# Moush - Demography

Author: George Aghjayan, 10/06/2016 (Last modified: 10/06/2016)

Any demographic study of the Moush district is complicated by the scarcity of available data. Meaningful analysis requires complementary sources over a lengthy period of time at a detailed level, none of which exist in the case of the Moush district. Ottoman government records are lacking and what exists clearly indicate issues of accuracy. While Armenian sources are more detailed, they are not detailed enough and often report significant variations in the population.

The obvious deficiencies have led to divergent interpretations of the data. Justin McCarthy has long been a flashpoint for the controversy over the size of the Armenian population in the Ottoman empire. [1] Levon Marashlian devotes significant space specifically to the issues with McCarthy’s handling of the Bitlis province, of which Moush was a part. [2] While a proper analysis of the contentious positions would be appropriate here, the space it would require would dwarf other more salient points I wish to explore. Suffice it to say, my earlier articles as well as what follows below hopefully highlight the work necessary to properly evaluate and interpret historical demographic material. [3]

The remoteness of the region clearly was a contributing factor to the poor record keeping and disparate population estimates. The 1870’s provincial yearbooks for Erzurum stated the Moush district [kaza] contained 5963 Muslims, 4218 Armenian Apostolics, 726 Armenian Catholics and 33 Armenian Protestants in 2704 total households. Only the males were enumerated. However, it was stated to only include 6 localities. It could be that a significant number of the villages of the Moush district were included in the sub-districts of Kosor and Handris. The population of the three regions combined was 13827 Muslim males, 20656 Armenian Apostolic males, 3701 Armenian Catholic males and 85 Armenian Protestant males in 7511 total households. [4] Thus, according to Ottoman government records, Armenians constituted a majority across this broad region prior to 1878.

*Moush region, Armenian refugees, most probably during the years preceding the Genocide (Source: Bodil Biørn collection)*

The 1892 provincial yearbook for Bitlis included the population by gender and religion for each district. The Moush district contained 21246 Muslims (11451 males and 9795 females), 32391 Armenian Apostolics (18649 males and 13742 females), 2449 Armenian Catholics (1360 males and 1089 females) and 488 Armenian Protestants (301 males and 187 females). The male to female ratio for Armenians was 1.352 whereas it was 1.169 for Muslims. This is most likely an indication of a greater undercounting of Armenian women. The combined Armenian population was 35328 and remained a majority (>60%) in the Moush district. [5]

In the early 1890’s, Vital Cuinet, a French geographer, published his massive demographic study of the Ottoman Empire, La Turquie d'Asie, géographie administrative: statistique, descriptive et raisonnée de chaque province de l'Asie Mineure. While the volume of material in the book is extensive, Cuinet readily admitted to its inherent weaknesses due to issues with the source data. For the Moush district, Cuinet stated the population to be 22382 Muslims, 16064 Armenian Apostolics, 2840 Armenian Catholics, and 717 Armenian Protestants. The populations for Muslims, Catholics and Protestants all seem reasonable as twice the male population reported in the Bitlis yearbook. However, Cuinet reported the Armenian Apostolic population as less than the male only population in the Bitlis yearbook. Thus, what should have been a significant Armenian majority became a minority in Cuinet. [6]

The earliest Armenian source detailing the population at the village level was the household count prepared around 1890 by the local Prelacy. The data was contained in Hovhannes Der Mardirossian’s important study of the Van, Bitlis and Erzurum provinces. [7] According to this source, there were 3959 Armenian households in the Moush district. However, only approximately half of the Armenian inhabited villages were recorded.

*A page from the statistical data on Moush prepared by the Imperial Russian army's general Mayewski (Source: Mehmet Ṣadik. Van, Bitlis Vilâyetleri Askerî Istatistiḳi. İstanbul: Matbaa-yi askeriye, 1330 (1912-1913))*

Russian general Mayewski published a treatise on the Armeno-Turkish conflicts of the 1890’s that included a detailed household count by village. [8] The population was presumed to date from 1899 and Moush was one of the districts. Again, there is a controversy regarding the content of the book and the statistics. [9] Without delving into the questions surrounding the book in general, there are specific problems in regards to the statistics on Moush.

Mayewski listed the number of Armenian and Kurdish households by village. After a detailed comparison of the villages contained in Mayewski’s report with other sources, I have determined that, at a minimum, the population was misreported in 158 of the 192 total villages in the Moush district. Of the remaining 34 villages, 19 were reported with an equal number of Kurdish and Armenian households. Thus, possibly only 15 villages were reported with the correct distribution of households.

The great majority (87%) of the villages in Moush were reported as either entirely Kurdish or entirely Armenian. Almost all of these were reported incorrectly (i.e. Kurdish villages were reported as entirely Armenian and vice versa). While the misreported villages are evenly split between Armenian and Kurdish, the impact on the population distribution was not. Mayewski stated there were 7760 Kurdish and 3491 Armenian households in Moush. If you sum the reported households for each village, the resulting total is 7991 Kurdish and 3266 Armenian households. However, correcting for the mistakes leads to 4705 Kurdish and 6517 Armenian households. Thus, in reality, Mayewski confirms the Moush district was majority Armenian.

Recently, a census was found in the private papers of Kegham Der Garabedian. Possibly, the papers had been stored at one time in the archives of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. [10] The census seems to date from 1902 and stated the population of the Moush district to be 44080 Armenians in 6116 households. However, a few significant localities were not included, chief among them the town of Moush. Thus, it seems fair to assume the Armenian population for the district exceeded 55000.

Also contained in Der Mardirosian was an updated household count by the Prelacy and another prepared Nazaret Mardirosian, both dating to the publication of the book, circa 1910. The Prelacy household count again seems to miss many Armenian inhabited villages. However, Mardirosian’s list is much more complete and recorded 6455 Armenian households in 97 localities.

Household counts, in general, are less than ideal as a source for demographic analysis. In the context of the Armenian homeland, the dividing of households with each new generation would lead to choppiness in absolute terms as well as in the population per household. Even the definition of a household, while seemingly consistent in most cases, could diverge significantly.

It was only on the eve of the genocide that a more useful Armenian census was finally undertaken. [11] Yet even here most figures are rounded which indicates a low level of precision. The Armenian population of the Moush district was over 75000 according to Armenian sources and only 36316 (22125 males and 14191 females) according to Ottoman government sources. The same Ottoman source indicated the Muslim population was 30254 (17744 males and 12510 females) which would have been predominantly Kurdish. [12] As can be readily seen, women were substantially undercounted and Armenian women more so than Muslim women in the Ottoman registers.

Throughout 1913 to 1915, Nazaret Mardirosian updated his statistics and the results were published in the periodical Van-Tosp. [13] While the list of villages corresponds closely to the Armenian census, the recorded Armenian population exceeded 80000.

Returning to the work of Justin McCarthy, he has made adjustments to the 1914 Ottoman population totals to account for the undercounting of women and children. McCarthy’s adjustment factor for the undercounting of women and children for Bitlis is the highest of any province and he has made additional adjustments to the Armenian population because “Armenian men were also significantly undercounted.” However, his special adjustment is only for the counties of Siirt and Gindj. McCarthy deems the greater Moush county to be “fairly accurately reported.”

McCarthy’s assessment is partially based on an analysis of the population per household. However, as we have seen, the Mayewski household counts for Moush were significantly in error. In addition, one has to question the meaningfulness of using the number of households from 1899 with the population from 1914. For instance, did McCarthy view as reasonable the uncorrected values of 3.9 Muslims per household and 10.4 Armenians per household? If so, how would he have interpreted the correct values of 6.4 Muslims per household and 5.6 Armenians per household?

*Pages from the 1902 Armenian Patriarchate census of the Moush region (Source: "Statistical data of the schools, churches, monasteries, chapels, holy places of the Moush Prelacy, in good state or in ruins (located in Moush and its vicinity), population of towns and villages, religious personnel, collected upon the request of the Armenian Patriarchate of Istanbul (1902)", ARF, personal notes, Kegham Der Garabedian (Dadrag), private collection)*

McCarthy’s solution for Siirt and Gindj is astonishing as he simply replaces the 1914 reported Armenian population with those contained in Cuinet. Not only are the figures in Cuinet questionable but they are from a period 25 years earlier! Even considering his intent, McCarthy at the very least should have adjusted the population for the 25 years that had passed.

There exist three Ottoman sources for the county [sanjak] of Mush. Besides the already mentioned 1892 Bitlis yearbook and the 1914 census, there is the 1906/7 census. [14] In fact, the 1914 figures are supposed to be the 1906/7 census updated for births and deaths in the intervening years. There are a number of observations to note from these three sources.

First, the total population in the county was reported to have declined between 1892 and 1906. While there were variations by gender, overall the decline (~14%) was shared equally by Muslims and Armenians. Considering the nearly 25 year span between 1892 and 1914, the Armenian population in the county of Moush grew by only 4% while the Muslim population grew by 56%. However, between 1906 and 1914, the Muslim population increased substantially (~80%) while the Armenian population increased by only 21%. Thus according to Ottoman government sources, Armenians constituted essentially 50% prior to the 1908 constitution, by 1914 they were reported to only be 40% of the population of the county.

While we do not have figures for the district of Moush from 1906, we can assume the pattern is similar to that exhibited by the entire county. The following are the growth rates from 1892 to 1914:

Muslims Armenians

Males 55.0% 8.9%

Females 27.7 -5.5

Total 42.4 2.8

These figures must be viewed with suspicion. One could claim that the Armenian male population would not have grown as rapidly as the Muslim population due to effects of the 1894-96 Hamidian massacres. However, the drop in the population of Armenian women would not follow from that. If there had been large-scale forced conversions of Armenian women to Islam, it would have been evident in the growth of Muslim women. In addition, it is unrealistic to have such a large growth rate in Muslim males. Thus, Armenians were initially over 60% of the population of the district but by 1914 were reported as 55%.

There are too many unanswerable questions to definitively arrive at an Armenian population. First, was the increase in the Muslim male population due to immigration into the district, redistricting of villages, better enumeration of Muslim males, or better enumeration of Muslim male children specifically? Each would have a different impact on the adjustment to be made to the Armenian population. For instance, if the adult Muslim males were better recorded in 1914 then a plausible reason for the shortfall in Armenian males is that the improvement in enumeration did not extend to them.

*Pages from the 1902 Armenian Patriarchate census of the Moush region.*

Another way to approach the issue is to determine the adjustments necessary so that the Ottoman census is in agreement with the Armenian census. For instance, the following are two possibilities:

In case 1, the growth rate of the Armenian male population is only 45% versus the Muslim rate of (55%). In addition, the male population is adjusted 17% for the undercounting of children. This is the same factor McCarthy arrives at from the age distribution of the entire Bitlis province contained in an 1895 Ottoman document. This is not to validate his use of that factor, but simply as an example. After doubling the male population to account for women, the result is approximately 75000.

In case 2, the growth rate of the Armenian male population is the same as for Muslims (55%). Thus, the adjustment for the undercount of children is less to arrive at a total Armenian population of approximately 75000.

Both cases are feasible and, to paraphrase McCarthy, have the “virtue” of following the percentage of Armenians that existed in the 1892 Bitlis yearbook. My objective is not to arrive at a definitive population for Armenians in the Moush district. Instead, my hope is to expose the care necessary when doing demographic research and especially to show how seemingly contradictory sources can actually be complimentary when accounting for obvious deficiencies.

What follows is a listing of the Armenian inhabited villages of the Moush district and the population as recorded in various sources. The identification of churches and monasteries is not exhaustive. The name given in brackets is the most recent name used for the locale.

A detailed map of the villages under discussion can be found at

westernarmenia.weebly.com/maps.html

## Abelbouhar, Aboubohar, Ebulbahar, Abulbouhar, Ablbouhar [Yazla]

38°49'41.34"N 41°41'57.59"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

Sp. Kevork monastery

The village of Abelbouhar offers an example of the problems discussed above. The Prelacy stated that there were 50 Armenian households in 1890 yet only 10 Armenian households in 1910. In 1902, Der Garabedian stated the population was only 93 Armenians in 15 households. The figures were revised at an unknown date to 150 Armenians in 21 households. Mayewski stated the village was entirely Kurdish with 40 households. Nazaret Mardirosian initially stated the population was 20 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, there were 286 Armenians in 35 households. Though Mardirosian registered a small decline in 1914 to 278 Armenians in 32 households. The rapid decline and then subsequent increase in the population of Abelbouhar cannot be satisfactorily explained. While Mayewski does not indicate the village had a mixed population, Armenian sources state a small but growing population of Circassians (2 households in 1890 and 18 households in 1910).

## Aghchan, Akchian, Akchan [Taşoluk]

38°53'11.08"N 41°32'53.84"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

Aghchan was a substantial Armenian village north of the town of Moush. There were 110 Armenian households and 8 Kurdish households in 1890 according to the Prelacy. Once again, Mayewski mistakenly indicates the village was instead entirely Kurdish with 90 households. In 1902, Der Garabedian indicates there were 780 Armenians in 95 households. The number of Armenian households grew to 100 in 1910 according to the Prelacy as well as 9 Kurdish households. While Mardirosian indicated there were 120 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, there were 1522 Armenians in 127 households. The population per household seems high at 12. Mardirosian’s updated figures for 1914 were 1860 Armenians in 220 households. While the population per household was more reasonable at 8.5, the number of households was significantly higher then recorded in the other sources. The village appears to have grown at a pace indicating new arrivals.

## Aghpenis, Akpinis, Ahpinis [Sazlıkbaşı]

38°40'38.78"N 41°59'6.94"E

Sp. Minas church

Aghpenis was not consistently stated to have had an Armenian population. The village was at the eastern most edge of the district. Mayewski is the first source to mention an Armenian population. He indicated the village was equally split with 20 Armenian households and 20 Kurdish households. The 1910 figure of 80 Armenian households in A-To attributed to Mardirosian seems to have been in error. Mardirosian’s revised figure for 1914 was only 27 Armenians in 3 households. The other sources do not document the Armenian population of this village.

## Aladen, Aladin, Alaaddin, Alaettin, Aldin [Erencik]

38°54'26.40"N 41°26'10.30"E

Sp. Amenprgich church

The 1890 census did not include Aladen. Mayewski stated the village was evenly split with 15 Armenian households and 15 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian stated the population was 102 Armenians in 17 households. The figures were revised to 138 Armenians in 18 households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate reported the population as 111 Armenians in 15 households. Mardirosian stated there were only 8 Armenian households in 1910. He updated the population to 253 Armenians in 25 households in 1914.

*Moush, an image from daily life in the village (Source: Bodil Biørn collection)*

## Aliank, Alian, Aliantsik, Gelialiyan [Arıköy]

38°37'54.01"N 41°20'17.29"E

one church

Aliank was part of a cluster of villages near Geligouzan that might more appropriately have been considered part of Sasoun. Mayewski identified it as entirely Kurdish with 50 households. However, there were 539 Armenians in 65 households according to the 1910 Prelacy figures. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate indicated there were 566 Armenians in 72 households.

## Aliklpon, Aligerpoun, Alikirbon, Alikelpun [Kocatarla]

38°41'47.95"N 41°46'9.18"E

Sp. Toukhmanoug church

Aliklpon is not mentioned in the 1890 Prelacy enumeration. Mayewski stated the village contained 40 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian stated the population was 315 Armenians in 45 households. The figures were revised to 410 Armenians in 54 households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate reported the population as 503 Armenians in 55 households. Mardirosian stated there were 80 Armenian households in 1910, but revised the population to 560 Armenians in 65 households in 1914.

## Alishan, Alichan, Alijan, Alikan [Alican]

38°50'3.06"N 41°33'44.27"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 97 Armenian households. Mayewski listed the population as 70 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian stated the population was 520 Armenians in 75 households. The Prelacy updated the population to 70 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate reported the population had grown to 1213 Armenians in 112 households. Mardirosian stated there were 80 Armenian households in 1910, but revised the population to 1420 Armenians in 130 households in 1914. These latter figures seem high as the population per household exceeds 10.

## Aliziroum, Alizrnan, Alizurum [Tandoğan]

38°44'4.93"N 41°33'50.69"E

Sp. Giragos church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 29 Armenian households. Mayewski listed the population as 40 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian stated the population was 280 Armenians in 36 households. The Prelacy registered a substantial drop in population to 18 Armenian households in 1910. However, Mardirosian stated there were still 30 Armenian households in 1910. The Prelacy noted a small population of 3 Kurdish households as well in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate reported the population as 250 Armenians in 33 households. Mardirosian updated the population to 318 Armenians in 40 households in 1914.

## Alvarinch, Alvarij, Alvarih [Karaağaçlı]

38°41'27.72"N 41°38'0.41"E

Sp. Hagop church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 130 Armenian households. Mayewski listed the population as 96 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian stated the population was 980 Armenians in 150 households. Similar to Aliziroum, the Prelacy registered a substantial drop in population to 100 Armenian households in 1910. However, Mardirosian stated there were still 160 Armenian households in 1910. The Prelacy noted a small population of 7 Kurdish households as well in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate reported the population as 1250 Armenians in 156 households. Mardirosian updated the population to 1380 Armenians in 165 households in 1914.

## Arak [Sarıbahçe]

38°39'16.49"N 41°47'18.81"E

Sp. Sarkis church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 22 Armenian households. Mayewski listed the population as evenly split with 10 Armenian households and 10 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian stated the population was 98 Armenians in 15 households. This was revised to 113 Armenians in 18 households. The Prelacy indicated the Armenian households remained at 18 in 1910 and there were also 17 Kurdish households. However, Mardirosian stated there were 30 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate reported the population as 203 Armenians in 24 households. Mardirosian updated the population to 200 Armenians in 30 households in 1914.

## Ardkhonk, Arthonk, Hardkhonk [Ortakent]

38°49'22.49"N 41°22'10.89"E

Sp. Haroutiun church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 35 Armenian households and 5 Kurdish households in the village. Mayewski listed 50 Kurdish households and 2 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian stated the population was 255 Armenians in 32 households. The Prelacy reduced the population to 20 Armenians households as well as 17 Kurdish households. However, Mardirosian stated the population as 40 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate reported the population as only 178 Armenians in 24 households. Mardirosian updated the population to 360 Armenians in 45 households in 1914.

## Ardonk, Ardounik [Konakdüzü]

38°40'56.23"N 41°55'18.56"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

Ardonk was not listed in the 1890 Prelacy data. Mayewski stated the village was entirely Kurdish with 100 households. For 1902, Der Garabedian stated the population was 754 Armenians in 102 households. This was revised to 786 Armenians in 107 households. The Prelacy indicated the village was entirely Armenians with 126 households in 1910. Mardirosian stated there were 120 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate reported the population as 1470 Armenians in 147 households. Mardirosian updated the population to 1105 Armenians in 147 households in 1914.

## Aregh, Arak, Aragh [Kepenek]

38°42'26.21"N 41°32'54.55"E

Sp. Giragos church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 83 Armenian households and 4 Kurdish households in the village. Mayewski listed 75 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian stated the population was 750 Armenians in 105 households. Later, he revised the population to 787 Armenians. The Prelacy reduced the population to 66 Armenians households as well as 15 Kurdish households. Mardirosian also stated the population reduced to 70 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate reported the population as 1005 Armenians in 104 households. Mardirosian updated the population to 797 Armenians in 103 households in 1914.

## Arinch, Arindjik, Aznich [Çöğürlü]

38°45'10.98"N 41°31'47.26"E

Sp. Yerek Khoran church

This important village was surprisingly absent from the 1890 Prelacy report. Mayewski stated the village was entirely Kurdish with 160 households. For 1902, Der Garabedian only supplied the number of households at 180 Armenian. This would place the population at over 1300 Armenians. The Prelacy again neglected Arinch in 1910, however Mardirosian stated there to be 150 households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate finally identified the village with only 610 Armenians in 120 households. The population per household seems extremely low. Mardirosian, in 1914, did not indicate the population had been reduced to such an extent, still maintaining there were 1185 Armenians in 135 households.

*Kaza of Moush, a panoramic view of the village of Arinch (present-day Çöğürlü) (Source: Bodil Biørn collection)*

## Arinchvank, Archavank, Archevank, Arnchvank [Yeşilce]

38°45'21.28"N 41°31'6.89"E

Sp. Sarkis church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 40 Armenian households and 3 Kurdish households in the village. Mayewski instead stated there were 40 Kurdish households and only 10 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 475 Armenians in 65 households. The Prelacy updated the figures to 38 Armenian households and 6 Kurdish households in 1910. However, Mardirosian indicated the Armenian households numbered 60. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 400 Armenians in 48 households. Mardirosian updated his figures to 540 Armenians in 68 households in 1914.

## Arkavank, Argonk, Erkunik, Ergivank [Umurca]

38°39'37.98"N 41°47'21.40"E

Sp. Tovmas church, Sp. Lusavorich church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 60 Armenian households in Arkavank. Mayewski stated there were 40 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 352 Armenians in 54 households. The population per household seems a bit low. Later, the population was revised to 387 Armenians in 61 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated the population was 40 Armenian households and 13 Kurdish households while Mardirosian indicated there were 80 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, there were 809 Armenians in 67 households. The population per household was high. In 1914, Mardirosian stated there were 860 Armenians in 110 households. Both figures seem high and would potentially indicate an influx of Armenians from elsewhere.

## Arnist, Arnis, Arnisd [Kapılı]

38°40'53.40"N 41°51'37.15"E

Sp. Hovhannes church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 70 Armenian households. Mayewski identified 40 Kurdish households in the village. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 400 Armenians in 55 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated the population was 60 Armenian households and 15 Kurdish households while Mardirosian indicated there were 70 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, Arnist continued to grow to 708 Armenians in 79 households. In 1914, Mardirosian stated a slightly lower population of 600 Armenians in 70 households.

## Artamezre

unknown location

no church

The location of Artamezre is unidentified. Most likely it was a hamlet of Aregh possibly in the vicinity of Sp. Arakelots monastery, but this is unproven. Mardirosian mentions Artamezre has having 12 Armenian households in 1910. No other source, not even Mardirosian’s 1914 update, mentions this hamlet. It seems very likely that the population was included with Aregh. Again, this is speculation on my part.

## Ashdishad, Derik, Derek, Dirik, Terig [Yücetepe]

38°58'21.44"N 41°27'4.81"E

Sp. Sahag church

The Prelacy did not specify Ashdishad in either 1890 or 1910. Mayewski stated there were 27 Kurdish households in the village. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 135 Armenians in 22 households. The population per household seems a bit low. Later, the population was revised to 156 Armenians in 25 households. By 1910, Mardirosian indicated the population had grown to 40 Armenian households. The village continued to grow and on the eve of the genocide contained 450 Armenians in 51 households. Mardirosian revised the population to 350 Armenians in 4 households in 1914. Clearly, the household figure is an error.

## Avran, Avron, Evran [Yeşilova (Yağcılar)]

38°55'44.01"N 41°27'15.57"E

Sp. Hovhannes church, Sp. Sarkis church

Avran is another village missing from the 1890 and 1910 Prelacy data. Mayewski stated there were 110 Kurdish households in the village. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 1500 Armenians in 180 households. Later, the population was revised to 1510 Armenians in 185 households. Mardirosian indicated the population was 170 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, Avran contained 2160 Armenians in 210 households. Mardirosian revised the population to 2870 Armenians in 320 households in 1914. Again we see extraordinary growth. One possibility is that as security concerns increased, Armenians moved from smaller villages to the larger localities.

## Avzaghpyur, Azakbour, Azakpour [Oğulbalı]

38°43'1.94"N 41°49'27.73"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

There were two villages in the Moush district that sometimes shared the same name. This village was to the southeast of the city of Moush, while the next village was to the northwest. This village was not identified by the early Prelacy nor Mayewski. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 515 Armenians in 75 households. Mardirosian indicated the population was 40 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 805 Armenians in 100 households. Mardirosian revised the population to 672 Armenians in 97 households in 1914.

## Avzaghyur, Azakpour, Azahpour [Özdilek]

38°49'13.93"N 41°20'41.39"E

Sp. Kevork church

In 1890, the Prelacy identified 32 Armenian households in Avzaghyur. Mayewski stated there were 80 Kurdish households that again should have been identified as Armenian. The number of households is consistent with Avzaghpiur, but the village was listed in a group of villages to the northwest of Moush and thus I have identified it as Avzaghyur. It is likely though that the village was included incorrectly in the order and, thus, the 80 households should be for Avzaghpiur. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 174 Armenians in 25 households. Later, the population was revised to 185 Armenians in 28 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 28 Armenian households and 7 Kurdish households while Mardirosian indicated the population was 40 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated the population was 350 Armenians in 32 households. The population per household was again potentially high. Mardirosian revised the population to 336 Armenians in 42 households in 1914.

## Avzoud, Afzout, Avzut [Büvetli]

38°35'49.35"N 41°55'35.71"E

Sp. Sarkis church, Sp. Simeon church

In 1890, The Prelacy indicated there were 73 Armenian households and 7 Kurdish households in Avzoud. Mayewski stated there were 35 Armenian households and 26 Kurdish households. Conservatively, I have assumed the reverse as with other villages, but in this case the proportion given by Mayewski may be as intended. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 385 Armenians in 50 households. Later, the population was revised to 405 Armenians in 56 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 50 Armenian households and 30 Kurdish households while Mardirosian indicated the population was 60 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated the population was 500 Armenians in 75 households. Mardirosian revised the population to 621 Armenians in 77 households in 1914.

## Baghlou, Baghli, Paghlou [Dağarası]

38°55'53.29"N 41°18'22.24"E

Sp. Hreshdagabed church, Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

Baghlou was missing from early Prelacy records. Mayewski stated there were 40 Kurdish households in the village. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 282 Armenians in 40 households. Later, the population was revised to 331 Armenians in 45 households. In 1910, Mardirosian indicated the population was 40 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated the population was 310 Armenians in 44 households. Mardirosian revised the population to 415 Armenians in 45 households in 1914. The resulting population per household seems high.

*Cover page: A-To (Hovhanness Der Mardirossian), *The Vilayets of Van, Bitlis and Erzurum* [in Armenian], Yerevan, 1912.*

## Bilir, Plel, Plesh [Toprakkale]

38°46'3.51"N 41°22'34.92"E

Sp. Sarkis church

Bilir was also missing from early Prelacy records. Mayewski stated there were 20 Kurdish households in the village. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 98 Armenians in 17 households. The calculated population per household was low. Later, the population was revised to 158 Armenians in 22 households. In 1910, Mardirosian indicated the population was 20 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated the population was 200 Armenians in 26 households. Mardirosian revised the population to 154 Armenians in 22 households in 1914.

## Bremok, Bermuk, Premok [most likely a hamlet of Komer]

38°45'38.19"N 41°21'42.82"E

no church

This small village is only mentioned in a few sources. Today, it is most likely considered a hamlet of nearby Komer [Suluca]. It is possible that some sources combined the population figures with Komer. First mention of Bremok separately was by Der Garabedian. He stated the population was 75 in 12 households in 1902. Mardirosian only mentions Bremok in 1914 with a population of 64 Armenians in 8 households.

## Chapna, Chapnots, Shipnik, Sepne, Satye, Tsapna [Sütlüce]

38°45'43.13"N 41°30'50.28"E

Sp. Kevork church or Sp. Toukhmanoug church

Chapna was just outside the town of Moush. Early Prelacy records do not mention the village. Mayewski stated there were 50 Kurdish households in Chapna. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 251 Armenians in 35 households. In 1910, Mardirosian indicated the population was 40 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated the population was 400 Armenians. The number of households was not indicated. Mardirosian revised the population to 396 Armenians in 55 households in 1914.

## Chrig, Chirish [Bağlar]

38°46'1.25"N 41°29'22.74"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

In 1890, the Prelacy indicated there were 80 Armenian households and 12 Kurdish households in Chrig. Mayewski stated there were 45 Kurdish households and 30 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 428 Armenians in 63 households. Later, the population was revised to 485 Armenians in 68 households. In 1910, the Prelacy indicated the population was 60 Armenian households and 30 Kurdish households whereas Mardirosian stated there were 120 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated the population was 800 Armenians in 80 households. Mardirosian revised the population to 680 Armenians in 85 households in 1914.

## Dadrakom, Dazikom, Darezkom

38°44'17.77"N 41°21'41.41"E

no church

Dadrakom no longer exists. I have approximated the location based on old maps. First mention of Dadrakom separately was by Der Garabedian. He stated the population was 87 in 15 households in 1902. He revised the figures to 146 Armenians in 20 households. Mardirosian only mentions Dadrakom in 1914 with a population of 145 Armenians in 22 households.

## Dapig, Tapik, Dampel [Ağıllı]

38°36'8.52"N 41°26'29.19"E

no church

This small village south of the town of Moush was only mentioned in a couple of sources. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 81 Armenians in 12 households. Later, the population was revised to 107 Armenians in 15 households. By 1914, Mardirosian stated the population was reduced to 54 Armenians in 8 households.

## Dom, Dum, Toum [Körpeağaç]

38°51'33.08"N 41°22'33.60"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church, Sp. Simeon church

The early Prelacy records neglect to mention Dom. Mayewski stated the village contained 60 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 131 Armenians in 21 households. Later, the population was revised to 168 Armenians in 25 households. In 1910, Mardirosian stated there were 40 Armenian households in the village. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated the population to be 250 Armenians in 41 households. In 1914, Mardirosian stated the population had grown to 432 Armenians in 45 households.

## Dzeked, Zirkik, Zirki, Zirkit, Dzrked [Otaç]

38°36'56.02"N 41°50'4.91"E

Sp. Toukhmanoug church

In 1890, the Prelacy indicated there were 30 Armenian households in Dzeked. Mayewski stated there were 26 Kurdish households and 11 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 165 Armenians in 25 households. Later, the population was revised to 186 Armenians in 28 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were only 10 Armenian households while Mardirosian indicated the population was 12 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated the population was 210 Armenians in 31 households. Mardirosian also stated the population was 210 Armenians in 30 households in 1914. It is unclear why the Armenian population of Dzeked varied so frequently or why only one source indicates a mixed population.

## Dzghag, Zaghat, Zigak [Karakütük]

38°38'7.34"N 41°45'58.12"E

Sp. Stepanos church

In 1890, the Prelacy indicated there were 35 Armenian households and 15 Kurdish households in Dzghag. Mayewski stated there were 20 Kurdish households and 15 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 145 Armenians in 21 households. Later, the population was revised to 165 Armenians in 25 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 23 Armenian households while Mardirosian indicated the population was 20 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate indicated the population had grown to 409 Armenians in 45 households. Mardirosian stated the population was 356 Armenians in 50 households in 1914.

## Garni, Garnin, Karni, Karne, Kasnen [Ağaçlık]

38°44'42.70"N 41°29'6.62"E

no church

Garni is not always identified separately and its close proximity may have led to its inclusion with the town of Moush. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 750 Armenians in 110 households. In 1910, Mardirosian indicated there were 140 Armenian households. He revised the figure to 1190 Armenians in 125 households in 1914. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 860 Armenians in 123 households.

## Gealakholi

unknown location

no church

Gealakholi appears to have been in the vicinity of Khoronk, Komer, Bilir, Bremok and Kartsor. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 85 Armenians in 13 households. In 1910, Mardirosian stated there were 10 Armenian households in Gealakholi. These are the only sources mentioning the village.

## Geligouzan, Geliguzan [Cevizlidere]

38°35'19.76"N 41°20'49.92"E

Sp. Toukhmanoug church, Sp. Sarkis church, Sp. Giragos church, Sp. Garabed church

As already mentioned, there were a cluster of Armenian villages associated with Geligouzan. Only some of these villages have been included with Moush. In 1894, these villages were subjected to massacres. The exact number of dead is disputed. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 884 Armenians in 129 households. In 1909, the Prelacy stated there were 1030 Armenians in 134 households On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate indicated the population was 1025 Armenians in 143 households. Other sources do not reference Geligouzan.

## Gemig, Kemik, Gemik [Beşparmak]

38°55'56.56"N 41°24'5.20"E

Sp. Haroutiun church

Mayewski stated Gemig had 30 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 28 Armenians in 5 households. On the eve of the genocide, the population had grown to 90 Armenians in 9 households. In 1914, Mardirosian stated the population was 82 Armenians in 10 households.

## Gouravi, Kiravi, Gouravou [Şenoba]

38°53'36.26"N 41°31'3.37"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church, Sp. Hagop church

Mayewski stated Gouravi had 100 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 628 Armenians in 86 households. Mardirosian stated there were 90 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the population had grown to 1050 Armenians in 132 households. In 1914, Mardirosian stated the population was 1262 Armenians in 140 households.

## Hartert, Artit [Serinova]

38°55'50.44"N 41°32'28.75"E

Sp. Sarkis church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 80 Armenian households in Hartert. Mayewski indicated there were only 50 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 672 Armenians in 85 households. In 1910, the Prelacy listed the population as 60 Armenian households while Mardirosian indicated 80. On the eve of the genocide, the population had grown to 920 Armenians in 106 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 865 Armenians in 105 households.

## Hasanova

unknown location

Sp. Kevork church

The location of Hasanova cannot be determined. It was in the vicinity of Sp. Garabed monastery. There was Hasanova west of Kvars, but that would place it in the region of Gindj. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 135 Armenians in 20 households in Hasanova. Later, it was updated to 265 Armenians in 38 households. Mardirosian stated there were 30 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate indicated there were 350 Armenians in 39 households. Mardirosian updated the population to 425 Armenians in 45 households in 1914.

## Hatsig, Hassik, Hasik [Güven]

38°48'11.27"N 41°44'37.58"E

Sp. Hagop church, Sp. Mesrob church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 40 Armenian households in Hatsig. Mayewski indicated there were only 30 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 151 Armenians in 23 households. Later, it was updated to 198 Armenians in 30 households. The Prelacy and Mardirosian both stated Hatsig had 30 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate recorded the population as 300 Armenians in 28 households. The population per household was a bit high. Mardirosian updated the population to 271 Armenians in 35 households in 1914.

## Havadarig, Havadorig, Havadrik, Havadorik [Derecik]

38°41'4.94"N 41°32'40.28"E

one church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 90 Armenian households in Havadarig. Mayewski indicated there were 160 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 684 Armenians in 100 households. Later, it was updated to 680 Armenians in 90 households. The Prelacy stated Havadarig had 120 Armenian households in 1910 while Mardirosian indicated only 65 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate recorded the population as 1315 Armenians in 165 households. Mardirosian updated the population to 1420 Armenians in 165 households in 1914.

*Population figures from the 1308 (1892) Bitlis "salname".*

## Hergerd, Herkit, Hirgift [Nadaslık]

38°52'49.90"N 41°24'33.63"E

Sp. Sarkis church

The Prelacy did not record Hergerd in 1890. Mayewski stated there were 25 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 230 Armenians in 25 households. Mardirosian indicated a decline to 20 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate recorded the population as growing to 300 Armenians in 37 households. Mardirosian updated the population to 340 Armenians in 45 households in 1914.

## Hoghounk

unknown location

Sp. Sarkis church

The exact location of Hoghounk is unknown. There are a number of villages with similar sounding names – Hoghounk, Ourough, and Tsoghounk. While there are discrepancies, I believe Hoghounk should be a reference to Tsoghounk and will discuss the details below under that village.

## Hounan, Houghan, Honan [Suboyu]

38°46'5.42"N 41°35'16.28"E

Sp. Tovmas church

Der Garabedian was the first to mention the Armenian population of Hounan. For 1902, he stated the population was 385 Armenians in 60 households. These figures were updated to 451 Armenians in 65 households. In 1910, Mardirosian indicated the village had grown to 83 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 602 Armenians in 86 households. Mardirosian updated his figures to 1320 Armenians in 145 households in 1914. This is a sharp increase that is suspect without a known influx of new arrivals.

## Houshdam, Ouchdam, Uchtom, Oushdam [Aşağıüçdam]

38°40'4.77"N 41°49'30.86"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church, Sp. Toros church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 35 Armenian families in Houshdam. Mayewski indicated there were 30 Kurdish families. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 110 Armenians in 17 households. This was updated to 135 Armenians in 21 households. The Prelacy updated the population to 15 households in 1910 while Mardirosian indicated there were only 10 Armenian households. On the even of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated the population was 305 Armenians in 32 households. Mardirosian updated the population to 310 Armenians in 40 households. Again, we see a pattern of decline in the intervening years.

## Irizag, Irzak, Yerizag [Yürekli]

38°45'23.27"N 41°44'56.37"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 70 Armenian households in Irizag. Mayewski stated there were 80 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 280 Armenians in 35 households. This was updated to 351 Armenians in 38 households. In 1910, the Prelacy indicated there were 50 Armenian households and 12 Kurdish households. Mardirosian also indicated there were 50 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 500 Armenians in 65 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 724 Armenians in 70 households. The population per household seems high and again we see the pattern of decline in the intervening years.

## Kartsor, Karsoro, Kasor [Suvaran]

38°46'8.08"N 41°24'7.36"E

Sp. Minas church, Sp. Toros church

The Prelacy stated there were 60 Armenian households and 1 Kurdish household in 1890. Mayewski indicated there were 32 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 270 Armenians in 40 households. This was updated to 306 Armenians in 41 households. In 1910, the Prelacy indicated there were 10 Armenian households and 9 Kurdish households. This would seem to have been an error. Mardirosian indicated there were still 40 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 500 Armenians in 60 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 490 Armenians in 65 households.

## Keoshg, Koshk, Avtrzaghi Koshk [Köşk]

38°50'36.25"N 41°13'23.70"E

no church

Only a couple of sources mention the Armenian population of Keoshg. Mardirosian indicated there were 10 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, there were 57 Armenians in 8 households.

## Khachkhaldagh, Kashgoldagh, Khachkom, Khashkhaltagh [Kıyık]

38°50'9.23"N 41°27'25.90"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

The Prelacy did not detail Khachkhaldagh in 1890 or 1910. Mayewski stated there were 26 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 315 Armenians in 45 households. This was updated to 345 Armenians in 51 households. Mardirosian indicated there were 60 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 400 Armenians in 54 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 763 Armenians in 90 households. The sharp rise in population can only be attributed to an influx of new arrivals or mistakes in earlier censuses.

## Khars, Hars, Kars, Ghars [Güneyik]

38°40'53.80"N 41°52'47.01"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church, Sp. Parsegh church

The Prelacy did not identify Khars in 1890 or 1910. Mayewski stated there were 80 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 542 Armenians in 81 households. This was updated to 568 Armenians in 81 households. Mardirosian indicated there were 80 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 1360 Armenians in 145 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 1150 Armenians in 155 households. Again, the sharp rise in population can only be attributed to an influx of new arrivals or mistakes in earlier censuses.

## Khartos (Nerkin), Ashaghi Khartos, Ashaghi Hertos, Harabahartos [Aşağısızma]

38°51'53.46"N 41°38'54.11"E

Sp. Sarkis church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 40 Armenian households and 3 Kurdish households in Khartos. Mayewski indicated the village contained 30 Kurdish households and 10 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 150 Armenians in 20 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated the population was 30 Armenian households and 10 Kurdish households. Mardirosian indicated there were 80 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 450 Armenians in 49 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 320 Armenians in 45 households.

*An inhabitant of Khaskyugh/Hasköy (Kaza of Moush) (Source: H.F.B. Lynch, Armenia. Travels and Studies, Vol. II, London, 1901)*

## Khaskyugh, Khaskoy, Haskoy, Khaskiugh [Hasköy]

38°40'57.09"N 41°41'17.93"E

Sp. Yerortoutiun church, Sp. Sdepanos church, Sp. Talileos church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 400 Armenian households in this significant Armenian village. Mayewski indicated the village contained 300 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 2358 Armenians in 362 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated the population was 330 Armenian households and 45 Kurdish households. Mardirosian indicated there were 350 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 4113 Armenians in 340 households. In this case, the high population per household could be a case of a stale household count. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 3776 Armenians in 423 households.

*Khaskyugh, Moush district (Source: H.F.B. Lynch,* Armenia. Travels and Studies*, Vol. II, London, 1901)*

## Kheybian, Khehibian, Gaybiyan, Heyban, Gheybian [Yoncalıöz]

38°52'6.11"N 41°19'47.26"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

The Prelacy did not identify Kheybian in 1890 or 1910. Mayewski stated there were 55 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 712 Armenians in 96 households. This was updated to 736 Armenians in 105 households. Mardirosian indicated there were 100 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 1200 Armenians in 120 households. The natural conclusion is that the population was estimated based on a factor of ten times the number of households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 1070 Armenians in 122 households.

## Khoper, Kophir, Hoper [Karaköprü]

38°47'50.00"N 41°29'43.39"E

Sp. Hagop church

The Prelacy did not identify Khoper in 1890 or 1910. Mayewski stated there were 25 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 171 Armenians in 25 households. Mardirosian indicated there were 30 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 305 Armenians in 41 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 340 Armenians in 37 households.

## Khoronk, Horonk [Harman]

38°46'37.19"N 41°23'50.38"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 20 Armenian households and 1 Kurdish household in Khoronk. Mayewski indicated the village contained 20 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 152 Armenians in 24 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated the population was 7 Armenian households and 6 Kurdish households. Mardirosian indicated there were 50 Armenian households in 1910. Obviously, there is significant discrepancy in these figures. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 160 Armenians in 23 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 236 Armenians in 33 households.

## Khvner, Khivian, Hivyan Irmeni, Khuvner [Ortanca]

38°36'24.37"N 41°53'18.04"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 50 Armenian households and 3 Kurdish households in Khvner. Mayewski indicated the village contained 20 Kurdish households and 10 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 115 Armenians in 17 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated the population was 35 Armenian households and 60 Kurdish households. Mardirosian indicated there were 20 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 200 Armenians in 27 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 352 Armenians in 44 households. The discrepancy in the population figures, particularly the proportion of Armenian to Kurdish households, could be attributed to two separate Khvner villages existing, one predominantly Armenian and one predominantly Kurdish.

## Kizilaghach, Kezlaghaj, Kyzilagach, Ghzlaghaj [Kızılağaç]

38°46'50.67"N 41°19'17.75"E

Sp. Kevork church, Sp. Hagop church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 135 Armenian households in Kizilaghach. Mayewski indicated the village contained 80 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 980 Armenians in 153 households. These figures were later updated to 1113 Armenians in 158 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated the population was 103 Armenian households and 4 Kurdish households. Mardirosian indicated there were 100 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 1325 Armenians in 157 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 1450 Armenians in 135 households. Mardirosian’s figures lead to a high population per household.

*A view from the town of Moush, 1912 (Source: Bodil Biørn collection)*

## Kolossig, Kalourik, Kilorik, Kalorik, Kolosik, Kolasik [Elmabulak]

38°39'28.46"N 41°40'58.74"E

Sp. Hagop church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 37 Armenian households and 15 Kurdish households in Kolossig. Mayewski indicated there were 25 Armenian households and 25 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 190 Armenians in 35 households leading to a somewhat low population per household. These figures were later updated to 213 Armenians in 32 households. In 1910, the Prelacy only recorded 10 Armenian households along with 100 Kurdish households while Mardirosian stated there were 30 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 280 Armenians in 34 households. In 1914, Mardirosian indicated the population was 245 Armenians in 35 households.

## Komer, Gomlar, Komi [Suluca]

38°45'31.70"N 41°22'6.55"E

Sp. Karasoun Mangounk church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 70 Armenian households in Komer. Mayewski indicated there were 38 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 385 Armenians in 58 households. These figures were later updated to 452 Armenians in 63 households. In 1910, the Prelacy only recorded 60 Armenian households while Mardirosian stated there were 80 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 600 Armenians in 60 households. Again we see the exact factor of 10 people per household, most likely indicating an estimate of one or the other figure. In 1914, Mardirosian indicated the population was 910 Armenians in 110 households.

## Koms, Komis, Komus [Bozbulut]

38°51'1.92"N 41°26'28.89"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

Koms was not mentioned in the early Prelacy records. Mayewski stated there were 70 Kurdish households in the village. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 518 Armenians in 82 households. These figures were later updated to 658 Armenians in 92 households. In 1910, Mardirosian stated there were 70 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 700 Armenians in 108 households. In 1914, Mardirosian indicated the population was 944 Armenians in 120 households.

## Kourdmeydan, Kurtmeydan, Kurdmeydan [Eralanı]

38°49'43.22"N 41°16'57.38"E

one church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 72 Armenian households in Kourdmeydan. Mayewski stated there were 40 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 285 Armenians in 38 households. The Prelacy indicated there were 42 Armenian households and 15 Kurdish households in 1910 while Mardirosian stated there were 50 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated the population was 336 Armenians in 45 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 510 Armenians in 64 households.

## Krtakom, Kirtakom, Kirtakum [Tabanlı]

38°45'19.92"N 41°41'22.87"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

Krtakom was not mentioned in the early Prelacy records. Mayewski stated there were 200 Kurdish households in the village. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 710 Armenians in 110 households. In 1910, Mardirosian stated there were 150 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 1520 Armenians in 150 households. In 1914, Mardirosian indicated the population was 1388 Armenians in 161 households.

## Koushlakom, Kishlakom, Kishlarkom [Kumluca]

38°48'2.17"N 41°27'40.73"E

no church

Only Mayewski stated there was an Armenian population in Koushlakom. According to him, there were 25 Kurdish households and 10 Armenian households.

## Kvars, Gvars, Kirvar, Guvars [Arakonak]

38°58'21.72"N 41° 7'51.86"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

Der Garabedian was first to mention the Armenian population of Kvars. In 1902, there were 374 Armenians in 45 households. The population was later updated to 405 Armenians in 56 households. In 1910, Mardirosian there were 50 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 500 Armenians in 60 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 640 Armenians in 75 households.

## Madnavank, Matnayvank, Manravank [Soğuksu]

38°57'2.75"N 41°24'55.77"E

The location of Madnavank is approximate. The population of the monastery could have been included with nearby villages. Both the Patriarchate and Mardirosian stated that there were 15 Armenians living at the monastery on the eve of the genocide.

## Malakhdan, Malar, Mavlar, Malaghlo, Malakli

38°38'24.02"N 41°16'57.74"E

no church

Malakhdan was another village in the vicinity of Geligouzan that might more appropriately be considered part of Sasoun. Only the Patriarchate detailed the population on the eve of the genocide, 50 Armenians in 6 households.

## Marnig, Marnik, Matnig

38°39'52.95"N 41°36'35.73"E

one church

Marnig and its hamlet, Marngoumezre, contained 65 Armenian households in 1890 according to the Prelacy. Mayewski indicated there were 48 Kurdish households and 10 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 580 Armenians in 52 households. The population per household seems high. In 1910, both the Prelacy and Mardirosian stated there were only 15 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 360 Armenians in 36 households. Once again the factor of ten people per household was employed. In 1914, Mardirosian indicated the population was 281 Armenians in 35 households.

## Meghdi, Mekhdi, Madi, Magdi, Ziyaret [Yaygın]

38°54'12.08"N 41°18'32.93"E

Sp. Masounk church

Der Garabedian was the first to identify an Armenian population in Meghdi, 135 Armenians in 23 households in 1902. An update stated the population was 201 Armenians in 28 households. In 1910, Mardirosian indicated there were 25 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 380 Armenians in 30 households. The population per household was high. In 1914, Mardirosian stated there were 385 Armenians in 42 households.

## Mgrakom, Mekerkoumi, Mikrakom [Düzkışla]

38°41'55.50"N 41°42'56.20"E

Sp. Sarkis church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 50 Armenian households in Mgrakom. Mayewski indicated there were 60 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 420 Armenians in 50 households. These figures were later updated to 365 Armenians in 54 households. In 1910, the Prelacy only recorded 70 Armenian households while Mardirosian stated there were 80 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 815 Armenians in 80 households. In 1914, Mardirosian indicated the population was 780 Armenians in 78 households.

## Mogounk, Magonk, Mogonk [Soğucak]

38°43'34.06"N 41°30'43.17"E

Sp. Stepanos church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 76 Armenian households in Mogounk. Mayewski indicated there were 60 Kurdish households and 10 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 507 Armenians in 75 households. These figures were later updated to 541 Armenians in 88 households. In 1910, the Prelacy only recorded 58 Armenian households while Mardirosian stated there were 50 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 379 Armenians in 67 households. The population per household was lower than expected. In 1914, Mardirosian indicated the population was 577 Armenians in 79 households.

## Moush, Moosh, Mush [Muş]

38°44'18.46"N 41°29'52.40"E

Sp. Haroutiun church, Sp. Marine church, Sp. Kevork church, Sp. Asdvadzadzin church, Sp. Sarkis church, Sp. Giragos church, Sp. Minas church

The town of Moush was an important center of Armenian culture. Mayewski stated there were 1700 Turkish households, 500 Kurdish households and 1200 Armenian households in Moush. Mardirossian repeated these same household figures. He also stated there were 7000 Armenians and 13000 Muslims in these households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 7435 Armenians in 1146 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 12450 Armenians in 1376 households.

*Panorama of the town of Moush (Source: Bodil Biørn collection)*

## Noragn, Noshgan, Shkavtian, Norkaghak, Norag [İçboğaz]

38°42'57.86"N 41°54'13.97"E

no church

Mardirosian was the first to mention Noragn. He stated there were 30 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 106 Armenians in 12 households. Mardirosian updated the population to 135 Armenians in 20 households in 1914.

## Norshen, Norshin, Nershin [Sungu]

38°44'57.11"N 41°36'35.27"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 263 Armenian households in Norshen. Mayewski indicated there were 350 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 2600 Armenians in 280 households. In 1910, the Prelacy only recorded 314 Armenian households while Mardirosian stated there were 300 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 2150 Armenians in 400 households. The population per household was lower than expected. In 1914, Mardirosian indicated the population was 3318 Armenians in 400 households.

## Orgnots, Tsorgonk, Orkinor, Orgunus, Orgonotz, Orginos [Çukurbağ]

38°46'29.07"N 41°39'6.93"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

The Prelacy did not detail Orgnots in its records. Mayewski stated there were 40 Kurdish households in the village. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 382 Armenians in 55 households. These figures were updated to 410 Armenians in 58 households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 700 Armenians in 63 households. The population per household seems high. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 560 Armenians in 63 households.

## Ourough, Oussough, Oruh [Ulukaya]

38°46'53.43"N 41°10'17.95"E

Sp. Sarkis church

The first mention of Ourough was by Der Garabedian in 1902. The population was stated to be 458 Armenians in 60 households. These figures were updated to 586 Armenians in 78 households. Mardirosian indicated there were 100 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 480 Armenians in 80 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 1350 Armenians in 135 households. These figures seem suspect as well as the factor of ten people per household.

## Pazou, Pazo, Pazu [Bilek]

38°59'13.95"N 41°13'19.64"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

The Prelacy did not identify Pazou in its records. Mayewski stated there were 45 Kurdish households and 35 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 185 Armenians in 30 households. These figures were updated to 189 Armenians in 34 households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 500 Armenians in 47 households. The population per household seems high. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 290 Armenians in 40 households.

## Pertag, Perteg, Pertak [Tekyol]

38°42'15.57"N 41°34'17.20"E

Sp. Sarkis church, Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 150 Armenian households in Pertag. Mayewski indicated there were 80 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 1021 Armenians in 150 households. These figures were updated to 1080 Armenians in 157 households. In 1910, both the Prelacy and Mardirosian registered a drop to 102 and 100 Armenian households, respectively. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 1154 Armenians in 130 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 1170 Armenians in 145 households.

## Petar, Pitar [Karlıdere]

38°44'4.78"N 41°25'8.93"E

Sp. Hagop church, Sp. Garabed church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 65 Armenian households in Petar. Mayewski indicated there were 32 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 357 Armenians in 43 households. These figures were updated to 389 Armenians in 55 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 40 Armenian households while Mardirosian registered a drop to 30 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 377 Armenians in 58 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 365 Armenians in 52 households.

## Pklents, Biklis, Bikles, Beyles, Pikhlis, Pouklits

38°46'43.44"N 41°32'15.97"E

Sp. Kevork church

Pklents no longer exists and the location is given as approximate based on maps. The first mention of Pklents was by Der Garabedian in 1902. The population was stated to be 275 Armenians in 43 households. These figures were updated to 361 Armenians in 53 households. Mardirosian indicated there were 50 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 503 Armenians in 58 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 520 Armenians in 74 households.

## Pndkhner, Pindikhir, Bindakotikan, Bindik [Yarkaya]

38°38'55.76"N 41°38'39.91"E

Sp. Haroutiun church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 15 Armenian households and 1 Kurdish household in Pndkhner. Mayewski indicated there were 30 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 87 Armenians in 13 households. These figures were updated to 146 Armenians in 21 households. In 1910, both the Prelacy and Mardirosian registered a drop to 8 Armenian households while the Prelacy indicated there were also 8 Kurdish households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 140 Armenians in 16 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 143 Armenians in 16 households.

## Poghergov, Porkof, Korkuf [Arpayazı]

38°48'10.24"N 41°22'58.46"E

Sp. Kevork church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 61 Armenian households and 5 Kurdish households in Poghergov. Mayewski indicated there were 45 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 243 Armenians in 35 households. These figures were updated to 358 Armenians in 48 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 43 Armenian households and 24 Tajik households. Mardirosian indicated there were 40 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 300 Armenians in 53 households. This implies a low population per household. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 560 Armenians in 75 households.

## Posdakend, Posdageant, Bostakend [Bostankent]

39° 0'31.29"N 41°50'27.10"E

Sp. Sarkis church

Posdakend was the northeastern most village in the Moush district containing Armenians. The Prelacy did not record the village in early records. Mayewski stated there were 50 Kurdish households and 10 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 385 Armenians in 55 households. These figures were updated to 425 Armenians in 62 households. Mardirosian indicated there were 80 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 1200 Armenians in 105 households. This implies a high population per household. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 977 Armenians in 112 households.

## Sahag, Sahak, Sihak [Ağartı]

38°58'17.20"N 41°16'27.92"E

no church

This small locality near Sp. Garabed monastery only had a couple of houses. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 13 Armenians in 2 households. This was updated to 22 Armenians in 3 households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate only recorded 7 Armenians in 2 households in Sahag.

## Sekran, Salukan, Salegan, Sherekhan, Segran [Üçsırt]

38°58'32.91"N 41°46'2.02"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

Sekran was near Posdakend. The Prelacy did not identify the village in early records. Mayewski stated there were 25 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 280 Armenians in 30 households. In 1910, Mardirosian indicated there were only 4 Armenian households which seems to be a typo. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 450 Armenians in 45 households. Once again, the factor of ten people per household seems suspect. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 464 Armenians in 48 households.

## Semal, Simali [Üçevler]

38°38'29.08"N 41°22'29.84"E

Sp. Kevork church, Sp. Hripsime church

Semal was near Geligouzan and not included with early Prelacy records for the Moush district. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 882 Armenians in 126 households. These figures were updated to 1116 Armenians in 125 households. In 1910, the Prelacy reported 798 Armenians living in Semal without specifying the number of households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 889 Armenians in 81 households. This implies a high population per household.

## Sentsenoud, Sosnot, Siznut, Suntsnoud [Karakuyu]

38°47'58.16"N 41°21'40.51"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 30 Armenian households in Sentsenoud. Mayewski indicated there were 40 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 141 Armenians in 21 households. These figures were updated to 215 Armenians in 31 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 20 Armenian households. Mardirosian indicated there were 40 Armenian households in 1910. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 200 Armenians in 25 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 290 Armenians in 35 households.

## Shenek, Shenik, Sinik [Alaniçi]

38°39'27.41"N 41°19'57.29"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

Shenek was near Semal and was similarly not reported in the early Prelacy records. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 820 Armenians in 85 households. These figures were updated to 817 Armenians in 96 households. In 1910, the Prelacy reported 654 Armenians living in Shenek. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 690 Armenians in 70 households.

## Sheykh Ibrahim, Shekhprim, Sheykhperim

38°50'13.66"N 41°36'24.69"E

no church

There are still a cluster of houses where Sheykh Ibrahim was located but most likely it is considered a hamlet to Sheykhyousouf. In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 27 Armenian households. Mayewski indicated there were 30 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 126 Armenians in 15 households. These figures were updated to 138 Armenians in 20 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were still 27 Armenian households while Mardirosian indicated there were 30 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 202 Armenians in 20 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 250 Armenians in 30 households.

## Sheykhalan, Sheykhlan, Sheikhalan, Shekhlan [Eğirmeç]

38°49'51.43"N 41°19'13.64"E

Sp. Toukhmanoug church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 95 Armenian households in Sheykhalan. Mayewski indicated there were 63 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 615 Armenians in 65 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 85 Armenian households while Mardirosian indicated there were 80 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 1200 Armenians in 101 households. This implies a high population per household. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 1270 Armenians in 130 households.

## Sheykhyousouf, Sheykhyoussouf, Sheykhyusuf, Shekhoussouf [Boyuncuk]

38°50'48.65"N 41°35'13.90"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 34 Armenian households in Sheykhyousouf. Mayewski indicated there were 30 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 230 Armenians in 35 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 34 Armenian households while Mardirosian indicated there were 40 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 293 Armenians in 45 households. This implies a high population per household. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 550 Armenians in 65 households.

## Shmlag, Shimlak [Dağdibi]

38°40'58.78"N 41°39'26.71"E

Sp. Sarkis church, Sp. Garabed church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 42 Armenian households and 1 Kurdish household in Shmlag. Mayewski indicated there were 20 Armenian households and 20 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 265 Armenians in 40 households. This was updated to 286 Armenians in 41 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 28 Armenian households and 8 Kurdish households while Mardirosian indicated there were 40 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 310 Armenians in 46 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 295 Armenians in 42 households.

## Sinamerg, Sinemerk [Darboğaz]

38°39'45.08"N 41°33'22.00"E

no church

There are only a few scattered houses where Sinamerg once was. Mayewski stated there were 25 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 134 Armenians in 15 households. This was updated to 157 Armenians in 21 households. In 1910, Mardirosian indicated only 8 Armenian households remained. On the eve of the genocide, the population of Sinamerg was not reported.

## Sokhkom, Soghkoum, Sohkom [Yarpuzlu]

38°44'51.53"N 41°33'55.30"E

Sp. Sahag church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 100 Armenian households and 5 Kurdish households in Sokhkom. Mayewski indicated there were 55 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 451 Armenians in 71 households. This was updated to 465 Armenians in 75 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 70 Armenian households and 11 Kurdish households while Mardirosian indicated there were 120 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 1017 Armenians in 113 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 832 Armenians in 104 households.

## Sordar, Sordad, Sordour, Surdan, Sortar

38°56'1.51"N 41°14'14.55"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

There still remains a village in the location of Sordar but it is most likely considered a hamlet of a nearby village. Der Garabedian was the first to mention the Armenian population – 390 Armenians in 57 households. These figures were updated to 458 Armenians in 63 households. In 1910, Mardirosian indicated there were 60 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 400 Armenians in 56 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 630 Armenians in 68 households.

## Souloukh, Soulouk, Suluk [Muratgören]

38°50'29.76"N 41°32'22.35"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 120 Armenian households in Souloukh. Mayewski indicated there were 50 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 621 Armenians in 90 households. This was updated to 636 Armenians in 92 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 70 Armenian households while Mardirosian indicated there were 120 Armenian households. It is highly suspicious that these figures are exactly the same as those given for Sokhkom. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 1025 Armenians in 132 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 1120 Armenians in 133 households.

*Hovhannes Vartabed Mouradian, the prior of the Sourp Arakelots monastery (Source: Hamazasb Voskian, *The Daron-Dourouperan Monasteries *[in Armenian], Vienna, Mkhitarian Press, 1953)*

## Sp. Arakelots Vank [Arak Kilise]

38°41'44.94"N 41°31'10.25"E

Today, only the ruins of the monastery remain (http://westernarmenia.weebly.com/sp-arakelots-vank-of-mush.html). Mayewski stated there were 4 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 35 Armenians in 8 households. This was revised to 72 Armenians in 9 households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate only identified the 30 Armenians living in the monastery while Mardirosian stated there were 65 Armenians living in 9 households.

*Sp. Arakelots Vank (Source: Hamazasb Voskian, *The Daron-Douruperan Monasteries *[in Armenian], Vienna, Mkhitarian Press, 1953)*

## Sp. Garabed Vank, Chengeli Kilise [Çengilli]

38°57'40.60"N 41°11'30.14"E

The village of Çengilli grew around what had been the Sp. Garabed monastery. Today, only small portions of the monastic complex remain (http://westernarmenia.weebly.com/sp-garabed-vank-of-mush.html). On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 205 Armenians within the school and monastic complex. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 284 Armenians.

*Moush’s St Garabed monastery (Source: H.F.B. Lynch, *Armenia. Travels and Studies*, Vol. II, London, 1901)*

*Moush’s St Garabed monastery (Source: H.F.B. Lynch, *Armenia. Travels and Studies*, Vol. II, London, 1901)*

## Sp. Hovhannes Vank [Kizil Kilise]

38°45'1.37"N 41°20'24.86"E

The location of Sp. Hovhannes monastery is only given as approximate based on old maps. The monastery is consistently shown as just southeast of Kizilaghach. I placed the location based on an intriguing ruin that could possibly be what remains of the monastic complex. Confirmation of the location would require field research. Mayewski stated there were 3 Kurdish households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate indicated there were 40 Armenians located at the monastery. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 22 Armenians.

## Talassin, Dalasev

unknown location

one church

The exact location of Talassin could not be determined. The village was most likely in the vicinity of Marnig and Pndkhner. Talassin was only identified on the eve of the genocide. The Patriarchate stated there were 150 Armenians in 15 households. As with some of the other villages, the factor of ten people per household is indicative of an estimate. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 72 Armenians in 12 households.

## Terkevank, Tirkevank, Tirkavank [Donatım]

38°43'9.74"N 41°32'12.25"E

Sp. Toros church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 89 Armenian households in Terkevank. Mayewski indicated there were 40 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 560 Armenians in 75 households. This was updated to 581 Armenians in 82 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 67 Armenian households while Mardirosian indicated there were 60 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 850 Armenians in 96 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 660 Armenians in 90 households.

## Til [Korkut]

38°44'20.21"N 41°46'58.76"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 40 Armenian households and 20 Kurdish households in Til. Mayewski indicated there were 60 Kurdish households and 30 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 156 Armenians in 25 households. This was updated to 205 Armenians in 31 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 20 Armenian households and 100 Kurdish households while Mardirosian indicated there were 50 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 500 Armenians in 52 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 545 Armenians in 65 households.

## Trmert, Tirmit, Termerd [Alazlı]

38°41'39.51"N 41°49'36.61"E

Sp. Kevork church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 70 Armenian households in Trmert. Mayewski indicated there were 50 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 432 Armenians in 61 households. This was updated to 445 Armenians in 68 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 40 Armenian households and 20 Kurdish households while Mardirosian indicated there were 100 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 1000 Armenians in 98 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 872 Armenians in 90 households. As with some of the other villages, the sharp rise in population can only be attributed to an influx of new arrivals or mistakes in earlier censuses.

## Tskhavi, Sekavi, Sakav, Dzkhav [Mercimekkale]

38°56'9.12"N 41°30'13.14"E

Sp. Sarkis church

Early records do not always mention Tskhavi. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 161 Armenians in 26 households. This was updated to 195 Armenians in 31 households. In 1910, Mardirosian indicated there were 45 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 500 Armenians in 61 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 630 Armenians in 75 households. Once again, the population growth was too large for a stable population.

## Tsoghounk, Oghnouk, Ogonk, Ogank [Üçdere]

38°45'52.79"N 41°33'48.59"E

Sp. Sarkis church

As stated previously, it is possible that Hoghounk and Tsoghounk were references to the same village. In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 55 Armenian households and 1 Kurdish household in Hoghounk while not mentioning Tsoghounk. Mayewski stated there were 80 Kurdish households in Tsoghounk while not mentioning Hoghounk. For 1902, Der Garabedian stated there were 407 Armenians in 60 households in Hoghounk but did not mention Tsoghounk. The population was later updated to 415 Armenians in 63 households. Once again, the Prelacy indicated there were 102 Armenian households and 7 Kurdish households in 1910 in Hoghounk without mentioning Tsoghounk. Mardirosian was the only source to mention both villages, 50 Armenian households in Tsoghounk and 90 Armenian households in Hoghounk. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 620 Armenians in 90 households in Tsoghounk. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 980 Armenians in 120 households in Hoghounk. Lastly, both villages were said to have a church named Sp. Sarkis.

*Tsoghounk/Oghnouk (present-day Üçdere) village (Moush Valley), the St Sarkis church and the homonymous school, which were founded by the Mkhitarian congregation. The school and the church were constructed in 1902 (Source: Mekhitarist Order, San Lazzaro, Venice)*

## Tsronk, Sirotonk, Sironk [Kırköy]

38°49'48.42"N 41°39'28.22"E

Sp. Sarkis church, Sp. Hagop church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 250 Armenian households in Tsronk. Mayewski indicated there were 300 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 1251 Armenians in 185 households. This was updated to 1276 Armenians in 195 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 200 Armenian households while Mardirosian indicated there were 300 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 2512 Armenians in 240 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 2560 Armenians in 275 households.

## Tvnig, Tifnik, Tuvnig [Durugöze]

38°47'48.14"N 41°41'10.63"E

Sp. Simeon church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 49 Armenian households and 1 Kurdish household in Tvnig. Mayewski indicated there were 40 Kurdish households and 10 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 256 Armenians in 38 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 30 Armenian households and 6 Tajik households while Mardirosian also indicated there were 30 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 550 Armenians in 56 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 410 Armenians in 60 households.

## Ushkeftian

unknown location

no church

The location of Ushkeftian cannot be determined. It was most likely in the vicinity of Dom, possibly further to the northwest. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 31 Armenians in 5 households. The population was later updated to 86 Armenians in 15 households. In 1910, Mardirosian indicated there were 15 Armenian households. The population of the village was not recorded on the eve of the genocide.

## Vartenis, Vartinis [Altınova]

38°40'57.00"N 41°56'9.49"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church, Sp. Hagop church

Vartenis was not detailed in early Prelacy records. Mayewski stated there were 150 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 1100 Armenians in 170 households. This was updated to 1168 Armenians in 175 households. In 1910, Mardirosian indicated there were 200 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 2150 Armenians in 218 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 1712 Armenians in 189 households.

## Vartkhagh, Vartkeugh, Varthak, Vartihah [Böğürdelen]

38°37'53.93"N 41°48'6.62"E

one church

Vartkhagh was not detailed in early Prelacy records. Mayewski stated there were 20 Kurdish households and 20 Armenian households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 93 Armenians in 14 households. This was updated to 150 Armenians in 21 households. In 1910, Mardirosian indicated there were 25 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 133 Armenians in 18 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 200 Armenians in 25 households.

## Yerishder, Arishtir, Eristir, Yiristir, Erishdir, Erishter [Eşmepınar]

38°40'26.07"N 41°44'43.36"E

Sp. Tovmas church

In 1890, the Prelacy stated there were 38 Armenian households in Yerishder. Mayewski indicated there were 70 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 570 Armenians in 65 households. In 1910, the Prelacy stated there were 27 Armenian households and 6 Kurdish households while Mardirosian indicated there were 70 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 855 Armenians in 83 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 1160 Armenians in 95 households. The population per household seems suspiciously high in the last two sources.

## Ziaret [Ziyaret]

38°53'23.99"N 41°15'57.35"E

Sp. Asdvadzadzin church

Ziaret was not detailed in early Prelacy records. Mayewski stated there were 150 Kurdish households. For 1902, Der Garabedian recorded the population as 1310 Armenians in 175 households. In 1910, Mardirosian indicated there were 160 Armenian households. On the eve of the genocide, the Patriarchate stated there were 2000 Armenians in 180 households. In 1914, Mardirosian updated the population to 2480 Armenians in 275 households.

- [1] Justin McCarthy. Muslims and Minorities: The Population of Ottoman Anatolia and the End of the Empire. New York: New York University Press, 1983.
- [2] Levon Marashlian. Politics and Demography: Armenians, Turks, and Kurds in the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge, Mass: Zoryan Institute, 1991. Pages 20-25.
- [3] Two articles appear on the Houshamadyan website. The article on the Kharpert district can be found here:
- www.houshamadyan.org/en/mapottomanempire/vilayetofmamuratulazizharput/harputkaza/locale/demography.html
- The three-part article on the Dersim region can be found here:
- www.houshamadyan.org/en/mapottomanempire/vilayetofmamuratulazizharput/sandjak-of-dersim/locale/demography-part-i.html
- www.houshamadyan.org/en/mapottomanempire/vilayetofmamuratulazizharput/sandjak-of-dersim/locale/demography-part-ii.html
- www.houshamadyan.org/en/mapottomanempire/vilayetofmamuratulazizharput/sandjak-of-dersim/locale/demography-part-iii.html
- Another article on the Diyarbakir province can be found here:
- armenianweekly.com/2011/05/16/a-demographic-narrative-of-diyarbekir/
- A Turkish version of this article appeared in Aktar, Cengiz. Diyarbakir Tebliǧleri: Diyarbakir Ve Cevresi Toplumsal Ve Ekonomik Tarihi Konferansi. İstanbul: Hrant Dink Vakfi Yayinlari, 2013.
- [4] Naci Okcu and Hasan Akdağ, Salname-i vilayet-i Erzurum (1287/1870-1288/1871-1289/1872-1290/1873): Erzurum il yıllığı. Erzurum: Atatürk Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi, 2010.
- [5] Bitlis (Vilayet). Sālnāme-i Vilāyet-i Bitlīs. 1. defʻa. Bitlis: 1308 (1892).
- [6] Vital Cuinet. La Turquie D'asie: Géographie Administrative Statistique Descriptive Et Raisonnée De Chaque Province De L'asie-Mineure. Istanbul: Isis, 2001.
- [7] A-To (Hovhannes Der Mardirossian). Vani, Bitlisi yev Erzroumi Vilayetnere. Yerevan: Tbaran Koultoura, 1912.
- [8] Mehmet Ṣadik. Van, Bitlis Vilâyetleri Askerî Istatistiḳi. İstanbul: Matbaa-yi askeriye, 1330 (1912-1913).
- [9] Vahakn H. Dadrian. The Perversion by Turkish Sources of Russian General Mayewski's Report on the Turko-Armenian Conflict. Journal of the Society for Armenian Studies 5 (1991). Pages 139-152.
- [10] "Statistical data of Moush Prelacy’s schools, churches, monasteries, chapels, holy places in good state or in ruins (located in Moush and its vicinity), population of towns and villages, religious personnel, collected on the request of the Armenian Patriarchate of Istanbul (1902)", ARF, personal writings, Kegham Der Garabedian (Dadrag), Private collection.
- [11] Raymond H. Kévorkian and Paul B. Paboudjian. Les Arméniens dans l'Empire Ottoman à la veille du genocide, Paris: ARHIS, 1992. Teotig [Theotoros Labjindjian]. Koghkota Trkahay Hokevoraganoutyan yev ir Hodin Aghedali 1915 Darin [Golgotha of the Armenian Clergy and Her Flock during the Calamitous Year 1915] ed. Ara Kalayjian. New York: St. Vartan's Press, 1985.
- [12] Ahmet Tetik. Arşiv Belgeleriyle Ermeni Faaliyetleri, 1914-1918 (Armenian Activities in the Archive Documents, 1914-1918). Ankara: Genelkurmay Basım Evi, 2005. Volume I, page 619.
- [13] Van-Dosb: Hasaragagan, Kaghakagan, Kragan. Vol. A No. 12 (14 February 1916).
- [14] Kemal H. Karpat, Ottoman Population, 1830-1914: Demographic and Social Characteristics. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.