, 1886, the authorities arrested both Mgrdich Sarian, director of the United Association, in Alashgerd; and deputy director Margos Natanian in Moush. Both were imprisoned for an extended period of time without being questioned and without being informed of the charges against them. Eventually, without any due process, they were sent into exile – Mgrdich Sarian to Tripoli (Libya), and Margos Natanian to Jerusalem [28].

A view of the town of Keghi (Source: Dick Maloian Collection, Livonia, Michigan).

The United Association was unable to survive this calamity, and could no longer function with the same capacity and rigor. The organization that had become a nest and a refuge for “revolutionary” elements was abandoned by many of its sponsors, which forced it to gradually limit the scale of its educational activities.

In 1892, the United Association effectively ceased to function. Eventually, in 1896, during the first year of Archbishop Maghakia Ormanian’s tenure as Patriarch of the Armenian Patriarchate in Istanbul, the Armenian National Council made the decision to put the Patriarchate in charge of all activities that had been overseen by the effectively defunct United Association [29].

After its dissolution, the United Association was unable to sponsor the educational institutions that it had established in Keghi. Its boys’ and girls’ schools in Keghi-Kasaba, as well as its grade school in Khoups, were handed over to the parochial authorities and given the status of “national” schools. “The schools of the United Association were shuttered, and the entire burden of overseeing the educational system fell on the local population,” notes one chronicler. “Still, even under unbearable circumstances, the people of Keghi, both in the city and the villages, persevered in educating their young.” [30].

In 1901, Archibshop Maghakia Ormanian, Patriarch of Istanbul, instructed the Educational Committee of the Armenian National Council to create a register of Armenian national schools operating in the Armenian-populated provinces of the Ottoman Empire. The list included information on the schools of Keghi. According to this document, the sub-district was home to 27 operational “national” schools, including one in the its hub, Keghi-Kasaba (a co-educational school with separate boys’ and girls’ sections). The remainder of the schools were in Keghi’s Armenian-populated countryside. Total enrollment was 1,703 pupils, of which 1,336 were boys and 367 were girls. The total number of faculty was 43, of which 35 were male and eight were female [31].

In Keghi-Kasaba’s co-educational school, instruction was provided over a five-year course of study, while in the villages, it was provided over a one- or two-year course of study (with the exception of the Khoups grade school, which provided four years of schooling) [32].

The costs of Keghi’s schools (building costs, room and board for the teachers, etc.) were financed by each village’s community. As a rule, both in Keghi and in other parts of the Ottoman Empire, the financing of the local schools’ operations was the responsibility of each respective community’s Armenian population (both local residents and migrants). Any excess costs were covered by the Istanbul Armenian Patriarchate [33].

We can form an idea of the fundraising operations for the schools of Keghi prior to the Genocide by considering the following passage, which concerns the village of Khoups, but can certainly be applied to the entirety of the sub-district: “An exemplary system was created in the village of Khoups to fund the school system. The educational committee of the board of trustees levied a set tax on the village residents, proportional to each resident’s income. The wealthy paid a relatively large amount, while the poor paid according to their abilities. The people of Khoups happily paid their school taxes, without grumbling or complaining [34].”

Panorama of the town of Keghi-Khoups. The photograph was published as a postcard by the village’s scholastic and reconstruction society, in 1922, in the United States (Source: Dick Maloian Collection, Livonia, Michigan).

The educational-cultural associations of Keghi

In the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century, the development of primary schooling in Keghi owed as much to the local Armenians as it did to the work of educational-cultural associations created by migrants native to Keghi who had settled in Istanbul, the United States, and Canada. In Western Armenian parlance, these were known as “mshagoutayin” [cultura], “ousoumnasirats” [scholarly], or “grtasirats” [scholastic] organizations. The primary purpose of these associations was to provide the financing needed to create and maintain the sub-district’s schools and educational system.

Unfortunately, due to the lack of records regarding the activities these such organizations in Keghi, as in elsewhere in the Ottoman Empire, we must rely on isolated accounts in Armenia media and these organizations’ own reports to learn of their work. Based on the available evidence, we can reach the following conclusions –

1. In the aforementioned period, “scholastic” organizations that were active in Keghi included both general organizations and specific ones created to support education in specific villages.
2. These scholastic organizations, as a rule, did not function consistently. Often they ceased operating, and were later revived under different names.
3. The “scholastic” organizations created by the residents of individual Keghi villages also served as the local “boards of trustees,” entrusted with ensuring the proper procurement of the schools.

As we have already mentioned, as early as 1859, an educational association, consisting of the village’s most prominent residents, was created in Keghi-Kasabra to support the town’s school.

In 1872, an association to support the Haigazian co-educational school in Khoups was founded in Istanbul (under the name of the “Haigazian Scholastic Society of the Khoups Village”), devoted specifically to the procurement of textbooks and school supplies for the school. It was thanks to the intervention of Bedros Vasilian, director of the Haigazian Society, that in 1879 the newly created United Association assumed management of the Khoups school [35].

In early 1879, migrants from Keghi established the Keghi Ardavaztian Society in Istanbul, with the aim of “providing the Armenian children of Keghi with the nourishment of knowledge” [36].

1) Keghi, 1913. Standing, left to right – Nshan Gerdjekian, and the elderly woman sitting to his right is his maternal grandmother (name unknown). The man sitting to the right of the grandmother is Nshan’s uncle (name unknown), with his wife standing behind him. The uncle’s child is sitting on his lap. The girl standing in front of the grandmother is also the uncle’s daughter (Source: Dick Maloian Collection, Livonia, Michigan).

2) Keghi, Kalousd Ouzounian and his family. In the center of the photograph are Kalousd Ouzounian (right) and his wife (born Maloian) (Source: Dick Maloian Collection, Livonia, Michigan).

A scholastic association was active in the town of Keghi-Kasaba in the 1890s, but it had been dissolved by 1900. “We witnessed with dismay that the local scholastic association had been dissolved for some time,” reads Levon Srabian’s correspondence published in the Arevelk newspaper, “such an association, with a little perseverance and some effort, by ensuring its existence and expanding its activities, could have greatly benefited the town’s schools” [37].

A “Readers’ Society” was active in Keghi in 1908-1909, and an account from 1913 mentions an organization by the name of “Scholastic Society” in the town [38].

Beginning in the 1890s, cultural-scholastic organizations were founded by migrants from Keghi in the United States and Canada. To wit, in 1897, a “Khortsyan Society” was founded in Watertown, in the state of Massachusetts in the United States. It was later renamed the “Scholastic Society.” When the United Association was revived after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, and after it reclaimed management responsibilities for the Keghi-Kasaba schoosl, the Keghi Scholastic Society assisted the United Association by assuming partial responsibility for financing these schools [39]. According to the United Association’s figures, the Keghi Scholastic Society provided 7,200 kurus during the 1911-1912 school year to the schools (100 kurus is equivalent to one Ottoman pound) [40]. After the Genocide and the deportations of Armenians from Keghi, this association was re-organized under the name of “Society of Keghi Compatriots” [41].

In 1900, the “Scholastic Society of the Keghi-Khoups Village” was founded in Providence, in the state of Rhode Island in the United States. The association provided partial funding for the village’s schools, namely 100 Ottoman pounds (10,800 kurus, according to the 1910-1911 figures of the United Association) [42]. Additionally, this organization raised $15,000 by 1915 earmarked for the construction of a secondary (intermediate) school in Khoups [43]. The group is mentioned in the United Association’s reports, and identified as an entity supporting the work of the Association [44].

Panorama of Keghi (Source: Lamberto Vannutelli, In Anatolia, Roma, 1905).

In 1904, a scholastic society to support the school of the Asdghapert village in Keghi was formed in the United States and Canada. The organization’s program and bylaws, written at the time of its founding, read – “We, natives of Keghi, have been compelled to leave our native lands to escape the cursed Hamidian regime and the economic scourges it has unleashed upon our lands. We recognize that to liberate our homeland from the darkness of ignorance, and to combat the aforementioned scourges, we must beget a new, educated generation, and such a generation can only be the product of schooling. In view of the fact that our compatriots are destitute and are unable to bear the financial burden of maintaining and regularly operating schools, we migrants consider it our moral duty to ratify this program and these bylaws, and to establish a “scholastic society” to support the Asdghapert village school. In this way, we strive to do what we can to provide the young generation with education and knowledge” [45].

The association’s stated aim was to promote the advancement of education and knowledge in Asdghapert by ensuring that the village school operated regularly. The school was to be open to all, “regardless of national origin, sex, or creed” [46].

Each member of the association in the U.S. paid a monthly membership fee of $5.25; in Asdghapert 10 kurus or two kurus; in Istanbul one medjidie [47] and three kurus; and in Russia two-and-a-half rubles [48].

In 1905, the scholastic society of the Aboghnag village of Keghi was founded in Bradford, Canada. The aim of the organization was to open a co-educational school in the village, which would be open to all, regardless of sex, creed, or national origin; as well as a library, which would serve not only the school’s pupils, but the entire community [49]. The organization’s bylaws also stipulated that boys and girls from needy families would be educated absolutely free of charge [50].

On January 1, 1905, the scholastic society of the Herdif village of Keghi was founded in the city of Providence, in the United States. According to its program and bylaws, the organization’s aim was to open a co-educational school in the village, with the name of “Sourp Louys” [Holy Light] [51]. All Armenians “of good conduct and character” could become members [52]. The membership dues were $5.25 per month in the United States, while in the village, the membership fee was five kurus, and the membership dues were one kurus per month [53].

Sources also make mention of scholastic organizations of the villages of Tarman, Djermag, and Chanakhchi, established in the United States and Canada in the early 1900s [54]. According to some sources, on the eve of the Genocide, approximately 40 Keghi-related educational-scholastic organizations functioned in the continental United States, meaning that almost every village in the sub-district had its own educational organization [55].

After the Armenian Genocide, many of the educational associations in the continental U.S. were refashioned into “reconstruction” societies, dedicating themselves to the task of saving Keghi Armenians who had survived and resettling them elsewhere [56].

The summer academy held for the teachers of the United Association schools of the Keghi Sub-district, 1911 (Source: United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Three-Year Report: August 21, 1908-August 31, 1911, Istanbul, published by Nshan Babigian, 1911).

The primary educational system in Keghi after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution; the revival of the United Association

After the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, in the backdrop of the general liberalization of Armenian cultural and educational life in the Ottoman Empire, the domain of primary education in Keghi experienced a new period of development. The United Association was revived between the months of July and September 1908 and resumed its former activities [57].

One of the priorities of the revived United Association was to reclaim management of its schools in Keghi, which it did beginning with the 1909-1910 school year [58].

Already by the following year, the 1910-1911 school year, the United Association had re-opened and was managing the co-educational schools of the Asdghapert, Tarman (Temran), Herdif (Hardiv), and Djeber villages of Keghi [59]. Kindergartens were opened to operate alongside the schools of Keghi-Kasaba and Khoups.

The number of pupils enrolled in the 12 primary schools (our source counts boys’ and girls’ schools separately) and two kindergartens under the management of the United Association in Keghi’s six communities grew annually. Thus, in the 1909-1910 school year, these schools had a cumulative enrollment of 1,195 pupils and a total faculty of 43 teachers [60]. By the 1911-1912 school year, the schools already had a cumulative enrollment of 1,335 pupils (741 boys, 594 girls), and employed a total of 45 teachers (see Table 1) (figures concerning specific communities are provided in a later section of this article) [61].

According to Teotig's aforementioned work, on the eve of the Genocide, the overall director of Keghi's United Association schools was Hagop Aghaser (killed in 1915).

According to the United Association’s new common curriculum, instruction in its grade schools was to be provided over a six-year course of study (grades A-F). The first four school years spanned eight months each, and the last two spanned seven months each. Children were admitted beginning at the age of seven. The subjects instructed included athletics, crafts, drawing, penmanship, singing, geography, religious instruction, mathematics, geometry, book-keeping, Armenian language (taught to all six grades), physical sciences [62] (grades A-C), natural and agricultural sciences, Turkish, Armenian and Ottoman history, domestic sciences (grades D-F), civics, and basic economics (grades E and F) [63].

The United Association also organized professional enrichment classes for its schools’ teachers during the summer months (so-called varjabedanots [teacher schools]). One such varjabedanots was held in Keghi from July 4 to August 25, 1911, with the participation of 42 teachers and educators representing the Association’s schools in Keghi, Garin, and Palu [64].

The tireless work of the United Association in the sub-district spurred the establishment of grade schools in more villages. Schools were founded in almost every Armenian-populated community of Keghi between 1908 and 1913. On the eve of the Genocide, the sub-district was home to 63 grade schools serving both sexes, with a total enrollment of 2,925 pupils (figures concerning specific communities are provided in a later section of this article). In terms of the number of schools, Keghi was preeminent among the sub-districts of the Erzurum Province (its closest competitor was the Erzurum Sub-district (53 Armenian-populated communities, 40,000 Armenians), where 52 schools operated) [65].

1
2

1) Report on Armenian National Schools in Turkey: Prepared for the Educational Council of the National Central Executive: Book A., Report on 1901, Istanbul, published by H. Madteosian, 1901, title page.

2)
Chronicle of Keghi, the Khoups Village, Keghi-Khoups Compatriotic Union, Fresno, Asbarez Press, 1968.

Protestant schools in Keghi

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the energization of the Protestant community greatly contributed to the development of education among the Armenians of Keghi. In the early 20th century, the number of Protestant Armenians in Keghi was 1,000 [66]. Protestant Armenian communities existed and their schools operated in the sub-district’s hub, Keghi-Kasaba, and in the village of Tarman. There were also isolated Protestant families and individuals in the villages of Djermag, Chanakhchi, and Oror [67].

In 1878, immediately after the establishment of the Euphrates Colleges in Harput/Kharpert, a large number of youth from Keghi’s Protestant communities were given the opportunity to continue their education at the College, thanks to the assistance of the American Protestant mission. Many natives of Keghi who graduated from the Euphrates College returned home and served as teachers in the Protestant schools of Keghi-Kasaba, Tarman, and Djermag [68].

The later developments of the Protestant educational structure in Keghi were closely tied to the activities of the preacher Garabed Melkonian, who hailed from Khnous by birth, and had been educated in Erzurum and at the Euphrates College in Harput. In 1895, he settled in Tarman, and focused all his attention on improving the quality of schooling in Tarman’s Protestant school. With the encouragement of the millionaires in Kharpert and in collaboration with the prominent representatives of the Protestant community in Tarman, he modernized and expanded the educational curriculum, revamped the instructional process, and improved the condition of the school building. Soon, the Protestant school became known as the preeminent educational establishment in Tarman. The fact that graduates of this school could enroll in the Euphrates College without having to complete remedial courses attests to the quality of education it provided [69].

Garabed Melkonian also aimed to establish a central secondary school in Tarman, in the mold of the Euphrates College, which would give the youth of Keghi the opportunity to receive secondary education. But the people of Keghi and the parochial institutions of the Armenian Apostolic Church, fearful of such a school becoming a beacon for Protestantism, refused to support such a project [70].

In any case, Garabed Melkonian made a positive contribution to education among the Armenians of Keghi. “The improvement of the Tarman Protestant school aroused the envy of not only the Apostolic community in Tarman, but also of the Protestant and Apostolic communities in the village and in other villages,” mentions one chronicler, “and all communities looked to improve their schools by recruiting certified teachers from the Euphrates College and the Sanasarian” [71].

Keghi, 1912. The pupils and faculty of an Armenian school (Source: Dick Maloian Collection, Livonia, Michigan).

The educational institutions of the town of Keghi-Kasaba

The Keghi boys’ school (boys’ upper grade school)

As we have already mentioned, a school was founded in Keghi-Kasaba in the late 1850s. As described vividly by Keghi native Levon Srabian, the old Keghi-Kasbara school operated in a “constricted and cramped” building, in which “little boys sacrificed their youth and their invaluable time in exchange for learning a muddled mixture of spoken and classical Armenian, in addition to a bunch of gibberish they were forced to learn by heart” [72].

The Keghi upper boys’ school (or simply the boy’s school) was officially opened on December 1, 1880 by the United Association and operated with the Association’s support [73].

In the 1882-1883 school year, total enrollment in the school was 192, and the total number of faculty was five (in addition to one custodian) [74].

The subjects taught in the school were catechism, Armenian language, mathematics, history, geography, Turkish, and French [75]. As stipulated by the common curriculum, instruction was provided over a six-year course of study [76].

The school building was located in the neighborhood of the Saint Sarkis Church. It was described as “large and handsome,” and was built thanks to the people’s “work and selfless generosity” [77].

The total yearly costs of operating the school were 60 Ottoman pounds, raised from the local population [78].

The Old and New Testaments, Smyrna, 1853, Gulielmos Griffiti Printing House. This family bible was used in Keghi and it is currently in the possession of one of the family’s descendants, Sharon Kehetian Broglin, in the United States.

One the school’s teachers, Dikran Papazian, founded the organization known as the Vocational Society in 1881. The organization’s aim was the edification of adult Armenians of Keghi who were no longer of school age. With his own resources, Dikran Papazian founded an “academy” that hosted regular lectures delivered by himself or by other teachers of the school. “The academy’s fame soon spread among the population, and even those who had been completely indifferent at first now attend lectures enthusiastically,” wrote Sarkis Srabian in his published correspondence in the February 15, 1881 issue of Masis [79].

The United Association suspended its sponsorship of the schools in the Keghi Sub-District during the years of its dormancy. As a result, sometime in the mid-1890s (the precise date is not mentioned in our sources), the boys’ and girls’ schools of Keghi were forced to shut down. Some of their former teachers attempted to revive the schools, but the lack of resources and the lack of support from the parochial establishment forced them to abandon the project. The teachers were forced to seek work elsewhere. For some time, probably two-three years, Keghi-Kasaba had no operational schools [80].

In 1899, Senior Priest Vahridj Shahlamian was appointed acting Prelate of the Keghi Diocese. He immediately began work on re-opening Keghi’s schools as “national” schools, meaning subject to the parochial establishment. According to the correspondence of the intellectual and Keghi native Levon Srabian, published in the Arevelk newspaper of Istanbul, the school had an enrollment of 170 pupils and five teachers in the 1899-1900 school year. Instruction was provided over a five-year course of study. The curriculum was based on the United Association curriculum that had formerly been used [81].

According to the Armenian Patriarchate’s 1901 register of Armenian national schools, the school had a total enrollment of 172 pupils in the 1900-1901 school year [82].

As we have already noted, after the Young Turk Revolution, on September 1, 1909, management of the Keghi-Kasaba boys’ school was transferred back to the United Association. In the 1910-1911 school year, the school had a total enrollment of 298 pupils [83]; in the 1911-1912 school year, 257 pupils [84]. A kindergarten operated alongside the school, with an enrollment of 250 pupils [85].

The female students of the Keghi-Kasaba school, 1910-1911 school year. Section from a larger photograph (Source: United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Yeramia Deghagakir, 21 Okosdos 1908-1911 Okosdos 31, Istanbul, published by Nshan Babigian, 1911).

The Keghi girls’ school (girls’ upper grade school)

The girls’ upper grade school, or simply girls’ school, was opened alongside the upper boys’ school on December 1, 1880. Initially, it was managed by the United Association, and operated with its support. In the 1882-1883 school year, total enrollment was 103 pupils, and the number of faculty was five (in addition to one custodian) [86]. According to a different source, the report of the Society of Patriotic Armenian Women, total enrollment in the school was 93 pupils, including 59 in the preparatory grade, 19 in grade A, 10 in grade B, and five in grade C (graduating class) [87].

The subjects taught in the school were catechism, Armenian language, mathematics, history, geography, and embroidery (sewing) [88].

The school building was located in the neighborhood of the Saint Hagop Church. In the 1890s, parts of the roof collapsed and were repaired, until 1900 when the entire roof was replaced [89].

The school was partly financed by the Society of Patriotic Armenian Women. Specifically, in the 1882-1883 school year, the Society provided the school with 180 Ottoman pounds [90].

After the dissolution of the United Association in the mid-1890s, the girls’ school, alongside the Keghi-Kasaba boys’ school, temporary closed its doors, and was then re-opened as a “national” school. According to the Armenian Patriarchate’s 1901 register of Armenian national schools, the school had a total enrollment of 120 pupils in the 1900-1901 school year [91].

After the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, the United Association was revived and reclaimed management of the school. According to figures from its reports, in the 1910-1911 school year, total enrollment in the school was 166 [92], and in the 1911-1912 school year, it was 230 [93].

According to Teotig's aforementioned work, on the eve of the Genocide, the overall director of Keghi's United Association schools was Hagop Aghaser (killed in 1915).

The female students of the Keghi-Kasaba school, 1910-1911 school year. The school building is visible in the background (Source: United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Three-Year Report: August 21, 1908-August 31, 1911, Istanbul, published by Nshan Babigian, 1911).

The educational institutions of the Armenian-populated communities in the Keghi Sub-District

Below we present details of the educational institutions operating in individual Armenian-populated communities of Keghi in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The villages are listed alphabetically. The Armenian population of each village is given according to the figures of the 1913 census conducted by the Armenian Patriarchate in Istanbul [94] or according to other sources that provide demographic information concerning the period immediately before the Genocide.

Akrag

50 households, 350 Armenians.

On the eve of the Genocide, the village had a co-educational school, with an enrollment of 70 pupils [95].

Aginevank

30 households, 178 Armenians.

On the eve of the Genocide, the village had a co-educational school, with an enrollment of 34 pupils [96].

Amaridj

20 households, 139 Armenians.

On the eve of the Genocide, the village had a co-educational school, with an enrollment of 35 pupils [97].

Aboghnag

70 households, 457 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boys’ grade school, with an enrollment of 41 pupils, and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a two-year course of study [98].

According to the figures of the 1913 Armenian Patriarchate census, the village already had operational boys’ and girls’ schools, with a total enrollment of 77 pupils [99].

Arek

170 households, 1,165 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a grade school for girls and one for boys, with a total enrollment of 105 pupils (65 boys, 40 girls), and employing two teachers. Instruction was provided over a two-year course of study [100].

According to the figures of the 1913 Armenians Patriarchate census, the number of pupils in the boys’ and girls’ grade schools was 200 pupils [101], taught by three teachers [102].

Arints

37 households, 215 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boy’s grade school with 37 pupils and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a one-year course of study [103].

According to the figures of the 1913 Armenians Patriarchate census, the number of pupils enrolled in the school was 40 [104].

Asdghapert

116 households, 828 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had an operational boys’ grade school, with an enrollment of 77 pupils and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a two-year course of study [105].

On September 1, 1910, the management of the village school was transferred to the United Association, which also established a school for girls [106].

In the 1911-1912 academic year, total enrollment in both grade schools was 110 (75 boys, 35 girls). The schools had a faculty of five teachers [107].

According to the figures of the 1913 Armenian Patriarchate census, the total enrollment of the grade schools in Asdghapert was 116 [108].

The students of the Asdghapert school, 1910-1911 school year. The building visible in the background is probably the school building (Source: United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Three-Year Report: August 21, 1908-August 31, 1911, Istanbul, published by Nshan Babigian, 1911).

Averdnig

27 households, 163 Armenians.

According to the figures of the 1913 Armenian Patriarchate census, the village had an operational grade school with an enrollment of 37 pupils [109].

Tarman (Temran)

330 households, 1,843 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had two grade schools, one for boys and one for girls, with a total enrollment of 170 pupils (107 boys, 63 girls). Faculty consisted of four teachers. Instruction was provided over a three-year course of study [110].

On September 1, 1901, management of the village schools was transferred to the United Association. In the 1911-1912 school year, total enrollment in both schools was 190 (110 boys, 80 girls), and faculty consisted of eight teachers [111].

According to the figures of the 1913 Armenian Patriarchate census, enrollment in the village schools was 212 [112].

The students of the Temran (Tarman) school, 1910-1911 school year (Source: United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Three-Year Report: August 21, 1908-August 31, 1911, Istanbul, published by Nshan Babigian, 1911).

Ldjig

42 households, 384 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had an operational boys’ grade school, with an enrollment of 20 pupils, and a single teacher. Instruction was provided over a one-year course of study [113].

According to the figures of the 1913 Armenian Patriarchate census, total enrollment in the village school was 60 [114].

Khachadour

8 households, 56 Armenians.

One the eve of the Genocide, the village had a co-education school with an enrollment of 15 pupils and one teacher [115].

Khoshkar

21 households, 168 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boys’ grade school with an enrollment of 19 pupils and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a one-year course of study [116].

According to the figures of the 1913 Armenian Patriarchate census, enrollment in the village school was 30 [117].

Khoups

280 households, 1,980 Armenians [118].

As we have already mentioned, there is evidence of an operational school in the village in the early 19th century. On September 1, 1879, the management of the village school was transferred to the United Association. In the 1882-1883 school year, the school’s enrollment was 127 boys and girls. Instruction was provided over a four-year course of study. Faculty consisted of three teachers [119].

The years 1880-1895 saw the school of Khoups flourish. “For about 15 unforgettable years, Khoups experienced a period of great vibrancy and excitement in the field of education,” notes one chronicler. “Those years gave birth to Professor M. Vaygouni [120], Doctor Haroutyun Tourigian, the lawyer Mgrdich Topalian, the chemist-pharmacist Boghos Poladian, and a host of other educators, intellectuals, merchants, etc.” [121].

In the mid-1890s, in view of the effective dissolution of the United Association, management of the school was transferred to the parochial authorities, and from that point on it operated intermittently, often closing and reopening [122].

According to figures from 1901, the boys’ and girls’ schools of Khoups had an enrollment of 177 pupils (112 boys and 65 girls). Faculty consisted of five teachers [123].

On September 1, 1909, management of the co-educational schools of Khoups was once again transferred to the United Association. A new period of growth began, evidenced by the yearly increase in the number of pupils and teachers (in the 1909-1910 school year: 235 pupils, 14 teachers; in the 1911-1912 school year: 353 pupils (201 boys, 152 girls), 16 teachers) [124].

Alongside its schools, Khoups had an operational kindergarten, which had 170 pupils on the eve of the Genocide [125].

The students of the Khoups school, 1910-1911 school year. The school building is visible in the background (Source: United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Three-Year Report: August 21, 1908-August 31, 1911, Istanbul, published by Nshan Babigian, 1911).

A group of Armenians from Khoups photographed in Worcester, in the United States. The photographer was K.S. Melikian, 1929 (Source: Chronicle of Keghi, the Khoups Village, Keghi-Khoups Compatriotic Union, Fresno, Asbarez Press, 1968).

Khoubek (Khoubeg)

13 households, 115 Armenians [126].

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boys’ grade school with an enrollment of 16 pupils and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a one-year course of study [127].

Records indicate that on the eve of the Genocide, the village had a co-educational school with an enrollment of 30 pupils and one teacher [128]. An educational association, established by migrants from Khoubeg, functioned in the United States, and provided the funds to operate the village school [129].

Gezel Chipoukh (Kezelcheboug)

20 households, 141 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boys’ grade school with an enrollment of 19 pupils and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a one-year course of study [130].

According to the figures of the 1913 Armenian Patriarchate census, the number of pupils in the village was 15 [131].

Haksdoun

62 households, 421 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boys’ grade school with an enrollment of 34 pupils and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a one-year course of study [132].

According to the figures of the 1913 Armenian Patriarchate census, the number of pupils in the village was 50 [133].

1) Program and Bylaws of the Aboghnag Village Scholastic Society, Providence, Young Armenia Press, 1914, title page.

2) The Watertown chapter of the Khoups Scholastic Society (United States). Seated, first from the left, is Antranig Sarafian (Source: Chronicle of Keghi, the Khoups Village, Keghi-Khoups Compatriotic Union, Fresno, Asbarez Press, 1968).

Herdif

100 households, 700 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boys’ grade school with an enrollment of 40 pupils and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a one-year course of study [134].

In the 1910-1911 school year, enrollment in the school was 80 pupils [135].

On September 1, 1919, management of the village grade school was transferred to the United Association, which also opened a girls’ school in the village [136].

In the 1911-1912 school year, total enrollment in both schools was 145 pupils (75 boys, 70 girls), and faculty consisted of three teachers [137].

According to the figures of the 1913 Armenian Patriarchate census, total enrollment in both schools was 140 [138].

Hoghas

55 households, 450 Armenians [139].

According to figures from 1901, the village had a co-educational school, with a total enrollment of 56 pupils (35 boys, 21 girls), and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a two-year course of study [140].

On the eve of the Genocide, total enrollment in the school was 60 pupils. The school was financed by an “educational association” established in the U.S. by migrants from Hoghas [141].

Ghazi

25 households, 122 Armenians.

On the eve of the Genocide, the village had a co-educational school with a total enrollment of 22 pupils [142].

Gharapeg

40 households, 320 households.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boys’ grade school with an enrollment of 47 pupils and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a two-year course of study [143].

According to the figures of the 1913 Armenian Patriarchate census, the number of students enrolled in the school was 50 [144].

Djermag

165 households, 1,155 Armenians [145].

According to figures from 1901, the village had a co-educational grade school, with an enrollment of 79 pupils (45 boys, 34 girls). Faculty consisted of one teacher. Instruction was provided over a two-year course of study [146].

According to figures from the eve of the Genocide, the village’s co-educational grade school already served 120 pupils and employed two teachers [147].

Levon Srabian, Keghi: Geography and Ethnography, Antilias, Printing House of the Armenian Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia, 1960.

Djeber

56 households, 340 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a co-educational grade school, with an enrollment of 60 pupils (36 boys, 24 girls), and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a two-year course of study [148].

On September 1, 1910, management of the school of Djeber was transferred to the United Association. In the 1911-1912 school year, the school had an enrollment of 50 pupils (23 boys, 27 girls), two teachers, and one custodian [149].

According to the figures of the 1913 Armenian Patriarchate census, enrollment in the village school was 47 [150].

Melikan

48 households, 398 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boys’ grade school with an enrollment of 40 pupils and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a one-year course of study [151].

According to the figures of the 1913 Armenian Patriarchate census, the village school was already co-educational, and had a total enrollment of 80 pupils [152].

Yolmez (Oelmez)

17 households, 101 Armenians.

On the eve of the Genocide, the village grade school had an enrollment of 23 pupils [153].

Shen

18 households, 128 Armenians.

According to the figures of the 1913 Armenian Patriarchate census, the village had a co-educational grade school with a total enrollment of 31 pupils [154].

Chan

32 homes, 249 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boys’ grade school, with an enrollment of 33 pupils, and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a one-year course of studies [155].

By 1913, the village already had a co-educational grade school, with a total enrollment of 60 pupils [156].

Chanakhchi (Chanakhdji)

177 households, 1,216 Armenians.

The village’s grade school was founded in the early 1880s, thanks to the efforts of Mgrdich Agha Varjabedian, a local intellectual. He also led the efforts to construct a new building for the village school in the vicinity of the church [157]. According to one source, the laying of the new building’s cornerstone was accompanied by performances on the dhol and zourna, and the local population eagerly participated in the building’s construction [158]. The newly founded school was baptized Saint Sahag (Saint Sahagian School) [159].

At first, the school only served boys. According to figures from 1901, its enrollment was 75 pupils. Faculty consisted of two teachers, and instruction was provided over a two-year course of study [160]. Subjects included mathematics, Armenian and general history, grammar of classical and spoken Armenian, geography, zoology, human anatomy, and physical sciences [161].

According to figures from 1913, the village already had a co-educational grade school, with an enrollment of 190 pupils [162].

The sketch of the Saint Giragos Church and Saint Sahagian School in the Chanakhchi village (Source: United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Three-Year Report: August 21, 1908-August 31, 1911, Istanbul, published by Nshan Babigian, 1911).

The general convention of the Chanakhchi village scholastic society, in Watervliet, New York (Source: Badmoutyun Garno Gousagaloutyan Keghi Kavari Chanakhchi Kughi: Badm., Ashkharhakr., Azkakr., Deghakr., Grt., Gous., Hayrenagtsagan, Houshakroutyunner Hin ou Verchamnats Serounti Dvyalnerov, written and edited by Arakel Yeghigian, Soghomon Kaprielian, Belville, 1977).

Charipash (Charibash)

21 households, 116 Armenians.

On the eve of the Genocide, the village had an operational boys’ grade school, with an enrollment of 19 pupils [163].

Chelepi (Chelebi)

12 households, 100 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boys’ grade school, with an enrollment of 35 pupils, and a single teacher. Instruction was provided over a two-year course of study [164].

According to figures from 1913, the school had an enrollment of 20 pupils [165].

Chiftlig

40 households, 390 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boys’ grade school, with an enrollment of 28 pupils, and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a one-year course of study [166].

By 1913, the village already had two co-educational schools, with a total enrollment of 55 students [167].

Cherman

24 households, 175 Armenians.

According to figures from 1913, the village had a co-educational grade school with a total enrollment of 35 pupils [168].

Sakatsor

73 households, 456 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boys’ grade school, with an enrollment of 32 pupils, and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a one-year course of study [169].

According to figures from 1913, the village had a co-educational grade school with a total enrollment of 76 pupils [170].

Seghank

22 households, 179 Armenians.

According to the 1913 Armenian Patriarchate census, the village had one school, with an enrollment of 31 pupils [171].

Sergevil

117 households, 658 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boys’ grade school, with an enrollment of 53 pupils, and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a two-year course of study [172].

According to information from 1913, the village already had two co-educational schools, with a total enrollment of 90 pupils [173].

Dineg

26 households, 214 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boys’ grade school with an enrollment of 27 pupils, and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a one-year course of study [174].

According to figures from 1913, the school had an enrollment of 35 pupils [175].

The second session of the summer institute for the teachers of the United Association schools in the Keghi-Palou region (1912), visiting the Kaghtsrahayats Monastery of Palou (Source: United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Report on the One-Year Period from September 1, 1911 to August 31, 1912, Istanbul, published by H. Madteosian, 1913).

Kerpos (Kerboz)

57 households, 352 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boys’ grade school with a total enrollment of 47 pupils, and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a two-year course of study [176].

According to figures from 1913, the village had a co-educational school with an enrollment of 65 pupils [177].

Ornag

104 households, 684 Armenians.

According to figures from 1901, the village had a boys’ grade school with a total enrollment of 41 pupils, and one teacher. Instruction was provided over a two-year course of study [178].

According to figures from 1913, the village already had a grade school for girls, as well as the grade school for boys, with a total enrollment of 132 pupils [179].

Oror

72 households, 524 Armenians.

On the eve of the Genocide, the village had two grade schools, one for boys and one for girls. Total enrollment in both schools was 188 pupils [180].

  • [1] A-To, Vani, Bitlisi, yev Erzurumi Vilayetnere: Ousoumnasiroutyan mi Ports ayt Yergri Ashkharhakragan, Vidjagakragan, Iravagan, yev Dndesagan Troutyan [The Vilayets of Van, Bitlis, and Erzurum: An Attempt to Study the Land’s Geographic, Demographic, Legal, and Economic Conditions], Yerevan, Cultura Press, page 188.
  • [2] The full text of Ashkharhatsouyts can be found online at hy.wikisource.org/wiki/Աշխարհացոյց.
  • [3] Hovahanness Zadigian, Garini Nahanke XIX Tari Yergrort Gesin [The Province of Garin in the Second Half of the 19th Century], Yerevan, Noravank, 2013, page 285; Hovhanness Zadigian, “Garini Nahanki Keghii Kavarage 19rt Tari Yergrort Gesin” [“The Keghi Sub-district of the Garin Province in the Second Half of the 19th Century”, Pamper Hayasdani Arkhivneri, 2003, N. 1 (101), page 172.
  • [4] Ghazar-Charek, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki [Chronicle of Upper Hayk], Garinabadoum, Beirut, 1957, page 25.
  • [5] The demographic statistics of the Armenian-populated communities of Keghi reflect the findings of the census of Armenian areas undertaken in 1913 by the Armenians Patriarchate of Istanbul. See Teotig, Koghkota Hay Hokevoraganoutyan yev ir Hodin Aghedali 1915 Darin [The Calvary of Armenian Clergy and its Flock's Catastrophic Year of 1915], New York, 1985, pages 190-199; and Raymond H. Kévorkian, Paul B. Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman à la veille du Génocide [Armenians in the Ottoman Empire on the Eve of the Genocide], ARHIS, Paris, 1992, pages 435-437.
  • [6] S.M. Dzotsigian, Arevmdahay Ashkharh [The Land of Western Armenia], New York, 1947, page 802.
  • [7] One report written in 1908 mentions that the number of Keghi residents who had emigrated or worked abroad was 3,000, consisting mainly of men between the ages of 20 and 40 (S. Vratsian, “Antsadz Orerits” [“Of Bygone Days”], Darekirk A. 1937, published by the Keghi Compatriotic Union, Detroit, Michigan, 1937, page 68). This means that on the eve of the Genocide, approximately 15% of Keghi Armenians were migrants.
  • [8] This is noted particularly by Ghazar-Charek (Ghazar-Charek, Houshamadyan Partsr Hayki, page 25).
  • [9] Arevigian, “Unthanour Agnarg me Keghii vra” [“A General Overview of Keghi”], Darekirk A., 1937, page 17.
  • [10] Prior to the Armenian Genocide, all operational schools in the Keghi Sub-District were grade (elementary) schools. As such, the terms school, grade school, and educational institution are used interchangeably throughout the article.
  • [11] Ibid.
  • [12] Houshamadyan Keghii, Khoups Kughi [Chronicle of Keghi, the Khoups Village], Keghi-Khoups Compatriotic Union, introduction by A. Amourian, Fresno, Asbarez Press, 1968, page 16.
  • [13] K.S. Yerevanian, Badmoutyun Charsandjaki Hayots [History of the Armenians of Charsandjak], Beirut, 1956, page 324.
  • [14] Azkayin Sahmanatroutyan Hartse [The Issue of the National Constitution], Istanbul, Sourp Prgitch Printing Press, 1860, pages 22-24.
  • [15] Masis, Istanbul, October 15, 1859, N. 403; Y.H. Boghosian, Badmoutyun Hay Mshagoutayin Ungeroutyunnerou [History of Armenian Cultural Associations], Volume B. , Vienna, Mekhitarist Printing Press, 1963, page 158.
  • [16] Ibid.
  • [17] Arsen Aydenian, Armenian philologist, linguist, clergyman, and abbot of the Armenian Catholic Mekhitarist Order in Vienna published his work Knnagan Keraganoutyun Ashkharhapar gam Arti Hayeren Lezvi [Exploration of the Grammar of the Modern Spoken Armenian Language] in 1867.
  • [18] Arevigian, “Unthanour Agnarg me Keghii Vra”, page 17.
  • [19] Tivan Hayots Badmoutyan, Kirk 13. Harsdaharoutyunnere Dadjgahayasdanoum (Vaverakrer 1801-1888) [Archives of Armenian History, Book 13. The Pillaging of Ottoman Armenian (Authenticated Documents 1801-1888)], Appendix and Notes, published by Senior Priest Kud Aghanyants, Tbilisi, 1915, page 176. Melkon (Varjabed) Djantemirian’s son, Mamigon Varjadedian, had followed in his father’s footsteps and joined the teaching profession. From 1892 to 1901, he served as the principal of the co-educational school in Perri (Charsandjak) (for more details on him, see K.S. Yerevanian, Badmoutyun Charsandjaki Hayots, page 327).
  • [20] Sh.P. Vosganian, Tbrotsi ou Grtoutyan Zarkatsoume Osmanyan Tourkiayi Hayashad Kaghtodjakhneroum (1850-1920) [The Development of Schooling and Education in the Armenian-Populated Migration Destinations of Ottoman Armenia (1850-1920)], Yerevan, 2014, page 28.
  • [21] United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Yeramya Deghegakir, 21 Okosdos 1908-1911 Okosdos 31 [Three-Year Report: August 21, 1908-August 31, 1911], Istanbul, Published by Nshan Babigian, 1911, page 9.
  • [22] United Association of Armenians, B. Deghegakir, 1882 Hounis 1-1883 Mayis 31 [Report B., June 1, 1882-May 31, 1883], Istanbul, Havadis Lrakro Printing House of Medjmoura, 1883, page 9.
  • [23] United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Yeramya Deghegakir, 21 Okosdos 1908-1911 Okosdos 31…, page 10.
  • [24] Ibid., pages 23-25.
  • [25] Society of Patriotic Armenian Women, C. Deghegakir Yergamya Getronagan Kordzatir Joghovo 1881-1883 Ami [Third Report of the Two-Year Central Executive Summit 1881-1883], Istanbul 1883, insert.
  • [26] United Association of Armenians, B. Deghegakir, 1882 Hounis 1-1883 Mayis 31…, page 10.
  • [27] Arevigian, “Unthanour Agnarg me Keghii Vra”, page 18.
  • [28] United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Yeramya Deghegakir, 21 Okosdos 1908-1911 Okosdos 31…, pages 13-14.
  • [29] Ibid., page 15; Y.H. Boghosian, Badmoutyun Hay Mshagoutayin Ungeroutyunnerou: Bolsahay Azkayin Getronagan Varchoutyun [History of Armenian Cultural Associations: The Istanbul Armenian Central Executive], Volume A., Vienna, Mekhitarine Press, 1957, page 10.
  • [30] Arevigian, “Unthanour Agnarg me Keghii Vra”, page 18.
  • [31] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkyo: Badrasdyal Ousoumnagan Khorhrto Azkayin Getronagan Varchutyan: Dedr A. Vidjag 1901 Darvo [Report on Armenian National Schools in Turkey: Prepared for the Educational Council of the National Central Executive: Book A., Report on 1901], Istanbul, published by H. Madteosian, 1901, page 15.
  • [32] Ibid.
  • [33] The “monthly income and expenses” section of the Vidjagatsouyts.
  • [34] Houshamadyan Keghi, Khoups Kughi, page 18.
  • [35] Ibid., page 17.
  • [36] Y.H. Boghosian, Badmoutyun Hay Mshagoutayin Ungeroutyunnerou, Volume B., page 159 (there is no other information on the activities of this organization).
  • [37] Arevelk, Istanbul, 1900, August 25 (September 7), N. 4412.
  • [38] Y.H. Boghosian, Badmoutyun Hay Mshagoutayin Ungeroutyunnerou, Volume B., page 162.
  • [39] United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Yeramya Deghegakir, 21 Okosdos 1908-1911 Okosdos 31…, page 61.
  • [40] United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Deghegakir 1 Sebdemper 1911-1912 Okosdos 31 Miyamia Shrchani [Report on the One-Year Period from September 1, 1911 to August 31, 1912], Istanbul, published by H. Madteosian, 1913, page 86.
  • [41] Y.H. Boghosian, Badmoutyun Hay Mshagoutayin Ungeroutyunnerou, Volume B, page 162.
  • [42] Houshamadyan Keghi, Khoups Kughi, page 87; United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Deghegakir 1 Sebdemper 1911-1912 Okosdos 31 Miyamia Shrchani…, page 86.
  • [43] Houshamadyan Keghi, Khoups Kughi, page 126.
  • [44] United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Yeramya Deghegakir, 21 Okosdos 1908-1911 Okosdos 31…, page 61.
  • [45] Dzrakir Ganonakir Keghii Asdghapert Kughi Tbrotsi Ousoumnasirats Ungeroutyan [Program and Bylaws of the Scholastic Society of Keghi’s Asdghapert Village], Boston, Hairenik Press, 1912, page 1.
  • [46] Ibid., page 3.
  • [47] One medjidie was the equivalent of 20 kurus, and five medjidie were the equivalent of one Ottoman pound.
  • [48] Ibid., page 4.
  • [49] Dzrakir Ganonakir Keghii Sboghnag Kughi Ousoumnasirats Ungeroutyan, [Program and Bylaws of the Scholastic Society of Keghi’s Sboghnag Village], Providence, Young Armenia Press, 1914, page 1.
  • [50] Ibid.
  • [51] Dzrakir Ganonakir Keghii Herdif Kughi S. Louys Yergser Varjarani Ousoumnasirats Ungeroutyan, [Program and Bylaws of the Scholastic Society of the Holy Light Co-Educational School of Keghi’s Herdif Village], Istanbul, 1910, page 7, excerpt according to Y.H. Boghosian, Badmoutyun Hay Mshagoutayin Ungeroutyunnerou, Volume B., page 166.
  • [52] Ibid.
  • [53] Ibid.
  • [54] Y.H. Boghosian, Badmoutyun Hay Mshagoutayin Ungeroutyunnerou, Volume B., page 167. For more on the Chanakhchi scholastic society, see Badmoutyun Garno Gousagaloutyan Keghi Kavari Chanakhchi Kughi: Badm., Ashkharhakr., Azkakr., Deghakr., Grt., Gous., Hayrenagtsagan, Houshakroutyunner Hin ou Verchamnats Serounti Dvyalnerov, written and edited by Arakel Yeghigian, Soghomon Kaprielian, Belville, 1977, pages 68-72.
  • [55] This information was obtained from the report prepared on the Erzurum Province, which was presented in 1919 to the Istanbul Armenian Patriarchate (the report is now kept in the archives of the Jerusalem Armenian Patriarchate, and is part of Zaven Yeghyayan’s fund).
  • [56] Arevigian, “Unthanour agnarg me Keghii vra”, page 19.
  • [57] United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Yeramya Deghegakir, 21 Okosdos 1908-1911 Okosdos 31…, page 16.
  • [58] Ibid., page 96.
  • [59] Ibid., pages 19, 140.
  • [60] Ibid., page 140.
  • [61] United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Deghegakir 1 Sebdemper 1911-1912 Okosdos 31 Miyamia Shrchani…, pages 97-98.
  • [62] Knowledge of the physical world.
  • [63] United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Yeramya Deghegakir, 21 Okosdos 1908-1911 Okosdos 31…, pages 71-95.
  • [64] Ibid., page 132.
  • [65] According to the figures of the 1913 Armenian Patriarchate census (Raymond Kevorkian, The Armenian Genocide: A Complete History, London, New York, I.B. Tauris, 2011, page 277).
  • [66] M. Ormanian, Hayots Yegeghetsin yev ir Badmoutyune, Vartabedoutyune, Varchoutyune, Paregarkoutyune, Araroghoutyune, Kraganoutyune, ou Nerga Gatsoutyune [The Armenian Church and its History, Priesthood, Administration, Reforms, Rituals, Literature, and Current State], Constantinople, 1911, page 261; K. Karpat, Ottoman Population 1830-1914: Demographic and Social Characteristics, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin Press, 1985, page 170.
  • [67] Arevigian, “Unthanour Agnarg me Keghii vra”, page 18.
  • [68] Ibid.
  • [69] Ibid., page 19.
  • [70] Ibid.
  • [71] Ibid.
  • [72] Levon Srabian, Keghi (Deghakragan yev Azkakragan) [Keghi (Geographic and Ethnographic)], Antilias (Lebanon), Printing House of the Armenian Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia, 1960, page 61.
  • [73] United Association of Armenians, B. Deghegakir, June 1 1882-May 31, 1883…, pages 9 and 34.
  • [74] Ibid.
  • [75] Ibid.
  • [76] Ibid., page 25.
  • [77] Levon Srabian, Keghi, page 19.
  • [78] United Association of Armenians, B. Deghegakir, June 1 1882-May 31, 1883…, page 9.
  • [79] Masis, Istanbul, 1881, N. 2842; Y.H. Boghosian, Badmoutyun Hay Mshagoutayin Ungeroutyunnerou, Volume B., page 161.
  • [80] Levon Srabian, Keghi, page 65.
  • [81] Arevelk Istanbul , 1900, August 25 (September 7), N. 4412.
  • [82] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [83] United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Yeramya Deghegakir, 21 Okosdos 1908-1911 Okosdos 31…, pages 138-139.
  • [84] United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Deghegakir 1 Sebdemper 1911-1912 Okosdos 31 Miyamia Shrchani…, page 97.
  • [85] Zadigian, Garini Nahanke XIX Tari Yergrort Gesin, page 291.
  • [86] United Association of Armenians, B. Deghegakir, June 1 1882-May 31, 1883…, page 9.
  • [87] Society of Patriotic Armenian Women, C. Deghegakir Yergamya Getronagan Kordzatir Joghovo 1881-1883 Ami…, page 13.
  • [88] Ibid.
  • [89] Levon Srabian, Keghi, page 19.
  • [90] United Association of Armenians, B. Deghegakir, June 1 1882-May 31 1883…, page 9.
  • [91] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [92] United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Yeramya Deghegakir, 21 Okosdos 1908-1911 Okosdos 31…, pages 138-139.
  • [93] United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Deghegakir 1 Sebdemper 1911-1912 Okosdos 31 Miyamia Shrchani…, page 97.
  • [94] According to the figures of the 1913 Armenian Prelacy census (Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 435-437).
  • [95] Ibid., page 436.
  • [96] Ibid.
  • [97] Ibid.
  • [98] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [99] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [100] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [101] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [102] H. Tokat, Averag Keghin [Keghi in Ruins], Istanbul, 2015, page 38.
  • [103] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [104] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [105] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [106] United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Deghegakir 1 Sebdemper 1911-1912 Okosdos 31 Miyamia Shrchani…, page 66-67.
  • [107] Ibid., page 98.
  • [108] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [109] Ibid.
  • [110] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [111] United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Deghegakir 1 Sebdemper 1911-1912 Okosdos 31 Miyamia Shrchani…, page 98.
  • [112] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [113] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [114] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [115] H. Tokat, Averag Keghin, page 50.
  • [116] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [117] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [118] The total Armenian population of Khoups is given according to the figures of the December 5, 1916 report (HAA, fund 57, list 5, item 161, n. 8).
  • [119] United Association of Armenians, B. Deghegakir, 1882 Hounis 1-1883 Mayis 31…, page 10.
  • [120] Moushegh Vaygouni (1878-1929), Armenian-American chemist, credit with several inventions.
  • [121] Houshamadyan Keghi, Khoups Kughi, pages 24-25. See the same work, pages 16-25, for additional information on the boys’ and girls’ schools managed by the United Association in Khoups between 1880 to 1895.
  • [122] In 1898, the newspaper Byzantium published an article noting that “Last year, the two school masters served the school knew nothing but the primer, the alphabet book, and the Psalms. But alas, we don’t even have that this year… The school will remain closed and the boys will be wandering the village streets” (Byzantium, N. 651, Constantinople, December 8, 1898 (20)).
  • [123] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [124] United Association of Armenians (1880-1908), Deghegakir 1 Sebdemper 1911-1912 Okosdos 31 Miyamia Shrchani…, pages 66-67, 97.
  • [125] Zadigian, Garini Nahanke XIX Tari Yergrort Gesin, page 294.
  • [126] According to the figures of the December 5, 1916 report (HAA, fund 57, list 5, item 161, n. 8).
  • [127] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [128] H. Tokat, Averag Keghin, page 60.
  • [129] Ibid.
  • [130] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [131] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [132] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [133] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [134] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [135] United Association of Armenians, Deghegakir 1 September 1911-1912 Okosdos 31 Miyamya Shrchani..., pages 66-67.
  • [136] Ibid.
  • [137] Ibid., page 98.
  • [138] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [139] According to the figures of the December 5, 1916 report (HAA, fund 57, list 5, item 161, number 8).
  • [140] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [141] Zadigian, Garini Nahanke XIX Tari Yergrort Gesin, page 302.
  • [142] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [143] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [144] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [145] According to the figures of the December 5, 1916 report (HAA, fund 57, list 5, item 161, number 8).
  • [146] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [147] Zadigian, Garini Nahanke XIX Tari Yergrort Gesin, page 298.
  • [148] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [149] United Association of Armenians, Deghegakir 1 September 1911-1912 Okosdos 31 Miyamya Shrchani..., page 98.
  • [150] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [151] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [152] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [153] Ibid.
  • [154] Ibid.
  • [155] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [156] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [157] Badmoutyoun Garno Gousagaloutyan Keghi Kavari Chanakhchi Kughi…, page 21.
  • [158] Ibid.
  • [159] Ibid., page 20.
  • [160] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [161] Badmoutyoun Garno Gousagaloutyan Keghi Kavari Chanakhchi Kughi…, page 21.
  • [162] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [163] Ibid.
  • [164] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [165] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [166] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [167] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [168] Ibid.
  • [169] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [170] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [171] Ibid.
  • [172] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [173] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [174] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [175] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [176] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [177] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [178] Vidjagatsouyts Kavaragan Azkayin Varjaranats Tourkio…, page 15.
  • [179] Raymond Kévorkian and Paul Paboudjian, Les Arméniens dans l’Empire Ottoman, page 436.
  • [180] Ibid.